How do Circumstances Cause Characters to Change? Essay Sample

How do Circumstances Cause Characters to Change? Pages
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The first time we are introduced to Pip in Great Expectations was when he was visiting his parent’s grave. The graveyard was cold and misty. Dickens was trying to create a feeling of sadness and sympathy for Pip.

He met a convict who had escaped from prison and wanted “wittles”. He demanded Pip brought him some “wittles” and a file. Otherwise “a young man” would come after him and rip his “heart and liver out”. Pip’s innocence and naivety meant he believed every word of the convict and was scared not to obey him. This was despite the bad temper of Mrs Joe, his sister who brought him up “by hand” and threatened to use “tickler” (a stick she used to hit Pip with). He stole the “wittles” and went to sleep.

When Pip left early the next morning, which was in fact Christmas morning, his guilty conscience was noticeable. His conscience was so bad in fact, that when Pip slowly walked down the stairs, every creak in the stairs sounded as if they were shouting “Get up Mrs Joe” and “Stop thief”. Also, when he went to meet the convict on the marshes, he imagined the cattle calling after him saying ” A boy with Somebody – else’s pork pie! Stop him” and “Holloa, young thief!” This proves that despite what he is doing, he knows what he is doing is wrong, hence the guilty conscience.

After he met the convict and gave him his “wittles” and the file (which belonged to Joe, Pip’s sister’s husband) he returns home across the marshes. Pip still believes that “a constable” will be waiting for him at home. When he gets home, he has Christmas lunch with Mr Pumblechook, Mr Wopsle and Mr & Mrs Hubble. This happens every year. At dinner, they all take their turn to pick on Pip, apart from Joe.

Dickens portrays Joe as a good, honest fellow, just about the only good, honest fellow from this section of the book.

Pip receives slithers of meat and few vegetables with smothering of gravy, while everybody else has lots on their plate. Pumblecook is the most horrible to Pip at this stage. Dickens is again trying to make the reader feels sympathetic towards Pip.

Pip’s guilt from stealing grows even more intense as the brandy he gave to his convict, was about to be tried by Pumblechook. Pip had diluted the rest of the brandy down with tar water. Pumblechook started a “whooping cough dance” and was very nearly sick. Just when Pip thought he wouldn’t be found out, Mrs Joe went to fetch the pie. Mrs Joe saw a bit of the pie was gone but then at the door were soldiers. Pip thought they had come to arrest him. Again, Dickens is trying to emphasise Pips guilt for knowing that what he did was wrong. In fact, they wanted Joe’s services as a blacksmith to catch some convicts.

Joe and Pip went with the soldiers to find the two escaped convicts on the marshes. While they were out on the marshes, Pip says to Joe “I hope we don’t find them (the convicts)” to which Joe replies “I’d give a shilling if they had cut and run, Pip”. They both care about the thieves despite most people in Victorian times looking down on convicts like dirt.

When the soldiers eventually did catch the convicts, Pip’s and another, Abel Magwitch (Pip’s convict) does not get Pip into trouble by telling Joe who really stole Mrs. Joe’s pie. Instead, he admits he stole it. To which Joe replies “…we wouldn’t have you starved to death for it, poor miserable fellow- creatur”. Again this shows Joe a good hearted and genuine, unselfish person. In addition, the convict’s willingness to admit all the stealing was done by him, means he has changed because I think he was touched by Pip’s willingness to help him.

It is then that Pip looked up at Joe “with his heart” and admits that he loved Joe. Here we learn Joe had a harsh childhood, similar to Pip. Yet, if he was beaten as a child, why did he want “no tickler” for Pip? This is because Dickens is again emphasising Joe’s genuine good heartiness.

The most significant change happens, I think, when Pip visits Miss Havisham. Pumblechook arranged the visit. Pip is told to “play” at Miss Havisham’s

Mrs Havisham is weird and twisted. She was left at the alter by a man and ever since that moment she has stopped the clock, worn the exact same dress for years and doesn’t move any of her furniture. She hates all of men. She was “yellow skin and bone” and very old.

When Pip arrives at Miss Havisham’s gate, a girl greets him the same age as Pip called Estella.

As soon as Pip talked to Estella, she called him “boy” and so he called her “miss”. “Boy” would be something an adult would call their child with scorn, so already Estella is making Pip feel inferior to her.

Miss Havisham asked Estella to play cards with Pip. Estella was aghast “With this boy! Why, he’s a common labouring boy!” Then Miss Havisham says something unusual: “Well? You can break his heart.” Pip’s naivety makes him dismiss what she said, thinking he miss heard it. Miss Havisham says this because she wants to let Estella out on society when she is older; to break men’s heart’s, just like one man did to her.

After playing cards with Estella, she starts being horrible to Pip. I really start to feel sorry for Pip her and this was the reaction that Dickens wanted from every reader. She says, “He calls Knaves, Jacks, this boy!”

In addition, “What coarse hands he has” and “What thick boots” and she then called him “a stupid clumsy labouring boy”. For the first time, Pip shows signs of change. He starts to wonder why he has such coarse hands, and wished Joe had been “rather more genteelly brought up” and was determined to ask Joe why he called Jacks knaves. Pip blames Joe for the class he was brought up in, the way he was brought up and the things he was taught. Joe can not help these things. Not long ago, Pip was feeling sorry for Joe because he was beaten when he was brought up and lived a hard life. These changes are negative and selfish.

Pip was severely affected by Estella and in an attempt to make the reader feel sad for Pip, Dickens describes Pip kicking the wall, pulling his hair and crying. I felt sorry for Pip so Dickens’ descriptions were affective.

After leaving the house, after being fed like an animal with a plate of bread and meat, he considered himself to be in “a low lived bad way”. This is significant because Pip now believes what Estella has been telling him. I think from this point in, is Pips decline as a nice individual.

Pumblechook, Mrs Joe and Joe were at home. Mrs Joe and Pumblechook wanted to know all about what happened. To which Pip tells them lies. When Pip lies about Miss Havisham’s appearance, Mrs Joe assumes Pumblechook has seen Miss Havisham and asks him whether what Pip said his true. Pumblechook replies “Good!” Although he has never seen Miss Havisham before, Pumblechook makes it look like he has. He does this to associate himself with the upper class and believes people will respect him more.

I think Pip is telling these lies to humiliate Pumblechook and get back it him. Pumblechook has always been horrible to Pip, notably during the Christmas dinner after meeting the convict. Pip sees this as the perfect opportunity to get revenge.

After the thorough cross-examination by Mrs Joe and Pumblechook, Pip admits he told lies, to Joe.

This shows that Pip has learnt how to lie, which is bad. However, he has also learnt how to admit and be truthful about it, which is good. Pip also admits how he is miserable and wished he was not common. Joe does his best to explain that lies “…ain’t the way to get out of being common, old chap.” Yet, Pip did not seem to take it in.

When Pip went to bed, Joe’s “wisdom” passed him by and was soon over came by the thoughts of Estella and Miss Havisham, the two people who were just using him, but he looks up at them because of their superior position in society, when he should really be looking up at Joe. Pip recognises that this is a memorable day for him. He thought about what his life would have been like and what its course would have been “if one selected a day struck out of it”. What I think Pip means is that his life would have been much different if that day had not occurred. I think Pip would not become a snob and ungrateful man that he eventually becomes in this first section of Great Expectations.

Pip goes to a “school” with Biddy, a girl the same age and class as Pip. One day after his school finished, he was told by Mrs Joe to fetch Joe from the Jolly Bargeman, a public house. So Pip went and came across a new strange man talking to Joe. They talked, and when Pip noticed the man scratch his leg in an “odd way”, I realised that he was Abel Magwitch (Pips convict) but Pip’s naivety dismissed the thought.

Pip went to Miss Havisham’s again but this time she had visitors. It was Miss Havisham’s birthday, and her relatives, the Pockets were trying to get on the best side of her. This was because Miss Havisham was old and they wanted them to look as if they care for her, so she would leave them something in the will. The Pockets are lower class and they are trying their best to be in the same class as Miss Havisham to be respected.

Pip also met Jaggers, a lawyer of Miss Havisham’s. We come across Jaggers in more detail later.

Estella continues to play tricks on Pip. Before, she called him a “wretch” and a “coarse little monster” but now she wants him to kiss her. Estella is cruelly playing with Pip’s mind to keep him interested in her.

When Pip greets Miss Havisham, Pip hears Miss Havisham say ” Break their hearts, my pride and hope, break their hearts and have no mercy!” pip wanders again why Miss Havisham would say such a thing, so he dismisses it.

Pip soon is devastated. His education is stopped because Miss Havisham wants Pip to become an apprentice for Joe.

However, that night, Pip admits he would never like Joe’s Trade. This is all due to what Estella has said to him as a “common labouring boy”. Normally, he would not listen to any taunts, but because Estella is a higher class and Pip is obsessed with her, he has let it get to him and will believe everything she says. Now all he wants to be is an upper class gentleman. He feels ashamed. He is ashamed of Joe. Then Joe is blamed and Pip wants him to be less ignorant and common. Joe is just being honest and happy with his life. However, because Pip has seen a ‘better’ life, he regards everything below that not good enough. He does not want Estella to see Joe because he is so ashamed of him.

Pip, now in his early teens is a year into his work with Joe, asks whether he could have a day off to thank Miss Havisham. I think that is an excuse to see Estella. This is because he accidentally said “Miss Est-Havisham” and exclaimed “No Estella” when Sarah Pocket came to the gate instead.

Pip went to Miss Havisham. She starts trying to make Pip want Estella. She brings Estella up and tells Pip she is abroad, “prettier than ever” and asked “Do you feel like you have lost her?” This is all part of the game to Miss Havisham, who I think is helping Estella break Pip’s heart.

Miss Havisham has now made Pip even more ” than ever dissatisfied” with his home.

Pip describes Biddy as pleasant and had pretty eyes. However, Pip believes she could not be like Estella because she was common. I also learn that Biddy had been educating herself to keep up with Pip. I think Biddy believes that Pip and her have a big potential as a couple because of their similarities such as their class and their age. They also show interest in each other as friends.

However, Pip’s snobbery means he will not care for Biddy as someone more than a friend.

Biddy is portrayed by Dickens, like Joe, as whole hearted, unselfish and a kind person. She is missing most of human natures unpleasantness.

Pip admitted to Biddy that he wanted to be a gentleman. Pip admitted he was in love with Estella and proceeded to say that he wanted to be a gentleman “on her behalf”

Biddy asked Pip something, which I feel is very significant. “Do you want to be a gentleman, to spite her or to gain her over?” She then adds “Because if it is to spite her…I should think…that it might be better…done by caring nothing for her words…and if it is to gain her over, I should think…she is not worth gaining over” This is significant because Pip, I feel, is acting snobbish and ignorant because of his meeting with Estella. He is putting himself first and because of his naivety, he does not even see that everyone is trying to help him, apart from Estella and Miss Havisham, who are both trying to lure him into a trap. He takes Biddy and Joe for granted.

Pip’s next significant change happened when Mr Wopsle was debating a verdict of murder, which appeared in the newspaper. A Stranger jumped into the debate and showed Wopsle up. The stranger was Jaggers. Jaggers wanted a private meeting with Joe and Pip at their home.

I think Jaggers is very snobbish. He glanced at Joe as if he was a “fool” for not accepting money from him. He looked “shrewdly” at Pip, swings his purse and plays with his money. This is a foresight into the sort of people Pip will be mixing with but he cannot see that in London people will be snobbish and inconsiderate to others. Pip is used to a friendly village atmosphere rather than a competitive and selfish atmosphere in London.

Jaggers came to tell Pip that he has “Great Expectations”. Pip is overcome with joy. However, Pip automatically assumes that Miss Havisham’s given him the chance to be a gentleman. Even though Jagger’s said that his “liberal benefactor” is a secret. However, because of his naivety, innocence and gulluble-ness, he believes and assumes Miss Havisham will make “his fortune”

Furthermore of a coincidence was Pip’s tutor. He was Matthew Pocket. He was Miss Havisham’s relation.

Joe is fed up with Jaggers “bull-baiting and badgering” him. Pip describes Joe as a “dear good man” and admits he had been unthankful towards him. This proves that Pip still has a conscience.

That night, when Pip settles down he begins to have selfish thought. He has come across a fortune and yet he felt lonely. He was to leave Joe and Biddy, people who cared about him and all he could think about was himself. The “old Pip” would have felt happy, satisfied and excited about the fact that in 6 days he would start his tuition, his new life. This proves that Pip has changed. The next morning too, he says he watched people go to church and called them “poor creatures”. He says he wants to help them one day.

The trouble is, those “poor creatures” are satisfied with their lives. Like Joe and Biddy, they don’t care about money or where a person is in society; they care about their friends and family. Pip is changed into a person who is the exact opposite. He meets Biddy that morning. He tells her he wants Joe to be removed into a “higher sphere” and improve his manners so he will suit his society. Biddy reacts angrily to this. She emphasised the things Pip said which infuriated her; such as “Oh! They do very well here” and “Oh his manners! Won’t his manners do then?” I think Biddy (like me) starts to realise that Pip is changing for the worse. He is also stupid because he says things, means well when he says them, but they are obviously insulting. It makes him look a fool.

He visits Mr. Trabb, the tailor of the town. At first, Mr Trabb was not interested in Pip. However when Pip told Trabb he had “come into handsome property”, a change passed over Trabb. He exclaimed “Lord bless my soul!” he was very nice to Pip and fussy. Even Pip noticed this as he thought, “no suit of clothes could remunate him for his pains”

Mr Trabb’s change was similar Pumblechook. You may recall Pumblechook pestering Pip when he had first come from visiting Miss Havisham. Pip’s face had pushed against the wall by Pumblechook. In addition, during Christmas dinner, Pumblechook had talked at him scornfully.

When Pip told Pumblechook his ” Great Expectations” he said “My dear friend… I give you, joy of your good fortune…well deserved, well deserved!” Pumblechook are only being nice to Pip because he has money and they selfishly want some for himself, exploiting Pip. This is similar to what the Pockets were trying to do to Miss Havisham.

This is Dickens’ emphasis on Victorian society. He is trying to make the reader think about whether money is everything, or whether position in society means you’re a better person or even whether adults are wiser and better than children. Pip was innocent and a good honest person when he was young, and now that he is an adult, he has turn snobbish and pompous.

Pip decides to pay a visit to Miss Havisham, to thank her, for what Pip believes, giving him the opportunity to become a gentleman. Miss Havisham cruelly plays along with what Pip says. I say “cruelly” because asks Pip questions to understand what he naively believes to be the truth, then picks up on the answers. Pip, being innocently unaware and naive, does not notice Miss Havisham’s twisted evil. This leads Pip to believe that Estella likes him and ultimately leads him to become a gentleman to impress her. He has become blind in his pursuits of her and has forgotten about everyone who actually cares about him.

When Pip’s final day with Joe, Biddy and Mrs Joe, comes, he said to Joe he wanted to walk to the coach on his own. He said afterwards because there was a sense of contrast between them. I believe he just did not want to be seen with Joe because of the class difference. Pip carries on behaving this way, even when Joe and Biddy were happily throwing shoes (an old tradition for farewell or good luck) to congratulate him, he was embarrassed. He also thought he saw Joe running after him in the town centre and he felt his “heart beat high”.

Lord of the Flies is similar and dissimilar to Great Expectations. Lord of the Flies was written in the third person, whereas Great Expectations is written in the first person. William Golding, the author of Lord of the Flies probably thought that his story would work better in the third person. I think when the story involves more than one main character you need to use the third person. In Great Expectations, I think it needed to be in the first person because that makes you feel closer to the only main character, Pip.

Lord of the Flies is based in the nineteen fifty’s whilst Great Expectations is based in the Victorian Age. However, both have similar and dissimilar openings.

For example, the sky above the marshes of Great Expectations are described as “long angry red lines and dense black lines intermixed”, extremely dismal and dull, to create sympathy. Whereas in Lord Of The Flies, we have the island described as “white surf flinked the coral reef, and beyond that the open sea was dark blue…blue of all shades and shadowy green and purple” This is almost a paradise and completely safe whereas the marshes are not portrayed as safe.

In addition, in the openings, we are confronted with two characters. In Great Expectations, it’s Pip and Magwich we are introduced to. In Lord Of The Flies, its Ralph and Piggy. Both of the leading characters do not like the other characters. Pip doesn’t like Magwich because he’s threatened to kill him and Ralph doesn’t like Piggy because he’s fat and sweaty. The island is safe, unlike the marshes of the first section of Great Expectations. ” The shore was fledged with palm trees” and the water “was clear to the bottom and bright with effervescence of tropical weed and coral”. Golding to creating a safe environment for the boys to imply that the island is safe and there is no danger in the boys being on the island. Whereas Pip is in immediate danger because of Magwich.

Ralph is described as good looking and athletic but Pip has none of his features described, perhaps a contrast in styles from the authors.

Lord of the Flies is about boys who went to a boarding school and were evacuated because of world war three. The plane they are evacuated in crashes on a desert island.

First, we meet Ralph and Piggy. Ralph is athletic, whilst Piggy is fat, sweaty, asthmatic. Piggy is already an outcast, even at such an early part of the story because of the way he looks. What’s more, he spreads in non-standard English and is an orphan, just like Pip.

Ralph finds a bathing pool and strips down naked to bathe. He “kicked his shoes off” “ripped off each stocking” “jumped down the beach”. However, Piggy “lowered himself” “carefully”. Again, Golding is emphasising Piggy’s sluggishness and the disadvantages he faces against being friends with Ralph.

The two find a conch in the water and Piggy knows that if they were to blow it they would find the rest of the boys who crashed in the plane. Nevertheless, Ralph thinks it’s a toy. This is a sign of Ralph’s immaturity. He blows the conch and kids, young and old (aged between 5-13) appears.

The most distinctive are the choirboys. They arrive under much discipline by Jack. The choir is described effectively by Golding when they march towards everyone. ” Something dark was fumbling along”, describes Golding ” the creature stepped from the mirage on to the clear sand…the creature was a party of boys”. Along with that vivid description, he is forever attaching the word “dark” to Jacks name. Darkness is a symbol of evil. Jack has very good control of the choir. This is because the choir all still have there full school uniform on, which is black, whilst in the blistering tropical heat. In addition, everyone of the choir has a cap on with a silver badge, apart from Jack who has a gold badge, signalling his superiority. He also thinks he is above everyone else by insisting he be called his surname, Merridew instead of Jack.

The boys all decide that they should vote on a leader. I believe that Jack has the best leadership qualities, having controlled the choir so well. However, Piggy has shown the most common sense so far. Although Ralph has many qualities in that, he believes in fair play. I think the best way would be them all should co-operate with each other. However, Ralph out votes Jack and Piggy doesn’t get any votes.

Simon, Ralph and Jack go exploring the island. When they are half way exploring the island, they come across a rock, which Jack and Ralph pushed over the edge of a cliff. Golding describes the impact like an “enraged monster”. They find this funny and Ralph stands on his head. This was a very irresponsible thing to do. Someone could have been down there and they may have been injured. This seems to be the beginning of a life of violence and irresponsibility for Jack on the island.

On their way, back they come across a piglet. Jack was going to kill it with his knife, but he didn’t. He hesitated and the piglet escaped. He vowed it would never happen again and slammed the knife violently into a tree trunk. This violence could have a bad affect on the island. This shows that Jack has regressed from being a leader to this selfishness of hunting a pig. Jack has never been in a position to hunt a pig because his modern society has shouldered him away from all the bad things in the world, like blood and war. He sees the pig hunting as a game at this stage and tries it for individuality and excitement. There is nobody to tell him that what he has done is wrong. Ralph, as the new leader should point this out, to pull Jack together.

This is similar to the ending of the first section of Great Expectations because it explains Pip leaving London, a circumstance that could change the way he looks at people and their lives. This is true too of the ending here. We see how Jack first becomes obsessed with pigs, blood, hunting and killing and how this will eventually change the lives of the boys on the island.

Pip soon arrives in London. It is very different to the village he has left behind. Obviously, London is much larger. Dickens paints a bleak picture of London. He mentioned the coachman trying to persuade Pip to give him more money for the journey. He describes Smithfield as a “shameful place” with “filth” “blood” and “foam”. He describes the first instance of the corrupt law, by describing the “Lord Chief Justice” being drunk. Dickens portrays Jaggers as corrupt. He is expensive to hire and intimidates the judge and jury to make them return a verdict in his favour. Pip admits he thinks London is “horrible” and was giving him a “sickening idea of London”. I cannot understand why Pip doesn’t go home to the village. His only motivation is Estella. These facts of London would be enough to harden anyone’s views of life and how to handle it and Wemmick, Pip’s workmate, shows this. He has a featureless face and when he leaves London his face changes. He has almost masked the harshness of London life by keeping an automatic neutral face.

Pip meets Bentley Drummle. It is obvious Pip does not like Drummle. He describes him as “idle, proud, niggardly reserved and suspicious” Drummle is only getting a good education because he is rich. Dickens is representing the lack of meritocracy in his time. This is giving Pip the idea that the only way to get on in the world and be happy is to get rich. This is far from the truth but this has already changed his view of society, in only a short time of being in London. Pip could either turn out to be like Drummle or Wemmick.

Biddy writes to Pip about seeing Joe. Pip’s reaction emphasises his changes since the day that he wanted to become a gentleman. He read the letter not with joy but “some mortification”. He even considered keeping Joe away with money. He loved Joe at he start of this book and now he’s trying to push him away. He cannot see that he has changed from being happy with his lot to just wanting Estella, all because Miss Havisham tricked him into thinking Estella wants Pip too. When Joe does come, while Pip is embarrassed Herbert is not bothered. Pip decides to go and see Joe, just to clear his conscience about pushing him aside.

Pip decides to visit Miss Havisham instead of visiting Joe. He thinks that Miss Havisham is setting him up with Estella and when she turn up older, “much more beautiful”, Pip cannot think of anything else. However, Estella still treats him as if he is a boy.

Miss Havisham asked Pip whether Estella is “beautiful, graceful, well-grown?” Then she tells Pip “Love her, Love her, Love her. Even Pip said it sounded like a curse. Again, Pips naivety leaves him to ignore this. This shows that the naive old Pip is still there despite his change of fortunes and behaviour.

On his way home, to ease his guilty conscience he sends Joe some oysters. He doesn’t think about what Joe could possibly want oysters for, he just sends them because he’s guilty.

Money has simply got to Pip’s head. He runs into debt. The only time Pip received any amount of money at the village was when “the stranger” gave him to two pound notes. Straight away, it was taken from him and Mrs Joe kept it for his food and up bringing. Now he has his servant “the avenger” who Pip admitted himself, does nothing all day and is simply there for show. Not only that but he is constantly redecorating his home, for no real reason other than to show off to his “Finches”. All they do is spend lots of money at their “Finch Club” and get everybody drunk. This is yet another example of the bad effect the society of London is having on Pip.

Mrs Joe dies. Biddy and Joe are upset, naturally. Pip asks how Biddy is going to live and said “if want any mo…” implying “money”. Biddy is not happy with Pip’s snobbish attitude.

When he arrives back in London, it’s his twenty-first birthday. Jaggers gives him five hundred pounds, which is around fifty thousand now. What’s more, he will receive sixty thousand pounds worth a year. Pip decides to invest some money into Herbert’s company so he can achieve his ambition. Perhaps this is the only sign of dignity left in Pip, as this is the only decent thing he has done with his money so far. He spent most of his previous money on needless servants and redecorating his home.

I feel that Estella does has a conscience after, when Pip and her were talking she said: “Pip, Pip,” she says “will you never take warning”

“Warning of what Estella?”

“Of me”

“Warning not to be attracted to you, do you mean Estella?”

“Do I mean! If you don’t know what I mean then you are blind”

Estella is trying to spell it out to Pip that his heart will only be broken. His naivety makes him ignore her warning.

When Pip’s in London, he hears that Drummle is to be married to Estella. All he has to offer Estella is money, which is all she is attracted to but Pip cannot see that.

I think Estella is changing towards Pip. She refuses to “deceive and entrap” Pip. When Pip asks Estella whether she will “deceive and entrap” Wopsle, she says ” yes, and many others- all but you” Is she saying she won’t waste her time or is she saying she is too fond of Pip?

Just like in Great Expectations, we have considerable character change in Lord of the Flies. Jack is the character who changes the most.

Ralph says anyone who has the conch has a right to be heard and everyone should respect him and not interrupt. Straight away, however, Jack disrespects Ralph and interrupts him. This is significant because Jack now disrespects the leader. Jack thinks he should be the leader and therefore tries to be as difficult as possible to make people listen to him rather than Ralph.

Ralph’s naivety, like Pip’s in Great Expectations, leads him to think his dad will find him. His dad is a naval officer, so he is likely to be fighting in the war and is extremely unlikely to find them on the very small island.

A little boy – “the mulberry boy”- talks about a “beastie”. It’s his imagination but Ralph struggles to get everyone to realise this.

Finally getting co-operation, he lays down plans to start a fire to be rescued. “Fire! Make a fire!” someone, shouted and Jack shouted, “Follow me!” Jack has already undermined Ralph’s authority here. Ralph should put his foot down, punish Jack. However, he lets him get away with it.

Jack is made a hunter along with his choir and is giving him the responsibility to look after the fire. I think this is too much responsibility for Jack. He has already shown too much violence. This is because there is nobody to say “No” to Jack. Nobody could stop him because nobody he respects reminds him what’s wrong.

The fire raged out of control and could have burned the island, which in turn kills the “Mulberry boy”.

Jack is becoming obsessed with pigs, as Pip is obsessed with Estella. Golding describes Jack’s hair “Considerably longer than it had been” representing Jack’s considerable change on the island. Jack is behaving like an animal, “dog-like” and breathed gently through flared nostrils”. Jack seems to be losing human nature because he is now “ape-like” among the tangle of trees.

Simon is the only nice person on the island, who sees it as harmless. He is like Biddy and Joe in Great Expectations, the only nice people in Dickens’ society. Simon is like a disciple with his dark hair and “darkish” skin colour.

Pip’s society is similar to the society created by Ralph on the island. Society is based on age in both instances, as the younger boys do not have a say or taken seriously.

Golding portrays Roger as evil, just as Orlick is on Great Expectations. He throws stones around a “littleun”. He is testing the system. He has not been told by adults that what he is doing is wrong and is experimenting just how far he could go. Jack noticed a “darker shadow ” about Roger and Golding described he had a “gloomy face”

Jack for the first time, is described as somebody else. “The Mask”. This emphasises Jack’s considerable change again. A mask was mentioned in Great Expectations, except this was used to show how Wemmick shielded his face from London’s Society. This time Jack is “the mask” because the old choirboy Jack has gone and been replaced by a featureless face of evil.

Jack caught a pig for the first time. Meanwhile, he let the fire go out. Ralph was furious with Jack. Realising what he had done, Jack took his humiliation out on Piggy, punching him in the stomach and face. This shows how Jack resorted to violence again. Although at he start of the book he was mean for making his choir keep their blazers on in the blistering heat, he never used violence, showing how his ruthlessness has changed to disrespectfulness.

Piggy believes the only thing to be frightened of on the island is people. Simon says, “Maybe it’s only us”. I think these two are right. However, everyone laughs at them. The boys start arguing. Ralph is losing control as Ralph tells Jack about the rules, he replies “Who cares?” This breakdown is similar to Pip’s breakdown of being a nice boy to a snobbish young man. Golding writes, “Darkness chilled them” symbolism of the darkness that could destroy them all.

Meanwhile, Ralph dreamed of home, returning to the security. Ralph wants to go home, Pip should go home so they can both save themselves from a bleak future that could destroy them. However, Pip has the chance to go home, whereas Ralph is stuck on the island.

In the final part of Great Expectations, Pip refers to Magwich as the “dreaded visitor” Pip does not like Magwich. As the audience, I can see why he is upset at Magwich’s arrival. Now, Pip cannot use his money because he knows it has now not come from the wealth of a lady, Miss Havisham but the dirty hand of a thief. If the society in London found out where this money came from, Pip would be dragged down. Not only this but Estella will not want to know him. Since the age of around 15, all Pip wanted to be was a gentleman so he could be with Estella. Now all his plans for himself could be wrecked.

Magwich tells Pip of how Compeyson, a rich man, tricked him into swindling and fraud. Magwich helped out and Compeyson was the ringleader. Magwich was blamed for the things that Compeyson did. Compeyson’s appearance was deceptive and fooled the judge and jury. “Good character in bad company” said the judge. Compeyson got seven years whilst Magwich got fourteen. Dickens’ is portraying a corrupt law influenced by appearance. This is just like Jack’s appearance in Lord of the Flies. He is innocent faced and a lead choirboy at school, with his “cap badge…golden” as if he was better than everyone else, just like Compeyson. Both of them turn out to be evil. This is also similar to the society of the island. One of the reasons why Piggy wasn’t chosen as leader was because he was fat and had an unusual accent.

Pip confronts Miss Havisham. Pip loses his sanity for a moment, shouting how much he loves Estella. He then leaves in despair. His obsession started with Estella since he was young and now the love of his life is to marry a man who does not deserve her in the least. Drummle is a pompous snob and Pip hates him. This is the first sign of Pip’s mental deterioration.

Pip confronts Miss Havisham once more. However, this time she has changed. She is polite and says, “Thank you, thank you” to Pip. She wants to do something “useful and good”.

Pip tells Miss Havisham she can fund Herbert’s business. He does not want anything for himself. So there must be some decency left in Pip. Pip tells Miss Havisham how many lives she has wasted and destroyed. In realisation, she breaks down and says, “What have I done! What have I done!” Pip leaves her and goes for a walk around Satis House. When he comes back, he finds it on fire.

Pip’s physical deterioration after the fire is as bad as his financial and mental deterioration. His deterioration worsens when Orlick, upset about losing his job and branded as a murderer because of Pip, attacks Pip and leaves him for dead. Pip thinks about all the people he has let down. Joe, Biddy, Estella, Magwich and Herbert. This shows that Pip has finally realised who has helped him the most in his life and forgotten about Estella.

Despite Pip’s ordeal, he still wants to get Magwich to safety. Pip has changed. He no longer seems to hate Magwich but cares for his safety. It could be because he is Estella’s father, or that he could be coming around and realised that he should appreciate how much he has done for him.

I notice Pip cannot row any more. Before Herbert told Pip, he had “arms like a blacksmith. This is evidence of Pip’s deterioration.

Compeyson tries to sabotage the journey. Compeyson and Magwich fight and the boat sinks. The Thames is very dirty. Pip is already in a bad physical state and he could be swallowing London’s sewers. His arm will also be infected. Magwich is caught whist Compeyson later washes up on the shores of the Thames.

Magwich lay injured badly. Pip realises “I only saw a man who had meant to be my benefactor, and who had felt affectionately, gracefully, and generously, towards me…I only saw him a much better man than I had been to Joe” Pip has changed to loving Magwich and wants to stay with him.

Magwich lay in prison ill. Jaggers appealed against the death sentence because he would probably die anyway but it was refused. Again, the system failed humanity. Pip stays with him during the trial. When he is about to die Pip tells Magwich he loves Estella, his daughter.

Magwich nearly wrecked Pip. If it was not for his arrival, he could possibly have had a chance of getting Estella in better circumstances. If it weren’t for Magwich, Pip wouldn’t have gone to Miss Havisham’s in anger and consequently are burnt. Orlick probably would not have found him and tortured him. Finally, he would certainly not have been rowing a boat across the Thames, consequently falling in, getting ill and nearly dying; financially, physically and mentally.

Pip goes into debt. He also falls very ill and cannot move. Debt Collectors come and take him away.

However, Joe saves him. Pip tells Joe to look angry with him but Joe forgave and forgot. Joe is the only true gentleman.

Joe can now write and bailed Pip out by paying for medical costs and debt with his own saved money. Joe still thinks he is embarrassing.

Pip returns to the village when he is well enough. He finds Biddy, who forgave him as they “embraced”. Biddy married Joe.

Pip is genuinely happy for them. Although I think Pip should never had let Biddy get away from him and married her instead of chasing Estella.

Dickens seems to have created the perfect ending. Joe and Biddy are happy. Matthew Pocket is deservedly rich after Miss Havisham left him four thousand pounds. Sarah, Georgiana and Camilla are unhappy and rejected. Pip is a better person Herbert is doing well in his business, Orlick is locked away in jail, and Compeyson is dead. However, Estella seems to have disappeared.

Until Pip visits Satis House and there she is. Sitting on her own on a cold, misty day amongst the ruins. Dickens has created the sadness and sympathy atmosphere just as he did at the start. Estella’s “beauty…gone” They talk and walk back hand in hand.

The final chapter of Lord of the Flies shows the changes that almost lead to the destruction of main character, just as Pip nearly died at the end of Great Expectations.

The boys play “hunting” and Robert is the unsuspecting Pig. They nearly were too carried away and could have killed Robert. It could be a sign of things to come.

Jack calls a meeting. Jack thinks he can do what he wants now and can get away with it. Jack calls Ralph a “coward” and questions whether Ralph should be chief. This is a contrast to when “they were lifted up: were friends”

The tribe successfully hunts a sow. As they kill it, it is as if they are raping it. As if Golding is implying that the boys are raping nature on the island. Jack wiped the blood on Maurice’s face, like a christening. The boys started off as childish, with no real adult ambitions and nobody had ever killed anything before. They were satisfied with killing and getting food. Now they are almost killing for greater thrills, dissatisfied with killing for food. This has taken their savagery onto a new level. At first, there was the pig for meat, just an obsession by Jack, now it’s the second Pig, killed barbarically. Who or what could be next? A human?

Simon saw the “rape”. He saw the pig head on “a stick sharpened at both ends” He saw “that ancient, inescapable recognition”. He realises that “the Lord of the Flies” is not just a bloody pig’s head but the blood lust found in the darkness of men’s hearts. Golding has wrote this to describe what he felt through world war two and intended to show that even young schoolboys have an evil streak.

Piggy is fat because his auntie literally fed him sweets. Magwich is a criminal because at an early age he was left to fend for himself on the streets. They are both orphans. They both speak poor English. They are both not respected in their society. Pip learns to love Magwich, perhaps Ralph will now.

In Jack, we see a great change. Golding describes “Demoniac figures with faces of white and red and green rushed out howling” and Jack was described as “a taboo was evolving around that word” as if he was almost a legend and needed to forgotten.

Piggy is the only boy who really believes in fairness and sees the conch as authority now. This is another contrast with the start of the book where all the boys were excited about rules.

Golding also uses symbolism as “the build-up of the clouds continued” and” a steady current of heated air rise” Like there is an atmosphere created as if something will happen. Simon goes to the mountain and finds the parachutist. He now knows the truth.

Ralph and Piggy join a “party” by Jack. He is dressed “like an idol” almost like a God. Jack demands everything now and nobody in his tribe debates what he says; “All sit down!” “Take some meat” “Give me a drink”. This is an example of how Jack was at the start of the book, where his words are “Where’s the man with the trumpet thing?” “Isn’t there a ship then” and “Choir! Stand still!”

Ralph is forced to retreat to his fire on the beach instead of at the highest point. Jack feels more powerful because he is supplying Ralph and everybody else with meat. This is a complete contrast to the start of the book when Ralph was chief and Jack was under Ralph’s control.

Ralph and Jack argue again. Ralph insisted he be chosen as Chief. Jack is deceptive like Compeyson. He at first looked well dressed and was leader of the choir but he turned evil.

Simon stumbles out of the jungle. They savagely kill “the beast” or Simon. “There were no words but the tearing of teeth and claws” The boys have now recessed to animals.

Ralph’s inability to grasp control of Jack during their “party” leads to something terrible. Simon is killed. This is partly due to a wild frenzy, the atmosphere and the chant that may have led them to be carried away but Ralph should never have pretended it never happened. This just let Jack and Roger think they could get away with murder, due to the lack of society’s restraints.

The conch is now “transparent and white” meaning authority is disappearing. Ralph says, “I’m frightened. Of us” Jack is no longer “Jack”. He’s “The Chief”. The boys on Jack’s side are no longer “boys”. They are “savages”. Again, compare this to “the choir” and “the boy” at the start of the book, this shows exactly to what degree the boys have changed. Jack even wants a fight and shows his lack of respect for Ralph, a complete contrast to “the shy liking” in the opening chapter. The loneliness of the island has got to them because they have no one to tell them they are wrong, no parent figure to wizen them up.

Roger kills piggy. He “leaned all his weight on the lever”, so he no longer fears getting into trouble or what is wrong. They treat everything the same, which has blood now. Hunt it. Kill it.

Ralph threw a spear “full intention” at Ralph. Roger “sharpened a stick at both ends”, ready for his head. This shows how they are no longer testing the system, just hunting pigs for food. They are intentionally trying to kill each other. Not only this but barbarically.

Jack tries to use the fire against Ralph and sets the entire island on fire. Ralph runs to the beach for his life, the savages giving chase. On the beach, there was a naval officer.

Again and again “the savage” is described as “moving forward” “uttering a cry” “stopping fifteen yards” “peering into obscurity”. Then when the officer is mentioned, the “savages” return to “little boys”. In addition, when he asked who was in charge Ralph said he was but “a little boy who wore the remains of an extraordinary black cap on his red hair … started forward…then changed his mind” just like at the start when he was going to object to Ralph being chief. “Percival Wemys Madison sought in his head for an incantation that had faded clean away” as he tried to remember his name. Unlike at the start of the book when he says his name and where he lives, as if his parents had taught him to remember where he lives to tell someone when he’s lost.

The savages tried to kill Ralph by barbarically taking Ralph’s head off. Somebody telling Jack who is in charge, what is right and wrong and when he should stop, could have stopped all this.

Golding put a lot of irony to the end. Jack tried to use fire against Ralph, as he has used it as there only hope, and it was Jack that used it successfully, which stopped him killing Ralph. Ralph’s dad was a naval officer. He rescued them.

Pip was scared by the fire at Satis House, but was also cleansed because he from that moment realised who his true friends were. This cleansing is similar to that what fire does; it cleanses or cleans instruments to make them sterile. This is similar to Ralph, who says his one “true friend” was Piggy. Again, for both of them it is too late, as Simon and Piggy were killed and Biddy married Joe, when both boys had a chance to stop both these things happening.

I believe nobody would be cleansed from the fire on the Island. It may make Ralph and Jack better adults but Roger is different. He will be scarred and troubled for the rest of his life.

The two novels are similar in story lines. How a change from one society to another can change a person. Ambition can turn you blind, as Pip went for Estella’s hand and Jack went for a living thing’s blood. Jack has moulded a tribe to destroy Ralph, as Miss Havisham moulded Estella to destroy mankind.

In the 1800s, during Dickens’ time, there was an industrial “boom” and Britain from the outside looked glamourous and well off. They had created nice houses, town halls and courts but used this as almost a distraction from the poor people in unhealthy homes. This contrast can be seen in Miss Havisham’s “Satis House” and where Pip lives. Despite the fact that Joe works all day, he is worse off than Miss Havisham is, even though she does nothing to earn her money. Despite this, “Enough” house was always almost haunting and cold.

Dickens also objected to capital punishment and that the rich people were given lenient sentences or almost completely let off compared to the poor who were sentenced to death. His objections are clearly pointed out in different parts of the book such as Jaggers feeding off the misfortune of others, the drunken official and Wemmick taking belongings off prisoners.

Dickens wanted to get his message across that money wasn’t everything and you could be happy without it. Miss Havisham was well off but sad. Joe was poor but happy with Biddy.

Dickens must also have felt sorry for the way Children were treated. He creates sympathy for Pip during Pumblechook’s maths test and the inquisition to find out about Miss Havisham. He also called the school Pip attended a shambles.

The horrific Second World War and how brutal mankind can be have influenced Golding. He felt that no matter how much man tried, there would always be darkness in their hearts. This darkness is their human nature. Golding has used the story to show the audience that there is evil amongst all men.

For the first part of the book, its almost a world of children’s games, with Roger throwing stones around the boy and them playing hunting, nearly killing Robert. The “beastie” is almost the lack of security given by their parents, something in their imagination. When the dead parachutist arrives, their imaginations run wild and their insecurity grows. Simon, in fact one of his only moments talking says “Maybe it’s only us” His death shows Golding describe almost harmlessness and beauty of the island, therefore proving that the beastie does not exist. It’s the evil in them and their nature to destroy. The final part could be meant to symbolically represent the world war. Jack the dictator, Roger the executor/ torturor and Ralph the diplomat.

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