Introduction: The name Bangladesh is not developed over night. It takes long time to form the name Bangladesh. Origin of the Name Bangladesh Bangalah as a territorial name came to be used from the 14th century onwards, more specifically from the time of Sultan Shamsuddin iliyas shah, donating the territory which now comprises the independent state of Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal. In the Pre-Muslim period the same areas were designated (designate-give a specified position or status to) by different territorial (territory-an area under the jurisdiction of a ruler or state) names ( janapads ) such as Gauda, Vanga, Pundra etc. Under Muslim Occupation initially Gauda (changed to Lakhnauti), Vanga (bang of the Muslim historians ), Varenda ( Barind of the Muslims ) and Samata ( Saltanat of the Muslims ) were mentioned as separate territorial entities. Ziauddin Barani was the first Muslim historian who used the term “ iqlim-i-bangalah” or “diyar-i-bangalah” Shams-i-Siraj Afif mentioned Iliyas Shah as ‘Shah-i-Bangalah’, ‘Sultan-i-Bangalah’ and ‘Shah-i-Bangaliyan’ after he had consolidated his power over whole of Bengal by bringing lakhnauti, satgaon and sonargaon under his sole (the underside of a person’s foot) control. The independent sultanate established by Iliyas Shah lasted for about two hundred years.
Under Mughal period The Mughals after establishing their supremacy over the region included Bangalah as a subah ( province ) which came to be known as Subah-i-Bangalah. According to Abul Fazal the Mughal historian, the original name of Bangalah was Bang. The former rulers raised mounds measuring ten yards in height and twenty yards in breadth throughout the province, which were called “Al”. From the suffix this name Bangalah took its raise and currency.But this explanation cannot be accepted. In Portuguese records The name “Bangalah” appeared in the Portuguese records as “Bengala” In British period The English made the term “Bengal”. In the British period the whole Bengali speaking territory was a province of the British Indian Empire and it was known as Bengal in English and Bangladesh in Bengali.
After the partition of India In 1947 after the partition of India this area became a part of Pakistan and known as East Pakistan. Liberation War On 25th March 1971 East Pakistan disconnected all kind of relations with Pakistan after 9 months liberation war emerged as an independent state. Conclusion Thus it is clear that from mid 14th century the name Bangalah got currency and in 1971 became an independent state named Bangladesh. Shahanka / Sasanka Introduction: Shashanka is the first important king of ancient Bengal. He occupies a prominent place in history of the region. He extended his suzerainty far beyond the geographical boundary of his province. Sources
Coins: He issued gold and silver coins.
Seal-Matrix : Seal-matrix of ‘Shri Mahasamanta Shashanka’ from Rohtasgarh. Copper Plate : Banskhera copper plate of Harshavardhan.
Accounts of Foreigner : Chinese pilgrim Hiuen-Tsang. Early life of Shashanka: Very little information about the early life of Shashanka is known. There is a theory that Shashanka began his early life as subordinate ruler of Mahasenagupta. There is also a theory that Shashanka was originally a subordinate vassal of the Maukhari kings. There is no convincing evidence of these theories. It is generally believed that sometime before 606 A.D. Shashanka became the king of Gauda. His capital was Karnasuvarna. According to experts he ruled approximately (Very near) between 600 A.D. and 625 A.D. Activities/Achievements :
Campaigns: Shashanka attempted to extend his political power in different parts of India. South : Following an aggressive foreign policy Shashanka extended his suzerainty as far as Chilka Lake in Orrissa and probably south to the Ganjam district. But the details of Shashanka’s campaigns in the south are unknown to us. North : Shashanka’s first task was the redemption of Magadha from the clutches of the Maukharis. Shashanka with his ally Devagupta, the king of Malava, and next waged war against Maukhari king Grahavarman, the son-in-law of the Pusyabhuti king Prabhakaravardhana. Grahavarman was killed by Devagupta. At this point Rajyavardhana a Buddhist by faith and the eldest son of Prabhakarvardhana, who became king of Thaneshwar proceeded against Devagupta and defeated and killed him. But Rajyavardhana himself was killed in an encounter with Shashanka. After that Harsavardhana the younger brother who ascended the thorn of Thaneshwar proceeded with a huge Army to punish Shashanka and formed an alliance with Bhaskaravarman king of Kamrupa. The only reference informed the defeat of Shashanka in the conflict between Shashanka and Harsavardana. But the reference is not supported by any other contemporary accounts.
Prudent Ruler : The death of Rajyavardhana in 606 A.D. left Shashanka the master of the situation but he was prudent enough not to push his success too far. His main object was to defeat the Maukharis. By his aggressive campaign he extended his suzerainty in the west was an end. Secure His Dominions : The key note of Shashanka’s foreign policy was to secure his dominions from the aggressive designs of the Maukhari rulers and Shashanka was able to do that Successfully. Successful Political and Military Leader : Shashank’s political and military career was a successful one. Beginning his life as a vassal chief he made himself the master of Gauda, Magadha, Utkala and Kongoda and consolidated his position by defeating the powerful Maukharis. Laid down the foundation of imperial fabric: He was the first historical ruler of Bengal who not only dreamt imperial dreams but also succeeded in realizing them. He laid down the foundation of imperial fabric. Conclusion : Being the first king of Bengal Shashanka made a solid foundation for the upcoming rulers. Matsyanyayam Definition :
Matsyanyayam is a Sanskrit term. The condition of Bengal in the century following the death of shashanka and before the rise of the Palas has been described as matsyanyayam. Explanation : Arthashastra of Kautilya: The Kautilya Arthashastra defines the term as follows: When the law of punishment is kept in abeyance, it gives rise to such disorder as is implied in the proverb of fishes, ie, the larger fish swallows a smaller one, for in the absence of a magistrate, the strong will swallow the weak. lama taranatha lama taranatha,the 17th century Tibetan historian of Buddhism in India, also mentioned that all of Bengal was pervaded by an unprecedented anarchy in the century before the rise of the Palas. Causes:
Unstable Government : After the death of Shashanka there was no ruler and stable government. Physical strength was the only strength, and throughout the land ran the frenzy of unbridled, unruly might. Warfare : The country was torn into many small kingdoms and internecine warfare among them caused the instability. Famine: Devastating famine in the eastern region may have had a connection with the prevailing anarchy. Gopala, the founder of Pala dynasty put an end to the anarchy condition of matsyanyayam.