1.1 Identify the features of effective partnership working
Partnerships imply a shared leadership among respected individuals who are recognized and empowered by their own organization and trusted by partners to build consensus and resolve conflicts. The basis for effective partnership is seen as recognition that all partners cared about the same goal: that of promoting the health of service users. Each might take a ‘different path’ to achieving this goal, but this was the common agenda. Partnership could be enhanced by ensuring the older person was placed at the centre of everything, and that a proactive, ‘whole person’ approach was taken to care. Team staff in particular felt that partnership working could be improved by health and social care sectors linking together to anticipate problems and take a more preventative approach to health. Establishing joint training across health and social care was seen as a crucial means of promoting effective partnership working. Better training of care home staff could also reduce demand on health care professionals and improve social care.
Working in partnership is a key element of practice within health and social care. The concepts of power sharing, consultation and joint ways of working are essential for effective service provision. Health and social care professionals need to understand the importance of promoting autonomy with individuals. They also need to be aware of their own roles and responsibilities and how they relate to others within the sector. Organizations therefore now need to think creatively about how to recruit and involve individuals in planning and delivering of care services and need to invest time and effort in effective ‘partnership working’ This ensures the individual accessing care or services is placed at the centre. The team should share a common purpose and vision to improve the individual’s life. Effective partnership working involves many features including: trust
respect for the skills and contribution of colleagues
effective listening skills
working to agreed practices
maintenance of balance between task and relationship orientation
There are various theories relating to effective partnership working. These include areas such as team working, avoidance of social loafing, avoidance of groupthink and supportive approach
Partnership working Theories
The Team Roles that Meredith Belbin identified are widely used in organisations. They are used to identify people’s behavioural strengths and weaknesses in the workplace. This information can be used to: Build productive working relationships
Select and develop high-performing teams
Raise self-awareness and personal effectiveness
Build mutual trust and understanding
Aid recruitment processes
The tendency of some group members to put in less effort if they believe that their underperformance will not be noted – the phenomenon of one group member getting a ‘free ride’ while others do the work
Factors that increase loaﬁng
• Lack of identiﬁability
• No individual evaluation
• No individual or group standards of evaluation
• Task is easy, boring or the same as others
• Individual contributions not necessary
• No individual or group incentives
• Large group
• Unfamiliar group
Factors that reduce loaﬁng
• Individual identiﬁability
• Individual or group evaluation
• Individual or group standards of evaluation
• Task is difficult, interesting or different from others
• Individual contributions essential
• Individual or group incentives
• Small group
• Familiar group
Irvin Janis – groupthink
Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within groups of people. It is the mode of thinking that happens when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives. Group members try to minimize conflict and reach a consensus decision without critical evaluation of alternative ideas or viewpoints. Antecedent factors such as group cohesiveness, structural faults, and situational context play into the likelihood of whether or not groupthink will impact the decision-making process.
1.2 Explain the importance of partnership working with
– other professionals
A healthy partnership promotes atmosphere of learning. Effective communication at all levels within the partnership and within partner organization sharing and accessing all knowledge and information needs to be present. Partnership working is important in improving the outcomes for individual’s accessing services. By working closely with colleagues and others involved in the individual’s care I am able to share, utilize and maximize everyone’s expertise in order to achieve the planned objectives.
Each person in the work environment will have their own areas of expertise, knowledge and responsibilities. By communicating with everyone involved and sharing responsibilities, it avoids duplication of tasks and services, ensuring the best possible service and outcomes are achieved. Successful joint working between health and social care staff is a vital component of improving the lives of vulnerable adults and children. Objectives of joint working include: Streamlining assessments and preventing families from having to give the same information to multiple professionals. Improving information sharing between professionals.
Improving the efficiency of the care system as a whole.
Co-ordinating the provision of care.
Improving the planning and commissioning of care so that health and social care services complement rather than disrupt each other. There are a number of ways in which health and social care services work together: Multi-disciplinary services or teams including health and social care professionals, such as community mental health teams or child and adolescent mental health services.
Partnership agreed that they would work together to:
Develop commitment to, and ownership of the strategic process Develop effective partnerships that can create innovative, effective and joined up interventions to improve the health and well-being of the whole community Foster partnerships that are based on principles of integrity, common understanding, transparency, trust, mutual respect, openness, honesty and collaboration Develop the Strategy with wide stakeholder involvement including patients, service users, the public, carers, and organisations in the voluntary, statutory and private sector Contribute to and reflect the work of other strategic partnerships to avoid duplication and ensure that the Health, Social Care and Well-being Strategy Colleagues
The key to working effectively with others is building good relationships in order to do this I must first show colleagues respect. Within my organization it is important to promote the communication cycle and ideas sharing with colleagues who may include the support workers, nurses and managers. In order to work well in partnership, there has to be good communication and I will need to have good communication skills.
Respect means listening to people’s views and advice, even when I don’t necessarily agree with them. I need to earn respect too. One of the easiest ways to do this is to carry out my duties to a high standard and without complaining. However, people also respect colleagues who are not afraid to admit when they need some help.
Showing empathy with other people also helps to build good relationships this means showing people that I understand their feelings, particularly if they have a problem or upset. I need to show to people that I am pleasant to work with and that will be able to help any time they need to.
Trust is another important part of a relationship. Trusting other people can be difficult because we are often afraid that we will be let down. When I trust other people I can ask for support when I have a problem that is affecting my work. Trust can simply mean knowing that someone will turn up for work when they are due to be on duty. One of the first ways to earn the trust of my colleagues is turn up for work on time and always informs people if I am going to be absent. In order to work effectively with colleagues, I must be a good communicator. One of the most important tasks I do every day is share information with my colleagues. This could be important information about a service user daily activities or a message from a family & carer. Other Professionals
I will always need to make sure that I am doing the right things, in the right way, at the right time, for the right people, openly, honestly, safely and in a professional way. Learning from others and working in partnership is important. It will help me to understand the aims and objectives of different people and partner organizations as they may have differing views, attitudes and approaches. It is essential that everyone’s focus is on providing the best care and support to individuals. Other professionals may include workers from other agencies or organizations, advocates, independent visitors.
It is important to consult the individual’s, their families, friends and any advocates as they will all have expert knowledge regarding the needs, preferences and wishes of the individual at the centre of the plan. They will have details about the individuals past history and life which will all be taken into account when establishing the individual’s plan of care. An example might be if there are communication difficulties. A carer or family member can share information with me about how I can best communicate with an individual. This enables the individual to be listened to and supported in ways that they desire and choose. If a partnership is going to success in the area of communication, strong feedback loops are required
1.3 Analyze how partnership working delivers better outcomes An organization works more effectively when it has mutually beneficial partnership, built on trust, sharing of knowledge, and integration with its partners. (European foundation for Quality Management, 1999)
Gorman (1998) has identified a number of principles that can assist partnership working and thus help to provide more integrated services for patients and service users. Reciprocity is at the heart of all partnerships. A partnership will fail unless there is something in it for both partners. Health and social care organisations increasingly need to work together in partnership to get better value from the available resources and improve services and outcomes for service users, by improving quality of support for service users. Good relationships between partners, a common vision and understanding of expected achievements and what outcomes need to be delivered are critical to the success of partnerships. This will enable a more responsive service, which is well co-ordinated approach to the service delivery, and better value for money by ensuring reduced duplication of services.
Successful multi- agency partnerships actively engage with the different between the partners, just as multi disciplinary teams bring together values and mindsets that can be in conflict with each other. Partnership working is about managing the differences and getting the best from them. Bring the differences out into the open and work with them honestly.
Multi-disciplinary and multi-organisational working allows for a holistic approach to problems. With good communication channels and relationships with people from different organisations and disciplines, the team is made larger and therefore more resources are available to call upon and use, which benefits the teams objectives, to provide the best possible care for the service user. This will also enable the delivery of a flexible service centred on the individuals needs.
To provide person centred care it is essential that communication between inter-agencies, individuals, key people, service user’s family and friends, G.P’s, nurses, opticians, dentists, Physiotherapists, O.T’s, psychologists etc is really effective. Any barriers to communication should be minimised to ensure good communications. Dissemination of good practice would be the widespread of new discussion of individual needs and the multi organisational information an updates. It is the process of communicating my ideas to all those working together in the partnership, so that they can be used and lead to change. This should be an on-going activity which is used to inform changes to policies and procedures within the workplace and involves the sharing of good practice leading to reduced professional isolation.
Whenever possible, adapt existing structures to suit the needs of partnership working. We should focus on specific projects and tasks. This helps to clarify the issues, and brings key questions, benefits and problems to the surface so that they can be addressed. Partnership working is only valuable if it leads to better outcomes for service users. I should be clear about my own concerns and priorities and be prepared to listen to and understand the concerns and priorities of others. I should also be prepared to negotiate and, where necessary, to compromise.
As a manager in health and social care, it is likely that I will be increasingly required to work collaboratively with other services to seek more effective outcomes for service user. A good understanding of the part that my service plays within the whole process of care is important. This will help me to spot opportunities for service development and improvement, to take a service user perspective and to manage more effectively.
1.4 Explain how to overcome barriers to partnership working Working in partnership is crucial and is particularly significant in regard to health and social care. Partnership working across agencies can be a challenging task. The lack of understanding of the respective roles, duties, responsibilities and organisation, of the different agencies and professionals and of their different language, may lead to poor communication, misunderstandings and frustration. Key challenges include the need to overcome separate legislative frameworks, organisational imperatives, funding streams and professional rivalries in order to improve people’s experience of services, and so lead to a more co-ordinated care resulting in improved outcomes for service users.
Partnership working can become difficult where there are perceived status differences between individual participants or occupational groups. Some practitioners perceive threats to their professional status, autonomy and control when asked to participate in more democratic decision making. It takes skills and knowledge to work successfully with people from different professional backgrounds and with partners from the wider health and social care economy.
There are many ways in which barriers to partnership working can be overcome.
Face to face working
Commitment to the partnership
Team building activities
Shared use of terminology/language
Sharing goals, aims outcomes and objectives
An understanding of each partners respective roles
Joint protocols agreeing the roles and responsibilities of the different agencies
Working together in general partnership is not enough. Absence of agreed outcomes is a common Cause of partnership failure and can include the following symptoms:-
Goals are dominated by service perspectives, father than based on outcomes Where there is no clear goal or end point or agreement about when it has been reached, partnership can outline their useful purpose. Lack of focused action can kill partnership.
The use of specialist language excludes some partners
Not supporting members in their communication within communities will result in conflicting message Resources
Inappropriate (short term) funding cycles, separate budgets and financial pressures are some of the most commonly cited barriers to effective partnerships working. Partners with scarce resources are reluctant to fund partnership objectives, which may not be their direct responsibility Tensions around cost shifting from one agency to another are contributed to by concerns over the stability of partners’ budgets and the risks of being drawn into financial crisis.
The degree of integration of information will pose contraints with:
Reluctance to share Data or develop confidentiality and access protocols Time, where practitioners and managers spend most preciously and are most scarce. There are difficult choices about how to allocate time where it makes most impact Different types of organization have ways of working which are often difficult to combine. They come to the table with their own set of attitudes, experiences beliefs and value the organization culture.
The first defense against barriers to partnership working is knowledge and open acknowledgment within the partnership of their existence. Thereafter, partnerships will need to identify those factors which they can and cannot control and take action on aspects within their power.
Limited vision/failure to inspire
One partner manipulates or dominates, or partners compete for the lead Lack of clear purpose and inconsistent level of understanding purpose Lack of understanding roles/responsibilities
Lack of support from partner organizations with ultimate decision-making power Differences of philosophies and manners of working
Lack of commitment; unwilling participants
Unequal and/or unacceptable balance of power and control
Key interests and/or people missing from the partnership
Failure to communicate
Lack of evaluation or monitoring systems
Failure to learn
Financial and time commitments outweigh potential benefits
Too little time for effective consultation
2.1 Explain own role and responsibilities in working with colleagues It is important in my managerial role to maintain a professional approach whilst upholding my workplace principles and values. As manager, it would be up to me to set tasks and clear objectives for my colleagues which should be SMART, specific, measurable, achievable, and realistic and there should be timescales. Wherever possible I should involve colleagues in the decision making process when setting objectives. By listening and accepting colleague’s ideas, suggestions and opinions I will ensure that they feel important and acknowledged in the work that they are doing. This will make it more likely they take ownership of the objectives and feel more valued and work more actively to achieve the desired outcomes.
It is important as manager to support colleagues and give them feedback and suggestions of how performance can be improved. It is also important to acknowledge the different needs of each individual team member. It is important, as manager, to know and recognize my own limitations and to share any concerns I have with colleagues. By holding regular team meetings this will provide an opportunity to share relevant information, make decisions as a team and provide support and help for team members. They are also useful communication tools which ensure that colleagues are kept informed about progress and objectives.
As Manager I will be responsible for updating policies and procedures within the workplace therefore it is essential that I keep up to date with my knowledge in order to pass on relevant information to my colleagues.
Working with colleagues as a manager I should:
Respect the skills and contributions of my colleagues
Communicate effectively with colleagues within and outside the team, sharing information as appropriate Make sure that others understand my role and responsibilities in the team and who is responsible for each aspect of patient care Join in regular reviews and audit of the standards and performance of the team, taking steps to remedy any deﬁciencies Support colleagues who have problems with health, conduct or performance Prioritize patient safety and take action if I have concerns about a colleague’s conduct, performance or health treat colleagues fairly and with respect Be satisﬁed that there are suitable arrangements for medical cover when I go off duty, including effective handover procedures Take up any post I have formally accepted; work I contracted notice Provide all relevant information about a patient when referring them or handing over their care to the doctor for whom I have been deputizing Be satisﬁed that anyone to whom I delegate care has the qualiﬁcations, experience, knowledge and skills to provide the care or treatment involved Be satisﬁed that any healthcare professional to whom I refer a patient is accountable to a statutory regulatory body or is employed within a managed environment.
Refer to Tuckman’s Stages above
Probably the most famous teamwork theory is Bruce Tuckman’s “Team stages model”. First developed in 1965, Tuckman’s model is widely known as a basis for effective team building. Tuckman’s model is significant because it recognizes the fact that groups do not start off fully-formed and functioning. He suggests that teams grow through clearly defined stages, from their creation as groups of individuals to cohesive, task-focused teams.
The team is assembled and the task is allocated. Team members tend to behave independently and although goodwill may exist they do not know each other well enough to unconditionally trust one another. Time is spent planning, collecting information and bonding.
People begin to see themselves as part of a team. The team starts to address the task suggesting ideas. Different ideas may compete for ascendancy and if badly managed this phase can be very destructive for the team. Relationships between team members will be made or broken in this phase and some may never recover. In extreme cases the team can become stuck in the Storming phase. If a team is too focused on consensus they may decide on a plan which is less effective in completing the task for the sake of the team. This carries its own set of problems. It is essential that a team has strong facilitative leadership in this phase. Norming
As the team moves out of the Storming phase they will enter the Norming phase. This tends to be a move towards harmonious working practices with teams agreeing on the rules and values by which they operate. In the ideal situation teams begin to trust themselves during this phase as they accept the vital contribution of each member to the team. Team leaders can take a step back from the team at this stage as individual members take greater responsibility. The risk during the Norming stage is that the team becomes complacent and loses either their creative edge or the drive that brought them to this phase. Performing
Not all teams make it to the Performing phase, which is essentially an era of high performance. Performing teams are identified by high levels if independence, motivation, knowledge and competence.
Decision making is collaborative and dissent is expected and encouraged as there will be a high level of respect in the communication between team members.
Adjourning & Transforming
This is the final phase added by Tuckman to cover the end of the project and the break up of the team. Some call this phase Mourning, although this is a rather depressing way of looking at the situation.
Often clients have called Progressive Resources in to organize a celebratory event at the end of a project and members of such a team will undoubtedly leave the project with fond memories of their experience. It should be noted that a team can return to any phase within the model if they experience a change, for example a review of their project or goals or a change in members of a team. In a successful team when a member leaves or a new member joins the team will revert to the Forming stage, but it may last for a very short time as the new team member is brought into the fold.
We are able to provide facilitated team building events where Tuchman’s theory, or any other team building theory, is the theme of the event. This can facilitate learning and retention and provide working examples of the theories in action. There’s no more effective way of leaning than fun and engaging activities.
2.2 Develop and agree common objectives when working with colleagues Good and positive relationship with colleagues provides excellent opportunities to help me get my job done more efficiently. It is vitally important to be clear about what I am trying to achieve and what colleagues are responsible for. Everyone needs to know what is expected of them and it needs to be possible to assess how well I am doing in working towards achieving my aims and objectives. In order to develop and agree common objectives when working with colleagues I may need to negotiate and make compromises in some areas. I must ensure all planning, goal setting and targets cover the needs of the service users and they are at the centre of my planning.
There are several aspects to partnership working that have the potential to make or break a relationship before it has even begun. They include: Understand everybody’s requirements by identifying a suitable organization or service as a partner for joint working. Appropriate approaches
Sound communication skills
Successful negotiation skills
Ways of influencing others.
By prompting relationships that respect colleague’s ideas and opinions, I am showing colleagues that I value their opinions. This can be achieved by having team meetings and giving the team members the chance to share ideas and give feedback on team working and to develop and agree objectives. As a manager I must be able to do the following:
Establish working relationships with all colleagues who are relevant to the work being carried out. Recognize, agree and respect the roles and responsibilities of colleagues Understand and take amount of the priorities expectations and authority of colleagues in decision and actions. Create an environment of trust and mutual respect where I have no authority or shared authority over those I am working with Understand difficult situations and issues from my colleagues perspective and provide support where necessary, to move things forward Fulfill agreements made with colleagues and let them know
Advise colleagues promptly of any difficulties or where it will be impossible to fulfill agreements. Identify and sort out conflicts of interest and disagreements with colleagues in ways that minimize damage to work being carried out Exchange information and resources with colleagues to make sure that all parties can work effectively. Provide feedback to colleagues on their performance and seek feedback from colleagues on my own performance in order to identify areas for improvement. However as a manager I should maintain a positive atmosphere and working harmony for colleagues feel they are listened and they are all aware of their goals and they share common objectives which they are all working towards together.
2.3 Evaluate own working relationships with colleagues
It is important to build positive relationship at work. It lets me reduce stress in my office. It also plays an important t role in my career success. Relationships can create a positive or negative impact on my job and my aptitude to progress and achieve recognition for my accomplishment. When I focus on building positive relationships with my colleagues I feel more comfortable with my interactions. These few tips that help me building a good relationship with my colleagues. Work is basically a series of relationships. Everyone I work with represents a distinct interaction and an opportunity to build a stronger collective network across the organization. Team skills management is a recognized method (created by Belbin) to establish managerial style. I can establish a personal inventory of my skills, strengths and weaknesses by using a self grading system.
By putting procedures in place to receive feedback on my own performance from the team members and for all those involved on the working relationship to express their views will be possible to evaluate my strengths and weaknesses. As a manager I can also complete self appraisal. Self appraisal is an important part of the Performance appraisal process where the employee himself gives feedback or his views and points regarding his performance. Usually I receive feedback from employees when appraisal is done for them and they are asked to tell about his training needs or talk about his accomplishments, strengths, weaknesses and problems faced. My effectiveness as a manager can be assessed by measuring success against set targets and by reviewing objectives and checking progress. 2.4 Deal constructively with any conflict that may arise with colleagues In any working environment there is always going to be some tension and occasional flash points but it is important never to let feelings boil over.
As a manager I will at some time deal with conflict. The way I handle discord will determine my knowledge and action. Initially, I must communicate to gain a clear understanding of what is actually causing the conflict. Indeed, the one thing to avoid is letting potential conflict build up and drag on into something more destructive. It is wise to recognize the conflict and the underlying cause. This way I can attempt to sort it out and take appropriate action to try and resolve it. As a manager I should not sit back or evade the matter, I rather address the conflict sooner rather than later is vital. Conflicts may have many different causes, for example, colleagues with different methods of working with the same goals and different approaches to achieve them. Different views, stress and clash personalities can be often all the sources of conflict. As a manager I should dealt with it constructively and when successfully resolved would increase understanding among each other and bring everyone on an agreed term. Moreover communication is the vital tool in dealing with conflict. I should consider these following steps: Identify issue
Propose several possible solutions
Evaluate the alternatives
Determine the best solution
Continual evaluation of the solution.
Strategies to minimize conflicts:
Arbitration and mediation;
Identify the problem or conflict;
Information to find out what is already known about the problem; Analyze the data to establish the root causes of the conflict; Generate potential solutions;
Select the best solutions;
Plan for implementation and decide how to go about ensuring that the agreed action takes place; Once implemented, test to see whether the problem/conflict has been resolved; Continue to improve on what has been achieved to date.
An independent facilitator, or mediator, is needed to assist in resolving the conflicts.
3.1 Explain own role and responsibilities in working with other professionals Within partnership themselves, problems often occur through a lack of clarity over the roles that partners need to perform and who is responsible for what. In order to provide a person centred service for individuals, I need to work in partnership with professionals for other agencies and organization. I need to be clear about my own role, responsibilities and limitations and also aware of the roles of other professionals; I need to be confident about my own standards and targets and respectful of those that apply to other services. It is important that I maintain a professional approach to others and share my own skills and knowledge and also take advantage of any opportunities to work hand on with other professionals. As a manager I should be able to:
Get the right people round the table
Build trust and mutual understanding
Agree common actions
Maintains regular communications and feedback
Work to achieve shared objectives as well as my own agenda
Form and maintain networks
Work in multi-disciplinary teams
In order to work effectively with other professionals, I will need to interact with them in a manner likely to promote trust and confidence I the relationship. Working with other professionals in partnership I need to build a partnership team such as; Getting to know each other having good quality relationship between partner is essential Improving understanding of each other’s organization, time should therefore be invested in exploring each partner’s organizational agendas, issues and priorities as well as the constraints.
Building trust – trust between partners is regarded to be an important factor in effective partnerships and it is important for this to be developed Developing mutual respect – an agreed code of conduct may be necessary to ensure that individuals behave in an appropriate manner towards each other. As a manager I should ensure I work within the boundaries of my knowledge and responsibility and keep accurate records which are stored correctly in line with the data protection act and your organizations policies and procedures. I will be able to contribute and implementation of joint actions consistent with my role and responsibilities. I need to have the confidence to challenge issues where appropriate and be able to state my own judgments in an assertive manner.
3.2 Develop procedures for effective working relationships with other professionals To maintain effective working relationships, I always try to follow these ground rules: Collaborate with each team member to ensure a consensus
Share information so that all outcomes are known and agreed upon collectively Communicate respectfully to ensure productive activity
Listen effectively to gain maximum input and response
Support individuals in their goal to reach successful outcomes Prioritize workloads so that no one member is over burdened
Organize regular production meetings to assess specific work issues including g any staff development, technology updates and client feedback issues that require immediate action
It is important to develop procedures for an effective working relationship with other professionals because as well as making your workplace more enjoyable to work in, the service users will benefit from a better service with better outcomes, when everyone works as a team. It will also help my organization to maintain a professional image. In an effective relationship parties listen to and understand others’ positions and feelings.
The simplest way to understand what is important to another person or to a group is to ask, then and listen to the answer. It is important to clearly define my own role and responsibilities and those of other professionals and agree common objectives, goals, targets and ways of working. I will need to exchange complete, accurate and up-to-date information with other professionals whilst respecting requirements for confidentiality. In order to ensure an effective working relationship this must be done in line with good practice, values and ethical requirements. Any commitments I have made should be fulfilled or advice people immediately if I am unable to do so. Any disagreements and complaints should be dealt with promptly, positively and in line with organizational procedures and professional guidelines and also in the best interests of the service users.
3.3 Agree common objectives when working with other professionals within the boundaries of own role and responsibilities & 4.3 Agree common objectives when working with others within the boundaries of own role and responsibilities I will need to build relationships with other professionals and be able to work effectively with them, both inside and outside of healthcare in order to deliver a high standard of care and to ensure the service users safety. It is important to ensure that the service user remains the centre of the process. It is important to respect the skills and contributions of other professionals, and developing effective communication with other members of the team and with the service user. Common SMART objectives should be established in the beginning and be agreed by all involved in the partnership.
Specific: This means that they all tell me exactly what to do. Measurable: This means that there should be a way of telling when I have reached the goal Achievable: There is no point setting a goal that I cannot possibly achieve, as this will demotivate me. Realistic: The goal should help me to move towards my final goal e.g. to achieve my key skills Timed: I should also set myself a deadline for achieving my goal.
I must remain aware of the boundaries of my own role and responsibilities as detailed in my job description. My job description is a communication tool which will advise me where my role ends and another person’s job role begins. Any agreements, objectives and plans should be recorded in line with your company’s policies and procedures and should detail my role and responsibilities and the role and responsibilities of others, so that everyone is clear on how they are involved, and the objectives, with agreed agendas on how they will be reached.
It is important to recognize that any joint working relationship both sides must see benefits. My swot analysis for joint working should have identified possible benefits to me and my organization under the ‘opportunities’ section. For example I have completed SWOT analysis of my organization for frail older people.
I try SWOT analysis and organizations that I am considering a joint working arrangement with. I will have to use a range of sources to make my decision on which other agencies I will be in joint partnership. However whichever method I choose to find out about the potential of a joint working relationship I will need to consider the following: Do the values, aims and objectives of the organization under consideration match my own or are they in conflict. What policies and practices are in place, and do I agree with them. Will their involvement enhance my own reputation or will I lose face by being associated with a failing organization Is the service local
Are the policies and services offered user-friendly
How accessible and responsible is the management team
How accessible and responsive are the staff
Does the potential partner organization actually have the expertise readily available Does it have sufficient staff to meet the extra demand imposed by the proposed joint work What will the join working cost in terms of finance and time Is the extra work on my part worth the outcome
What might be the hidden extras (positive and negative)
Furthermore multi-disciplinary working requires the establishment of shared protocols and formalized procedures to help ensure consistent standards of care. As a manager developing an effective multi-disciplinary team requires the setting of clear objectives through the identification of need and the planning, purchasing and financing of services. Effective planning and Consideration of how services are to be financed will be vital objectives. Management of a multi-disciplinary team requires procedures to address the professional, training and developmental needs of individual team members.
3.4 Evaluate procedures for working with other professionals & 4.4 Evaluate procedures for working with others
A good start to exploring the issue of joint working is perhaps to reflect on my own organization and to some extent my own attitudes towards joint working. I should look about what is the culture in my organization that affects the thinking related to joint working? Schein (1992) defines culture as:
A pattern of shared assumptions that a group learns as it solves its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way think and feel in relation to those problems.
In order to evaluate procedures user for partnership working there has to be a system in place to monitor and review progress. This is where the importance of agreeing the outcomes and timescale at the beginning of the partnership are important. The evaluation should be carried out by monitoring, reviewing and measuring the progress made against set outcomes. Monitoring and reviewing the success of joint working are essentially quality control activities: they are about achieving high quality and then ensuring the maintenance of that quality. They are also about ensuring that all those involved with joint working are happy with their roles, as well as the processes and intended outcomes. Regular progress reports should be produced.
If procedures are working well with all the professionals involved this will result in positive outcomes e.g. coordinated service provision, professional approach, clear roles and responsibilities, organized communication, avoidance of duplication, preventing mistakes, efficient use of resources. However if the procedures are not working it could result in negative outcomes such as professional rivalry, miscommunication, time wasting, mismanagement of funding. The impact of my organizations working with other professionals, on the service users, should be taken into account and their views and opinions should be listened to as part of the evaluation process. This part of the evaluation could be conducted by completion of a questionnaire by service users. Positive outcomes for the individual could include improved services, empowerment, autonomy, informed decision making whilst negative outcomes could consists of miscommunication, information overload, confusion, frustration, duplication of service provision and disempowerment
3.5 Deal constructively with any conflict that may arise with other professionals
“Conflict is inevitable, but combat is optional.” — Max Lucade To deal with conflict requires many recognized leadership skills – for example, a personality that inspires confidence in others, the will power to see things through to completion, sound knowledge, understanding and initiative. When conflict occurs, I must prevent parties feeling as if they are being persecuted. It is important for all members of a partnership to be aware that conflict is inevitable.
Different philosophies, principles, priorities and codes of practice can have a positive effect on team working by providing a more thorough look at how the team should be working to achieve the best possible outcomes for service users. However in social care work the team members have to deal with each other, multi organizational disciplines such as GP’s, nurses, family and friends of service users and the service users themselves. When dealing with this many people and their views conflict and dilemmas are not only inevitable but often daily occurrences. If a conflict or dilemma is dealt with successfully, not only will the problem be resolved but an increased understanding of each other and a situation may follow. Conflict can come from a variety of sources:
Goals. Conflict can happen as a result of conflicting goals or priorities. It can also happen when there is a lack of shared goals. Personality conflicts. Personality conflicts are a common cause of conflict. Sometimes there is no chemistry, or you haven’t figured out an effective way to click with somebody. Scarce resources. Conflict can happen when you’re competing over scarce resources. Styles. People have different styles. Your thinking style or communication style might conflict with somebody else’s thinking style or their communication style. The good news is that conflicts in styles are easy to adapt to when you know how. Values. Sometimes you will find conflict in values. The challenge here is that values are core. Adapting with styles is one thing, but dealing with conflicting values is another. That’s why a particular business, group, or culture may not be a good fit for you. It’s also why “bird’s of a feather flock together” and why “opposites attract, but similarities bind.” Reference :Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument
Here are the five conflict management styles according to Thomas, K.W., and R.H. Kilmann: 1. Accommodating – This is when I cooperate to a high-degree, and it may be at my own expense, and actually work against my own goals, objectives, and desired outcomes. This approach is effective when the other party is the expert or has a better solution. It can also be effective for preserving future relations with the other party.
2. Avoiding – This is when I simply avoid the issue. I’m not helping the other party reach their goals, and it assertively pursuing my own. It can also be effective when the issue would be very costly. It’s also very effective when the atmosphere is emotionally charged and I need to create some space. Sometimes issues will resolve themselves, but “hope is not a strategy”, and, in general, avoiding is not a good long term strategy
3. Collaborating – This is where I partner or pair up with the other party to achieve both of my goals. This is how I break free of the “win-lose” paradigm and seek the “win-win.” This can be effective for complex scenarios where I need to find a solution. This can also mean re-framing the challenge to create a bigger space and room for everybody’s ideas. The downside is that it requires a high-degree of trust and reaching a consensus can require a lot of time and effort to get everybody on board and to synthesize all the ideas.
4. Competing – This is the “win-lose” approach. I act in a very assertive way to achieve my goals, without seeking to cooperate with the other party, and it may be at the expense of the other party. This approach may be appropriate for emergencies when time is of the essence, or when I need quick, decisive action, and people are aware of and support the approach.
5. Compromising – This is the “lose-lose” scenario where neither party really achieves what they want. This requires a moderate level of assertiveness and cooperation. It may be appropriate for scenarios where I need a temporary solution, or where both sides have equally important goals. The trap is to fall into compromising as an easy way out, when collaborating would produce a better solution.
A good way to resolve conflicts and dilemmas is to follow some rules. It is based on both parties working together to find a mutually acceptable solution. This is however based on the assumption that there is sufficient common ground to make it worthwhile. I should make sure that good relationships are my first priority. I should identify the issues and be open and honest. As a manager I keep people and problem separate. I must pay attention to the interest that is being presented by listening. I should listen effectively first and talk second. Having a non-judgmental approach is essential. I should get the balance right between sanctions and incentive and be willing to take action.
Another option can also be considered is mediation, which involves including third party into the situation. By doing this both parties work to pass information and attempting to get negotiations moving rather than coming to an end. It is important that these conflicts are solved effectively by using the appropriate style for the situation to ensure that the team continues to work effectively and learn for some lessons how be dealt in future.
4.1 Analyze the importance of working in partnership with others Refer to outcome 3.1 & 4.1 Unit 18
Refer to outcome 3.2 unit 18
It is essential that I work in partnership with all of the people surrounding the individuals I am supporting in order to ensure a person centred approach to their care and the best possible support and care is provided. Before discussing inter-agency co-operation and participation, it is important to consider how I can promote the participation and empowerment of the service user. No matter how effective the inter-agency collaboration and information sharing is, if the service user does not feel part of the process the chances of successful outcomes will be significantly reduced. I will need to work in partnership with carers, families, advocates and other people who are sometimes called “significant others”. In order to work well in partnership, there has to be good communication and I will need to have good communication skills. Others people may be able to provide useful information to support me in my work. They will have knowledge of the needs, wishes and preferences of the individual. Also I may be able to provide useful information to support them in being part of the individual’s lives.
This is good partnership working. An example might be if there are communication difficulties. A carer or family member can share information with me about how I can best communicate with an individual. The importance of this is it enables the individual to be listened to and supported in ways that they desire and choose.
Information should be collated from all the available sources to build a picture of the individual life. In doing so this will promote the individuals well-being and provide a holistic approach to their care needs.
4.2 Develop procedures for effective working relationships with others The service users’ needs, preferences wishes and health care requirements need to remain at the centre of any procedures developed for an effective working relationship with them, their family or carers. They should be fully informed and involved in any decisions regarding their care and the delivery of any support they may need. At the start of an individuals care all those involved should discuss the care package, and establish a shared understanding. It will be necessary to set boundaries in various areas for example confidentiality, the recording and storage of information and the sharing of information with other agencies. Everyone involved should be aware of the complaints procedure in case of any future problems. Communication is an important area to discuss and regular contact and updates should be agreed in the beginning.
By developing and building good relationships with all concerned and by ensuring my colleagues are aware of procedures an effective working relationship will be established. I should provide staff with feedback and suggestions of areas requiring improvement.
4.3 Agree common objectives when working with others within the boundaries of own role and responsibilities Please refer to outcome 3.3
4.4 Evaluate procedures for working with others
Please refer to outcome 3.4
Outcomes for users of services:
positive outcomes – will result in improved services, empowerment, autonomy, informed decision making; negative outcomes – will result in neglect, abuse, harm, anger, miscommunication, information overload, confusion, frustration, duplication of service provision, disempowerment
4.5 Deal constructively with any conflict that may arise with others Conflicts are inevitable and it is possible to develop the skills required to deal with them in a constructive way in order to minimize the effects they can have. Good communication and even more importantly listening skills is the key to managing ethical dilemmas and conflicts for individuals. I should try to establish what has caused the conflict, be non-judgemental in your approach and establish a common ground to work from. Show empathy and try to understand their point of view and attempt to mediate a resolution by formulating points of agreement.
Conflicts can be made worse or more frequent by someone’s illness or condition. As an example an individual with dementia may antagonize and upset other service users with their repetitive behaviour. Some conflicts may prove more difficult to deal with than others especially when it involves one person’s rights as opposed to another person’s rights.
I should ensure that all service users are aware of the complaints procedure and have support from staff to file a complaint. In ensuring this it is promoting the service users rights choices and well-being and builds a trusting relationship between them, their family and the establishment you work for.