Future of the OSI Model Essay Sample
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Future of the OSI Model Essay Sample
To a degree, most people unknowingly possess management skills. Whether arranging their individual activities or that of children and family, the process to orchestrate a day’s activity can be similar to that of managing an office. What probably differs the most is the scale on which the management skills are applied and what those skills effect. What remains a commonality, whether managing at the level of an individual or on a corporate level, is the need for a process based on the desired goal; management is the process by which to achieve a goal. There are four basic elements in managing, each playing an intricate function in how the process develops, and if the process will succeed or fail.
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines planning as the act or process of making or carrying out plans and the establishment of goals, policies, and procedures for a social or economic unit (n.d.). Planning establishes a course of action, is the start point, and therefore affects each successive element of the management process. The planning process can include such elements as creating organizational goals, objectives, and developing a strategy through resources and decision-making on how best to achieve those goals. The planning phase is ongoing and remains fluid to accommodate facets of the managing and developing processes that are continually affected by various factors.
Again, using Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, the best definition that reflects the purpose of organizing in management is to set up an administrative structure and to arrange elements into a whole of interdependent parts (n.d.) Organizing is essential in that it establishes and designates the order in which processes will occur. Essentials, such as the designation of the roles and responsibilities of personnel, departmental functions, and standard operating procedures, provide the business rudiments of who, what, when, and how.
Leading is described in Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary as guiding someone or something along the way (n.d). There are interpersonal skills and communicative talents to influencing others to achieve a common goal. Leading is a pivotal area in management because leading and managing are not necessarily the same. Not all managers are good leaders, nor are all leaders good managers; managing is merely the ability of oversight; leading is the ability to persuade others to perform functions with a common objective. The art of leading comes from the ability to lead without the obvious demarcation distinguishing leaders and the led.
The definition provided by Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary best describes control as exercising restraining or directing influence over (n.d.), Controlling is a facet of the management process that influences the course of action taken to achieve the desired goal. The planning and organizing processes will provide that which determines what control measures should be instituted and, again, is fluid because controlling measures may need to be adjusted to accommodate varying circumstances.
Organizational Comparisons of Management Functions
As a retiree, I am currently not a member of an organization, but that does not mean that I cannot identify with or do not use management skills. As a student enrolled in the University of Phoenix, I face challenges in which a degree of management is necessary to complete assignments in a team environment. With the goal of assignment completion, planning must be developed, assignment organization, considerations of leading approaches, and control measures to determine if the objectives to goal accomplishment are being met. The OSI, or Open System Interconnection, model defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers.
Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, and proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy. The OSI model is not a real network architecture, because it does not really specify the services and protocols each layer should use. It rather describes what the layers must do. Nevertheless, the ISO has developed its own standards for each layer, and this independently of the OSI model, i.e. as does any manufacturer. Regarding its use and implementation, and in spite of an update of the model in 1994, the OSI model has clearly lost the war against TCP/IP. Only few dominating manufacturers keep the model but it is likely to disappear, all the more quickly since the Internet (and thus TCP/IP) is developing.
The TCP/IP model has become the model of reference in place of the OSI model. Contrary to the OSI model, the TCP/IP model was first implemented before being specified. This particular story makes TCP/IP’s characteristics, its advantages and drawbacks. TCP/IP dates from the ARPANET network. ARPANET is a telecommunication network developed by the ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), the research agency of the American ministry of defense (the DOD: Department Of Defense). Besides the possibility to interconnect heterogeneous networks, this network was supposed to resist to a possible nuclear war, contrary to the telephone network usually used for telecommunication but considered as too vulnerable. It was then decided that ARPANET would use a standing out and promising new technology: packet switching (datagram mode). It is to meet this context that the TCP and IP protocols were invented in 1974. The ARPA then signed several agreements with manufacturers (especially BBN) and the Berkeley University, where a Unix system was under development, to impose this standard, and that was done.
What would the implications be for the industry as a whole to change from using the OSI model to another model such as TCP/IP, etc.?
The OSI model will still remain for a while in memories for several reasons. First, it is one of the first main efforts as regards standardization in the area of networks. Manufacturers now tend to do with TCP/IP, but also WAP, UMTS etc. what they were supposed to do with the OSI model, namely to propose standardizations from the beginning. The OSI model will also remain memories for another reason: even if TCP/IP is the model concretely used, people have tendency and use OSI like the current network model of reference. In fact, TCP/IP and OSI have very close structures, and it is especially the effort of standardization of OSI which imposed this general “confusion” between the 2 models. One commonly tends to consider TCP/IP as the real implementation of OSI.
Before retiring, I was a member of the United States Army and a manager for approximately 56 personnel. I dealt with many aspects of management on levels not conceivable in the civilian sector due to the hierarchy in the military. Whereas my civilian counterpart may be responsible for workplace performance exclusively, a military manager either will be responsible for the health, welfare, personal and career performance of an employee. The Army takes the process of management seriously and ensures that those in positions in which supervisory skills would be required are provided at least the elementary skills and knowledge to perform as managers. Further development of, and additional, management skills are gained through on-the-job-experience and various management positions. Management requirements can vary in the military, based on location and position. Whereas there may be two managers of equal rank, the knowledge and methods of management vastly differ in relation to the location and mission requirements. The belief and knowledge that leaders are made and not born is still an area of dispute. A consideration as equally important is the awareness that there must be followers and that by human design and need not everyone can be a manager or leader.
In the management process each aspect can lead back to the other because, although they progress in succession, they are interdependent upon the other elements of the process. A plan can be devised but not implemented without organizing, not organized without leaders, and not led without control. Given the right tools, anyone can be a manager to a degree, but success and accomplishment is what determines if management has truly been achieved.
Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. (n.d.). Retrieved February 25, 2006, from http://www.m-w.com/