Porfirio Diaz was president in 1877 and ruled as dictator in Mexico for over 30 years. He had brought the country’s economic development in the usual Latin American way. Through export sales of agriculture and mineral products especially oil which was controlled by British and American capitalists. During this time railroads were built, oil wells were drilled, and foreign investors were welcomed, but however the people remained very poor. In 1910 almost all the land belonged to a few very powerful people. On November 20, 1910, the Mexican Revolution broke out which was lead by Francisco I. Madero. Diaz was therefore overthrown in 1911, and Francisco Madero become president but two years later was murdered by survivors of the Diaz regime who had hopes to recover power. Pancho Villa – a chief, who lead a great deal of cowboys (vaquereos) in revolt across the large, arid northern state of Chihuahua and Emiliano Zapatan – mobilized a revolutionary force to compel the redistributions of land among the long suffering Indian and mestizo neighbours, were two hero’s during this time in Mexico City but did not do much for Mexico.
The mobilization of Mexico City workers during this period (1910s) was considered to be one of the greatest social disturbances of the twenty century. Urban workers had a limited military role but they had emerged from the fighting of the revolution by showing combativeness and significance in the power structure. During this time industrialization and urbanization transformed work and community in Mexico City and helped to undermine the legitimacy of the revolutionary order. There was cultural transformations and collective action which had occurred among the poor and working people before and during the revolution. The event of the revolution transformed workers in ways that greatly enhanced their role in local and national politics. In 1916 a general strike happened in Mexico City. Strikers demanded fair prices and wages, a consumption demand that ensured the support of much of the poor urban population. Chief Venustiano Carranza was quick to impose aggressive laws and the strike was soon over.
The strike ended in repression it was part of a series of popular challenges by which working people helped shape the post-revolutionary order and pushed labour unions to unprecedented prominence. The possibilities and limits of mass urban participation were outlined in the conflicts that rose in 1916 and continued in the decades that followed. In 1917 a new constitution was set up, promising land to the peasants, along with decent hours and wages as well as unions for workers, equal pay for women, and the possibility of nationalization of the property of reactionary Mexican Catholic church and of exploitative foreign capitalists. During the 1920s and 1930s a unifying, centralizing political party, referred to as Party of the Revolutionary Institutions or PRI, came to power restoring order. This organization combined the nation’s new leadership cadres – the military, bureaucracy, business interests, and labour unions – in a structure that would rule Mexico for the next fifty years.
This paper consists of three statements based on the causes and impacts on British North America and the United States war in 1812. The first section will basically be an introduction of the British North America and the United States war. It will cover the important dates and information’s. For instance, when it happened and where the actual battles occurred. The second section is mainly about the causes of the war where the disputes and aggravations between Great Britain and the United States will be discussed. The war of 1812 basically began with a series of economic sanctions taken by the British and French against the US as part of the Napoleonic Wars. The other two points based on the first section are the embargo Act of 1807 and when the British were instigating Native Americans on the frontier to attack American settlements. The third section will be based on the impacts during the war of 1812, where the first point will be about how the United States gained a measure of international respect for withstanding the British Empire. Second of all, how the military development increased by General Winfield Scott and third of all, how the war united French-speaking and English-speaking colonies against a common enemy.
Historical introduction of British North America and the United States war in 1812. The war of 1812 was fought between the United States and Great Britain. It began on the 18th June 1812 and was officially over after signing of the treaty of Ghent on December 24th 1814, and was ratified by the US president James Madison on February 17th 1815. Many of the battles of the war of 1812, were very unorganized. The war had been preceded for years of angry diplomatic dispute, and the United States war arguably not ready for the war of 1812 to begin. Great Britain was also hard pressed by the hostility of Napoleon, and was compelled to retain the greater part of the countries best forces and crews in European waters, until the ruin of the Grande Armee in Russia and the rising of Germany, left her free to send an overwhelming force of ships to American waters.
The United States launched a war against a dominant nation. England, like many on the European continent, did not take the United States that seriously. It began with an attack on Canada from Detroit; both as an effort to gain land and to cut off British supply lines to Tecumseh’s Indian confederation, which had long troubled the US. The British navy had hundreds of ships and the United States had less than twenty, although the United States had more victories at the beginning until the British blocked their seaports. The major battles occurred in Detroit, Lake Erie, Thamas River, Bladensburg, Fort McHenry and New Orleans.
The causes of the British North America and the United States war during 1812. In the years following the American Revolutionary War, there were many disputes and aggravations between Great Britain and the United States. The United States sought to remain neutral while pursuing overseas commerce with both empires when revolutionary France declared war upon Great Britain in 1793. This created much tension. Great Britain had not abandoned fortifications in the Great Lakes region as called for in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, therefore they were continuing to supply Native Americans in the Northwest Territory, even though they were at war with the United States. Those conflicts were ended in 1795, when the United States secured the Jay Treaty with Great Britain and the Treaty of Greenville with the Native Americans. Another reliable cause was when Thomas Jefferson came up with the Embargo Act of 1807, which prohibited American ships from sailing to any foreign ports and closed American ports to British ships.
As a result, the Embargo Act decreased the number of American ships attack by the French and British but it seriously damaged the economy of the United States due to a lack of markets for its good. Thomas Jefferson’s idea of the Embargo was especially unpopular in New England, where merchants preferred the indignities of impressments to the halting of all overseas commerce. During 1811, a group of young men known as the “War Hawks” came to the forefront. They were the representatives of the United States House. The War Hawks were led by the Speaker of the house which was named Henry Clay from Kentucky and John C. Calhoun from South Carolina. The believed that the British were instigating Native Americans on the frontier to attack American settlements. Therefore the War Hawks called for an invasion of British Canada to end this threat.
The impact on British North American and the United States during the war of 1812. After the war of 1812, the United States gained a measure of international respect for managing to withstand the British Empire. Therefore the morale of the citizens was high because they had fought one of the great military powers of the world and managed to survive. This increased feelings of nationalism, as a matter the war has often been called the “Second War of Independence”, because after happening the civilization created the same kind of feelings again. Additionally, General Winfield Scott increased the United States military development. He improved professionalism in the U.S Army officer corps, and in particular, the training of officers at the United States Military Academy. This helped them out during the Mexican-American War (1846- 1848). During the war, the British blockade the American coast, which created a shortage of cotton cloth in the United States. This made the US build manufacturing industries to balance their cotton cloth, beginning at Waltham by Francis Cabot Lowell. On the other side. Canada had several impacts too after the war ended.
The effects on Great Britain were more or less little and forgotten compared what happened to Canada, where the war had been a matter of national survival. The war united the French-speaking and English-speaking colonies against a common enemy, giving many inhabitants a sense of nationhood, as well a sense of loyalty to Britain. At the beginning of the war of 1812, it was estimated that one third of the inhabitants of Upper Canada were born in America. Most of them went to Canada because of the low-cost land but also because some were United Empire loyalists. This nationalistic sentiment also caused a great deal of suspicion of American ideas like responsible government, which would frustrate political reform in Upper and Lower Canada until the Rebellions of 1837. However, the War of 1812 also started the process that ultimately led to Canadian Confederation in 1867. Although later events such as the Rebellions and the Fenian raids of the 1860s were more directly pivotal, Canadian historian Pierre Berton has written that if the War of 1812 had never happened Canada would be part of the United States today, as more and more American settlers would have arrived, and Canadian nationalism would never have developed.
The War of 1812 was a conflict between the United States and Britain that began in 1812 and lasted until early 1815. A declaration of war was requested by President James Madison to protect American ships on the high seas and to stop the British from capturing U.S. sailors. U.S. ships were being stopped and searched by both Great Britain and France, which were both fighting each other in Europe. President Madison also wanted to prevent Britain from creating alliances with Native Americans on the American frontier. Americans in the West and South, who hoped to increase the size of the United States by seizing control of both Canada and Florida, influenced his decision. Critics called the War of 1812 as a “second war of independence,” an opportunity for Americans to protect their freedom and honor in the face of European disrespect. Neither Britain nor the United States was particularly well prepared to fight this war, and the conflict eventually ended in a stalemate. Basically, the causes on British North America and the United States during the war of 1812 started way before and it got more and more until they reached the limit and started war.