Health and Social Care Essay Sample

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Welcome to Sailson Care Home!
At our care home we provide and assist our residents with all the support and care alongside the company and security they need, to help the residents live their lives to the fullest. The Sailson care home is run by the Sailson Charity that specialises in the care of elderly people. It is a friendly and relaxed home set in the country grounds of Everest hills looking over large valleys and the local village. At Sailson we as carers want to provide our best efforts to attend to everybody’s needs and we aim to: ·Help our residents with any choices and decisions they need to make without making the decision for them. ·Always make sure our residents feel socially included.

·To maintain each residents safety.
·To provide an excellent quality of care.
·To support the friends and family of the resident.
·To attend to the needs of the resident.
Sailson Care Home has been built to provide easy access for all residents and carers. We hold 30 large bedrooms which have all been professionally decorated. The rooms all have good washing facilities including: toilet and bath. Our 30 rooms are split up into flats so carers have easy access to the residents in case of emergency and it is just easier for the residents to get around. At the main entrance of the building there is the main lounge which is generally used for gatherings, social activities, entertainment and meetings. We at Sailson care home like to ensure that our staffs happily devoted to meet the emotional, physical and social needs of the service users. At our care home we like to make sure staff are able to communicate with our residents in the most effective way suitable for you. This is so we are able to understand each other.

We as people need to communicate with others because we need to get points, views and feelings across either verbally or non-verbally, whether talking to someone and having a conversation or using your body language. You don’t need to speak to someone to communicate for instance a child may not know how to express there feelings vocally so they may draw a picture of how they feel as a way of communicating as pictures tell a huge story. Communication helps people feel invulnerable; it makes people feel more comfortable about building relationships with people and improves a persons’ self esteem. People who don’t involve themselves in much communication can make a person feel unsafe, unvalued and will have no self esteem. We communicate with service users and colleagues is many ways.

When people communicate with others, they communicate with the person according to their individual ability and needs. There are many ways you can communicate with a person; this can be through sign language, facial expressions, body language, ‘Makaton‘ which is a type of communication that is used for people who cannot communicate verbally, so they have to communicate via the use of symbols and signs and more. When we communicate with people interpersonally it is not always what we say, but how we say it. People with learning disabilities such as ‘Autism’ fail to understand and recognize facial expressions so when they have conversations with people they listen to the tone of the person’s voice and the other body language the person may be using. Assertiveness

You need to be assertive when talking to a client, this so you don’t miss out on anything important the service user may be saying to you that you will need to record. Assertiveness helps you to get what you want and need, so we don’t feel the need to do things you don’t want to do and that you are not walked over by others. Being assertive also helps you not to confuse others when trying you get point across and that you are able to make our intentions clear.

Communication is a way of sharing information verbally, non-verbally and through behaviour.
They’re three types of communication
Verbal communication
Non-verbal communication
Behavioural communication
Verbal Communication
Verbal communication is when you are speaking and having a conversation with a person. When we are communicating verbally with a client we have to remain polite, calm and focused, this is so messages don’t get misinterpreted and the progress of the conversation will be successful. Open communication

Open communication usually happens in the first few minutes when meeting a person because first impressions are really important for the progress of the rest of the conversation. We as individuals tend to have our own way of communicating with people and expectations of how an initial meeting should be. When these interpersonal expectations are not to the standards of the individual there will be a clash and the conversation will not work out as effectively as it would if the personal expectations were met. When meeting the client for the first time you have to create a positive atmosphere, this is so it is easier to build up a rapport with your client. You have to remember to keep it formal and to use appropriate body language for instance, using a handshake and remaining eye contact whilst keeping a warm smile on your face when greeting your client, will help your client to feel comfortable around you. You should start your conversation on a neutral subject e.g. asking service user how their journey was to meet you; this will be a good conversation starter because this is more likely to encourage you and the client to want to carry on your conversation positively, than for you to have a blank facial expression and looking disinterested.

Reflective Listening
Reflective listening involves hearing the client’s words then thinking about what their words actually mean, this is by; ·Looking interested
·Hearing what has been said
·Remembering what is said
·Checking your understanding
Reflective listening is having a conversation with a person and acting engaged with what the person is saying to you, this is by you looking interested in what client is saying to you and keeping eye contact, this also helps when you need to ask questions on any queries you may have or anything you are not sure about and need to clarify. This is all important because it helps give out a positive attitude that helps build a rapport with the client. As a new carer you should be aware of the questioning style that you are using, as you come into contact with different types of people e.g. elderly people or people with mental health issues and they will need a different style of questioning depending on their individual personal needs.

You reflect back to your client so you know that you have understood what has been said to you usually by paraphrasing and clarifying. When paraphrasing what has been said to you take parts out of the message and the feelings that have been shown and repeat them back to the client confirm what has been explained is understood. This is a really important skill to have as a carer because you are able to check that they understand what has been communicated to you clearly, that the service user is able to accept any feedback you may need to give them and it shows the client that you actually care about what they are saying to you. Questioning styles

There are many reasons why you will need to ask questions as a carer, you will need to establish a way of asking questions to certain types of people. Some people you may need to ask questions slowly and simple because they may have a disability and find it hard to understand much or others you may ask them a complex question and they’ll understand straight away; you will be able to tell what type of person someone is when they approach you and what there ability is. You will need to ask questions to;

·Find out information
·Help and support a person
·Start a conversation
·Test a persons understanding
Closed Questions
Closed questions require one of 2 answers which are “yes” or “no”, these types of questions are usually used when you only want one desired answer that doesn’t need to be expanded in any way. The questioner is usually the dominator of the conversation at this point and asking closed questions are not the best option if you want to engage in a long lasting conversation. Open Questions

An open question is usually asked when the questioner wants an expanded answer that will take longer to answer and might lead into a conversation about another topic, these questions are best asked when trying to engage in to a conversation with the client with both parties fully participated in. These types of questions allow the person who is answering to express self-emotion and enables them to gain much more out of the conversation. Negative & Positive Leading Questions

Negative and positive leading questions are types of biased questions that want a particular answer but without stating it. People tend to use negative leading questions when they don’t something to happen so they say the question in a negative way for instance “You didn’t want to go to the toilet did you?” the word ‘didn’t’ is a negative word and puts a person off wanting to do what they wanted. Using positive question practically does the opposite of a negative question by encouraging a person to do something e.g. “You did want to go to the toilet didn’t you?” The positive word in this question is ‘did’. These questions are not the best type of questions to use towards clients as you are kind of forcing them to do something when everything should done out of the choice of the client. Closed communication

Closed is the way the conversation will be ended and remembered. To end a conversation body language is huge key, some people may end the conversation in a nice way so you end on a positive note or others may end it in a not so nice way but signals in some sort of way are used to end the communication. For instance you may stand up straight away when you decide the conversation should be over which is not a very polite way to end, this is because it could be very instant and as no previous signals were made to let the other person know that you are ready to finish the conversation, this could come off as rude and result into you leaving the conversation on a sour note. If you start to slowly avoid eye contact and slowly pack your belongings away this is seen as a more polite way of rounding up a conversation and the other person will get the gist of what is happening and round it up on their end as well. Whilst rounding up your conversation it is the best time to ask any last minute questions or any other things you may want to discuss before leaving. Non-verbal communication

Non-verbal communication is when you communicate without using words instead by using body language and could be; facial expression, tone of your voice, hand gestures, your posture and the distance between you and the client. These are external messages that are sent when you are communicating with a person in any other form of way .e.g. vocally sign language and whilst reading whilst reading (letters, email or text messages). We can usually tell how someone is feeling by meeting them for the first time because of their body language. Non-verbal communication is used when people want to emphasize the meaning of some e.g. when saying ‘yes’ to something you can nod your head and when you say ‘no’ you will shake your head. Body language

When communicating with a client face – to – face your body language is very important whilst you are talking to the other person is listening to what you are saying alongside watching your body language. A persons body language shows you how important what ever they are saying is and be used as a way of persuading a person that you are important and should be listened to. A person needs to be aware of their body language because people can easily misinterpret how you are behaving and may treat you in a different way because of this; for instance, standing really up close can become really uncomfortable for the other person also can be seen as intimidating which is definitely not the impression you will want to give your client. The 3 main types of body language are;

Facial expression
Body position
Gestures and movement

Facial expression
Your facial expression is a huge clue to what type of emotional state you are in. you are able to know this because of the tension in a persons face depending whether they are happy, sad excited or angry. If a person is angry their facial expression will be that their face will be screwed up and the manner of the person will come off as aggressive and this tension may cause muscles in their neck and shoulders to be brazen. Eye contact is very important because we are able to see a persons thoughts and feelings through their eyes. Depending on your mood eye shape change for e.g. when someone is excited their eyes open wide . If you want a person to listen to you, you have t be able to give them eye contact – this doesn’t mean staring at the person as this could come across as rude and intimidating but enough to make sure the person knows that you are speaking to them and that they will feel the need to listen.

The European culture think that looking away when speaking to a person is rude and not being interested in what the other person is saying. In a one – to – one situation always make sure you do look away from the person every so often so it looks as if you are listening and deeply thinking about what the other person is saying to you. A lot of people are able to recognise and understand the facial expressions of others, but people with a disability may not have this ability to do so, so as a carer you have to be very careful of how you say things to your clients. Body positions

Someone’s body composure also tells you a lot about what their mood is. The way you position yourself in front another person sends messages about you , for instance if you are in a meeting and you sit down in a slumped position and looking lazy the person talking to you will not take you seriously and believe that you are disinterested with what is being spoken to you. This is why you should make sure you look interested in what the other person is saying by looking attentive by positioning your body towards the other person, leaning forward with open gestures e.g. having open arms and not crossed- with this you can help you to discover your last parts of important body language. Gestures

Gestures usually revolve around the way you use your hands and arms when you are communicating, they bring your conversation to life when using these. When you use gestures they show a lot of the meaning to what a person is communicating about and some gestures carry common meanings throughout some cultures and communities.

One- to- One Sessions
When communicating one -to-one with a person you always need to create a positive atmosphere, this will benefit you and the participant because a positive attitude can create a more relaxed environment before going to speak about more difficult issues. The other person will start to feel more comfortable with you once to have greeted them in a friendly manner, and that you are not nervous to speak to them in any way, you could do this by saying ‘ Good Afternoon’ which could possibly follow a open question, just to start the conversation off. Once the Key working

At Sailson care home each carer will be made a personal key worker for each resident. A key worker is someone who is there to attend to all personal requirements the resident may need like dietary problems, health issues and any other complex issues or private problems the resident may have or need assistance with. As a key worker you will work very closely with the client to build up a rapport (a relationship) so your resident can feel comfortable to communicate openly with you as a carer. When you first meet your new resident that you will be key working with it may be nerve racking, this is because you don’t know what type of person they are and this is why we have our introductory brief with the resident and once you start to engage in a relationship you get to know the service user and you will become more confident when speaking to them.

You need to build up such a rapport with your client so they can start to learn to trust you and know that you are there to help them and not harm them. As a key worker you keep everything confidential between you and the service user as long as there is not any concerns that are likely to harm the client or other residents of the care home and staff at the home, if this is the case you need to disclose this information immediately and seek advice. You can use a three stage rule when having your one- to – one session with the client this will help you get things done straight forward and will guide you when targeting anything specific you need to communicate about; the first stage is the warming up where you greet your client ask them how they may feel and get a conversation started off, then the exchanging of important information and the cool down at the end where you start to terminate the conversation and round off what you are speaking about before leaving. This rule will help you maintain a professional relationship with your client and you will both be reciprocating.

Formal & Informal Communication
Formal communication is written or spoken language used so that a huge variety of people are able to understand. This type of communication doesn’t involve the use of slang terminology as this is informal language. Formal language is usually used when a health care practitioner is speaking to a service user as it is clear and prevents any misunderstanding. Practitioners and their managers are usually distant within the care setting, so when they communicate it is always formal for example; if a manager needed to make a formal warning or complaint to a carer it wouldn’t be as awkward as if they were friends because there isn’t any loyalty between the two.

Informal communication is written and spoken language that is only used within a small community or people who may know each other well, as people on the outside will not be able to understand what is being communicated. Small communities and social groups may have their own terminology and their own way of phrasing things and this is called ‘slang‘ which are words that are not usually found in a standard dictionary. People who know each other well will address each other differently to people who may not, ‘Hey Mate!’ this would be used by family or friends who may know each other rather than approaching a family or friend formally as it doesn’t feel right. You have to be careful with who you speak informally to as some people may feel they are not being respected especially elder people, so when you use it always be certain that the other person is likely to be okay with it. Group Communication

As a carer you will be attending many meetings in the setting this could be with other colleagues or with members of the multi-disciplinary team. In team meetings you have to try and make yourself known to the others involved in the meeting, making sure they know that you have a voice as well so that you don’t feel over shadowed by anyone, or feel threatened by this in anyway. People start to feel threatened when they go to a meeting because they may feel insecure because of the fact they don’t know anyone and people may judge them if the speak out and then say the wrong thing or they could have fears of being centre of attention with everyone watching them. People who have insecurities allow them to get them down to let when they are trying to work but especially in life as you need confidence to be able to get through certain things.

It is important that a person shouldn’t be made to feel that they are any less than others , this is by; No awkwardness, No-one feeling uncomfortable and there are no fears to put a view across, Safe environment, Respecting others ideas, Giving everyone a chance, Being honest and tactful. To be able to have a good successful group discussion you have to have a positive atmosphere, leadership, turn taking and a good seating plan to allow eye contact. This will leave you to have a successful discussion because when everyone is in a positive mood we are all able to feed of that individually. When you work as a carer there is a lot of independent work involved but you are a part of a team in your setting and when you have meeting you will confident enough to share ideas purposes and objectives you will find it easier to set our clear roles and responsibilities within you and the other carers, you will find it easier to resolve any conflicts and are able to share important information. Communication with Colleagues

You have to build up good relationships with your colleagues in order for you to be able to get along and work together. Colleagues are good when needing help with making a decision, seeking any information and support and having fun working together. When you are able to work with your colleagues you and you will enjoy your job and be more likely to perform better. The people closest to you know you very well and usually understand how you feel even you are clear when communicating badly or informally but you cannot do this when communicating at work because colleague may find it rude and disrespectful when people speak to them informally, and it is important that care workers show respect for each other wise they may end up failing to show respect to the service users. When greeting a colleague you may start talking to them and asking how they are, this will show and make them feel as you value them.

When having a conversation with a colleague make sure you keep confidentiality between the both of you so can build up trust with your colleagues and shows you have respect for them. You have to use your communication skills when talking to some colleagues because you need to be assertive and manage to figure out the best way to talk to them by speaking formal or informal. As a colleague you always start of your conversations with other colleagues formally until you get to know them and get relaxed with their preferred communication style. You can improve your working relationship with your colleagues by making positive comments, showing interest to find out more about you colleague and learning to understand and appreciate the background and, culture and values of your colleagues. Multi-disciplinary team(MDT) communication

The multi-disciplinary team are all the different types of people who work in the health and social care sector; nurses, doctors, paramedics, midwives, police officers, probation officers, dietician and many more. Often these professionals have to communicate with other members of the MDT who are in a different organisations to seek advise, help or for important information to be disclosed. All these types of professionals all understand the same terminology for things but you still need to use formal language because you need to maintain a working relationship. Professionalism

When working as a carer you have to behave in a professional manner, you can do this by acting polite, respectful, caring and in a correct sensible manner. When communicating with a person you always have to keep their age, culture, language and other differences they may have into consideration when speaking to them to make sure you don’t cause any offence at anytime. There are strict boundaries that you cannot cross when working as a carer and once they have been crossed there can be serious consequences involved. A carer should always know to keep the professional code of conduct and how to behave appropriately when with service users and not to take there vulnerability for granted. You have to make sure all the relationships that you build at work are working relationships this is so your personal life never gets mixed up with your professional life.

When working as a carer you have to be aware to always keep professional when working with your clients and not to fall in to a personal relationship because that can cause problems for you and the client this stops you from being susceptible to accusations. The implications of close personal relationships at work can include: An effect on the trust and confidence of colleagues and service users may grow while working together and to feel able to openly discuss certain issues some members of staff don’t need to know about. Perception of outside agencies and individuals regarding the professionalism and fairness of the organisation Operational issues affecting the ability to deliver our services Conflicting loyalties and breach of confidentiality

These provisions are intended to avoid any possible accusation of bias, favouritism or prejudice. They are also intended to ensure that all volunteers and staff feel confident of fair treatment without the fear that a close personal relationship will influence either their or their colleagues, treatment or broader working relationships. ( accessed: 12/10/12) Matakon

Makaton is a way of developing and expanding language that uses speech, signs and symbols to help people with learning difficulties to communicate and improve their language skills. Makaton may say a word and show a sign using hand gestures and body language. There is a huge range of symbols that can help people with learning disabilities to communicate with others.


What is Communication? The Definition of Communication,[On–line]: (accessed date:10/10/12) (accessed date:10/10/12) (accessed date:10/10/12 (accessed 11/10/12) (accessed 11/10/12) 11/10/12) 11/10/12) 11/10/12) 11/10/12)

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