School bullying is a type of bullying in which occurs during the time period a child is in school. Bullying can be physical, verbal, or emotional. According to a study by Yale, bullying victims are at least 70% more likely to commit suicide than non-victims. Bullying happens everywhere, in all different forms. There are six primary types of bullying: physical bullying, verbal bullying, sexual bullying, relational bullying, reactive bullying, and cyber bullying. Physical bullying is using strength and size to overtake a victim. Verbal bullying is using harmful words, cursing or name calling to intimidate the victim. Sexual bullying is making fun of a victim’s sexual orientation, touching someone in an inappropriate place, making threats or jokes about serious subjects like rape, and forcing someone to act in a sexual way. This diminishes the victim’s self-esteem and reputation, and humiliates the victim. Relational bullying is working to destroy someone’s reputation, and make their friends turn against them.
Reactive bullying is when a bully brines and convinces others to take part in the bullying. This kind of bullying completely overpowers and outnumbers the victim. Cyber bullying is using electronic tools like Facebook, Myspace, texts, IMs, and chatrooms to bully someone. Bullying happens in so many different places and in so many different ways, that it is very hard to stop. Children and youth who are bullied are more to be depressed, lonely, and anxious; have low self-esteem, be absent from school, feel unwell, and think about suicide. Law enforcement is trying to take a stand against bullying. It is so important that law enforcement has a role in bullying prevention because studies show that bullying as a child can lead to more serious consequences. In one study, boys who were identified as bullies in middle and high school were four times as likely as non-bullies to have three or more criminal convictions by age 24. So far every single state except Hawaii, Michigan, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota have laws against bullying.
New York, for example, put in place the “Dignity for all Students” act in 2009. The DSA act states that its role is to prevent “incidents of discrimination or harassment including bullying, taunting or intimidation.” The act also requires that at least one staff member at every school be thoroughly trained to “handle incidents relating to discrimination of race, color, weight, national origin, ethnic group, religion, religious practice, disability, sexual orientation, gender, and sex.” However, even with law enforcement taking a stand there is still a lot of work to be done. School bullying occurs in every area world wide. It can occur at any time during the school hours and anywhere in the school building. Many of the places that are most likely to occur in are duringPE, recess, hallways, bathrooms, on school buses and waiting for buses, classes that require group work and/or after school activities.
Bullying in school sometimes consists of a group of students taking advantage of or isolating one student in particular and gaining the loyalty of bystanders who, in some cases, want to avoid becoming the next victim. These bullies taunt and tease their target before physically bullying the target. Targets of bullying in school are often pupils who are considered strange or different by their peers to begin with, making the situation harder for them to deal with. Others are just people who they might not like for a reason. A bully can consist of one or more people engaging in the bullying at the same time toward one or more students. A lot of the time when it occurs around other students they are likely not to say anything or don’t do anything because they are either scared to do something or just don’t really care. However, there is some research suggesting that a significant portion of “normal” school children may not evaluate school-based violence (student-on-student victimization) as negatively or as being unacceptable as much as adults generally do, and may even derive enjoyment from it, and they may thus not see a reason to prevent it, if it brings them joy on some level.
Both males and females have differently toll on how they bully their victims. Men/boys usually bully other boys in physical ways like pushing, punching, and aggression, whereas females are more likely to spread rumors, talk bad about the person, etc. Although they are different ways in which boys and girls do bullying a lot of the ways may be similar as well, and they both can be bullied or be the bullies. Bullying can also be perpetrated by teachers and the school system itself: There is an inherent power differential in the system that can easily predispose to subtle or covert abuse (relational aggression or passive aggression), humiliation, or exclusion — even while maintaining overt commitments to anti-bullying policies.
Anti-bullying programs are designed to teach students cooperation, as well as training peer moderators in intervention and dispute resolution techniques, as a form of peer support. Contents1 Types of school bullying include * 1.1 Physical * 1.2 Emotional * 1.3 Verbally * 1.4 Cyber-bullying * 1.5 Sexual * 1.6 Homophobic bullying * 2 High school bullying is one of the major levels of school in where bullying occurs * 3 Statistics * 4 Short-term and long-term effects * 5 School shootings * 6 Complex dynamics of a school bullying culture * 7 Strategies to reduce school bullying * 8 Forms * 9 Associated With * 10 Identifying * 11 Legal recourse in the US * 11.1 Victims * 12 See also * 13 References * 14 Fictional bullies * 15 Further reading * 16 External links
Types of school bullying include
See also: Physical abuse
Physical bullying is any unwanted physical contact between the bully and the victim. This is one of the most easily identifiable forms of bullying. Examples include. * punching
* inappropriate touching
* school pranks
* use of available objects as weapons
See also: Psychological abuse
Emotional bullying is any form of bullying that causes damage to a victim’s psyche and/or emotional well-being. Examples include:
* spreading malicious rumors about people
* keeping certain people out of a “group”
* getting certain people to “gang up” on others (It also could be considered physical bullying)
* making fun of certain people
* ignoring people on purpose – the silent treatment, also known as ‘Sending to Coventry’
See also: Verbal abuse
Verbal bullying is any slanderous statements or accusations that cause the victim undue emotional distress. Examples include:
* directing foul language (profanity) at the target
* using derogatory terms or playing with the person’s name
* commenting negatively on someone’s looks, clothes, body etc. – personal abuse
* being laughed at
Main article: Cyber-bullying
Cyber-bullying is any bullying done through the use of technology. This form of bullying can easily go undetected because of lack of parental/authoritative supervision. Because bullies can pose as someone else, it is the most anonymous form of bullying. Cyber bullying includes, but is not limited to, abuse using email, blog, instant messaging, text messaging, or websites. A lot of kids who are bullied in school are likely to be bullied over the internet, and vice versa Sexual
Main article: Sexual bullying
Sexual bullying is “any bullying behavior, whether physical or non-physical, that is based on a person’s sexuality or gender. It is when sexuality or gender is used as a weapon by boys or girls towards other boys or girls — although it is more commonly directed at girls. It can be carried out to a person’s face, behind their back or through the use of technology.” As part of its research into sexual bullying in schools, the BBC Panorama program commissioned a questionnaire aimed at young people aged 11–19 years in schools and youth clubs across five regions of England. The survey revealed that of the 273 young people who responded to the questionnaire, 28 had been forced to do something sexual and 31 had seen it happen to someone else. Of the 273 respondents, 40 had experienced unwanted touching.
UK Government figures show that in school year 2007/8, there were 3,450 fixed period exclusions and 120 expulsions from schools in England due to sexual misconduct. This includes incidents such as groping and using sexually insulting language. From April 2008 to March 2009, ChildLine counselled a total of 156,729 children. Of these, 26,134 children spoke about bullying as a main concern and 300 of these talked specifically about sexual bullying. Some people, including the UK charity Beatbullying, have claimed that children are being bullied into providing ‘sexual favours’ in exchange for protection as gang culture enters inner city schools. Other anti-bullying groups and teachers’ unions, including the National Union of Teachers, challenged the charity to provide evidence of this, as they had no evidence that this sort of behaviour was happening in schools. Homophobic bullying
Main article: Gay bullying
Doctor Melinda Gentry Executive Director of an Atlanta Based Non-Profit created a task force that addressed the issue of bullying as it relates to sexual orientation. “After working in Atlanta Public Schools, Atlanta, Georgia, I experienced bullying first hand. Due to my sexual orientation my co-workers rallied to have me demoted so that I was not in charge of them. I was told that I was not wanted or welcomed in the school. I was hired to empower children and as a resort I was demoralized. There was no support in the community. People need to be represented, I am an advocate for Human Rights of LGBT individuals in the community. These individuals pay taxes, raise articulate citizens and they love and respect others; they deserve reciprocity. I know from my own experience that bullying takes place in elementary and secondary schools. People in positions of authority do not always respect diversity.
The House of Pink Inc. is working to create strategies to combat school bullying. It is unacceptable for adults and/or children to be bullied in schools based on the premises of their sexuality. Schools need a unified system that strategically addresses issues such as bullying and violence. “These issues are often minimized but have a very long lasting effect on the individuals involved. Victims of bullying become victims of domestic violence in the future. Bullying is a precursor for other acts of civil and criminal violations. The studies on the number of children and adults who become suicidal or murdered in hate crime acts are ridiculously high and there needs to be something done now.” Doctor Melinda Gentry. In the United Kingdom, the Equality and Human Rights Commission reported in 2010 that “Homophobic bullying is widespread in British secondary schools. Nearly half of all secondary schoolteachers in England acknowledge that such bullying is common, and just 1 in 6 believe that their school is very active in promoting respect for LGBT students.”
High school bullying is one of the major levels of school in where bullying occurs According to Tara Kuther, associate professor of psychology at Western Connecticut State University, “…bullying gets so much more sophisticated and subtle in high school. It’s more relational. It becomes more difficult for teens to know when to intervene, whereas with younger kids bullying is more physical and therefore more clear cut”.
Bullying is a common occurrence in most schools. According to the American Psychological Association, approximately “40% to 80% of school-age children experience bullying at some point during their school careers”.] Regardless of the grade level, socioeconomic environment, gender, religion, or sexual orientation, bullying can happen to anyone. However, various studies point out that students from lower socio-economic backgrounds are more bullied than students from higher socio-economic backgrounds. Most children experience bullying at some point in their academic careers. The following is a list of statistics that illustrate the severity of bullying within classrooms: * 20–40% of bullying victims actually report being bullied * 70% of middle school and high school students experience bullying in school * 7–12% of bullies are habitual and pose a serious threat * 23% of 9th graders have carried a weapon to school recently * 5–15% of
students are constantly bullied
* 27% of students are bullied because of their refusal to engage in common sexual practices * 25% of students encourage bullying if not given proper education and support in anti-bullying techniques This was a survey conducted by the NICHD where a results on what student did in a school. “The children were asked to complete a questionnaire during a class period that asked how often they either bullied other students, or were the target of bullying behavior. A total of 10.6 percent of the children replied that they had ‘sometimes’ bullied other children, a response category defined as ‘moderate’ bullying. An additional 8.8 percent said they had bullied others once a week or more, defined as ‘frequent’ bullying.
Similarly, 8.5 percent said they had been targets of moderate bullying, and 8.4 percent said they were bullied frequently. Out of all the students, 13 percent said they had engaged in moderate or frequent bullying of others, while 10.6 percent said they had been bullied either moderately or frequently. Some students-6.3 percent-had both bullied others and been bullied themselves. In all, 29 percent of the students who responded to the survey had been involved in some aspect of bullying, either as a bully, as the target of bullying, or both.” Because of the low numbers of students who actually report incidents of bullying, teachers need to have a certain level of awareness that will thwart any potential problems. This awareness starts with understanding bullying.
Short-term and long-term effects
See also: Post traumatic stress disorder and Psychological trauma Dombeck says that as a forty-year-old man, he still feels the effects of the bullying he received as a ten-year-old. Every day, he would dread riding the bus home from school because he was bullied by the older children on the bus. Dombeck defines some common short-term and long-term effects of bullying. These include, but are not limited to: Short-term:
* suicide (bullycide) Many feel unwanted in life and that they should not live
* significant drop in school performance
* Feeling as if their life has fallen apart
* Excessive stress
* abiding feelings of insecurity
* lack of trust
* extreme sensitivity (hypervigilance)
* mental illness such as psychopathy
School bullying is a major cause of school shootings. 71% of the attackers were motivated by being bullied. School shooters that died or committed suicide left behind evidence that they were bullied, including Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, Nathan Ferris, Edmar Aparecido Freitas, Brian Head, Seung-Hui Cho, Wellington Menezes Oliveira, and Jeff Weise.
Complex dynamics of a school bullying culture
Parsons identifies school bullying cultures as typically having a web of dynamics which are much more complex than just considering bullying amongst students. These dynamics include: * some students bully other students; some of these student bullies are themselves bullied by other student bullies; some of these student bullies bully teachers * some teachers bully students; some teacher bullies bully other teachers; some teacher bullies bully parents * some office staff bully teachers, students and parents * some principals bully teachers, office staff, students and parents * some parents bully teachers, office staff, principals, and their own children.
Strategies to reduce school bullying
Make sure an adult knows what is happening to their child[ren].
* Enforce anti bullying laws.
* Make it clear that bullying is never acceptable.
* Recognize that bullying can occur at all levels within the hierarchy of the school (i.e., including adults).
* Hold a school conference day or forum devoted to bully/victim problems.
* Increase adult supervision in the yard, halls and washrooms more vigilantly.
* Emphasize caring, respect and safety.
* Emphasize consequences of hurting others.
* Enforce consistent and immediate consequences for aggressive behaviors.
* Improve communication among school administrators, teachers, parents and students.
* Have a school problem box where kids can report problems, concerns and offer suggestions.
* Teach cooperative learning activities.
* Help bullies with anger control and the development of empathy. * Encourage positive peer relations.
* Offer a variety of extracurricular activities which appeal to a range of interests * Teach your child to defend him/herself verbally. Fighting back physically may land the bullied in school trouble or even legal trouble. * Keep in mind the range of possible causes: e.g., medical, psychiatric, psychological, developmental, family problems, etc. * If problems continue in your school, press harassment charges against the family of the person who is bullying you. * Adjust teacher preparation programs to include appropriate bullying interventions to use in their classroom.
Bullying is delivered in a number of different forms and is not limited to one gender. Forms include verbal, physical, direct, sexual harassment, and relational bullying. Bullying covers a wide range of age groups but is particularly prominent between the ages of 9–18. Boys tend to do more bullying than girls, especially in the form of physical bullying. However girls are just as guilty. They usually tend to bully in verbal forms. Understanding the semiotics of school-age bullying may increase the chances of stopping the problem before drastic measures are taken by the victims, such as suicide. Bully, target, andbystander are labels that have been created to help describe and understand the roles of the individuals involved in the vicious cycle. Barbara Coloroso, an expert in the field of bullying prevention, explains that the labels serve as descriptors of a child’s behavior rather than permanently labeling the child.
Bullying is usually associated with an imbalance of power. A bully has a perceived authority over another due to factors such as size, gender, or age. Bullies are not identifiable by their appearance or group identification; rather we need to focus on how they act. The definition of bullying briefly describes actions that are exhibited by an individual that is playing the role of a bully. Boys find motivation for bullying from factors such as not fitting in, physical weakness, short-tempered, who their friends were, and the clothes they wore. Girls on the other hand, result from factors like not fitting in, facial appearance, emotional, overweight, and academic status. In both sexes, a speech impediment of some sort (such as stutter) can also become the target of a bully. Individuals that choose to be a bully are not typically born with the characteristic. It is a result from the treatment they receive from authority figures, including parents. Bullies often come from families that use physical forms of discipline.
This somewhat turns the tables on the bully, making them the victim. Unfortunately, this leads to a strategy of bully or be bullied. Bullies come in all shapes and sizes. Girls and boys are both bullies. Girls are social bullies, spreading rumors, breaking up friendships, etc. Boys are more physical bullies, hitting, punching, and slapping. Bullies are typically overly concerned about their appearance and the popularity standings. They have an urge to be dominate, or in charge of others. Bullies are usually easily pressured by their peers and feel the need to impress them. There are several different types of bullies; confident, social, fully armored, hyperactive, bullied bully, bunch of bullies, and a gang of bullies. The confident bully has a very high opinion of themself and feels a sense of superiority over other students. The social bully uses rumors, gossip, and verbal taunts to insult others.
Social bullies are typically a female who has low self-esteem and therefore tries to bring others down. The fully armored bully shows very little emotion and often bullies when no one will see or stop them. The hyperactive bully typically has problems with academics and social skills. This student will often bully someone then place the blame on someone else. A bullied bully is usually someone who has been bullied in the past or is bullied by an older sibling. A bunch of bullies is a group of friends who gang up on others. A gang of bullies is a group of students who are not really friends but are drawn together due to their desire for power. Print Students become bullies for many reasons such as they want to impress their peers, they were once bullied themselves and now feel big bullying others, and some even do it as retaliation for being punished in school.
Verifying the signs that signify bullying characteristics are slightly harder than expected. They are usually viewed as loud and assertive and may even be hostile in particular situations. Bullies are not usually the largest kid in a class, but may be part of the popular or cool kids group. The bullies that are part of a popular group may not come from intense disciplinary homes, rather they gain acceptance from the peer group by bullying a victim. Victims of bullying typically are physically smaller, more sensitive, unhappy, cautious, anxious, quiet, and withdrawn. They are often described as passive or submissive.
Possessing these qualities make these individuals vulnerable to being victimized. Unfortunately bullies know that these students will not retaliate, making them an easy target. A general semantics term called indexing is useful in dealing with the different types of bullying. Indexing is a way to categorize of signs. This allows educators and parents a way to assist in recognizing how bullying behavior varies. By understanding and recognizing the different varieties of behavior it helps to allow flexibility in the responses to the variations. An interesting result from previous research states that the majority of children possess anti-bullying attitudes. However there is a small amount of children that admire those that bully and show little empathy for those that get bullied.