1. What are the two ways that major religions of the world have diffused across cultural barriers and language boundaries? The two ways major religions of the world have diffused is through migration and conversion. 2. List the ways religion marks the cultural landscape.
Religion marks the cultural landscape by churches and mosques, cemeteries, shrines, statues, symbols, the way people dress and the personal habits of people. 3. Define “religion”. Religion is a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities. 4. How is religion demonstrated (manifested) on a daily basis? Religion is demonstrated on a daily basis by how the religion influences behaviors during the waking hours through ritual and practice and even during periods of sleep. 5. What are the most common ways people express their religious beliefs? Religion is demonstrated on a daily basis through rituals and prayers. 6. What is “secularism”?
Secularism- The idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on earth, not to accommodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable after life. 7. List the things that are influenced by religion, even in places where religion has become less significant. Things that are influenced by religion even in places where religion had become less significant are art, history, customs and beliefs. 8. Name the advantages and disadvantages religion brings to societies. The advantages of religion is, it has been a major force in combating social ills, sustaining the poor, promoting the arts, educating the deprived, and advancing medical knowledge. The disadvantages of religion are it has blocked scientific study, encouraged the oppression of dissidents, supported colonialism and exploitation, and condemned women to an inferior status in many societies. 9. List and define the three categories of religion.
Monotheistic religions worship a single deity, a G-D or Allah. Polytheistic religions worship more then one deity even thousands. Animistic religions are centered on the belief that inanimate objects, such as mountains, possess spirits and should therefore be revered. 10. What type of religion was first practiced throughout the world? What was the first monotheistic religion? When did it begin to be practiced? Animistic and polytheistic religions were the first practiced throughout the world. The first monotheistic religion was Zoroastrianism and it began 3500 years ago. 11. List the four major hearths of religion and philosophy that appeared around 500 BCE. The hearth of Greek philosophy is along the northern shores of the Mediterranean sea. From a hearth in South Asia, along the Indus river Valley, came Hinduism. From a hearth on the eastern Mediterranean came Judaism and from a hearth on the Huang He river Valley in China came Chinese philosophies. 12. What is meant by “universalizing religions”?
Universalizing religions actively seek converts because they view themselves as offering belief systems of universal appropriateness and appeal. 13. What is an “ethnic religion”?
An ethnic religion is a religion where adherents are born into the faith and converts are not actively sought.