Personnel/human resource management refer to process of getting things performed through people and is essential component of responsibilities of all managers and its incorporations have established human resource specialists who would be providing expert services that would ensure functions of human resources are effectively performed. People in organizations are most valuable assets though most managers leaving their workforce remain under trained; undervalued, under utilized, motivated poorly hence poor performers below their capability (Cascio, 1996). Organizations undergo rapid changes in all spheres and therefore these organizations should absorb and manage change faster and to implement business strategies that are successful to handle challenges, incorporations of all sizes should make sure they have right individuals with capabilities to deliver the strategic plans. At present, the market place for skilled, talented, workforce has become very expensive and competitive, and also employing new employees can be very disruptive to business activities/existing employees and also it is time consuming to create cultural awareness among new hires, and also process/products/experience and organizational knowledge is resource consuming (David, 1999).
The human resource management is widely varied in relation to organizational aims, size, complexity, functions, product physical nature, constructions and employers’ appeal, so the principal aim of HRM is to ensure that the business is rightly staffed by the correct number of employees who possess relevant skills/competencies to realize company objectives, that is avoid understaffing or overstaffing in respect to grade of work/discipline or in total (David, 2006).
Human Resource Management strategies and functions
The management should develop motivated and well thought strategy of human resource management which should be detailed and precise since failure to achieve this would result in business process failure, hence managers should hold diagnostic discussions, organizational environment stimulation in order to develop strategies that are sound. Recruitment/hiring refer to process of attracting/reaching the labor market that would be able to accomplish the organizational objectives and goals and include all the processes and activities targeted at obtaining/attracting human capital to be utilized by the organization, hence it is the organizational staffing process initial step, that make sure that the company has the right quality and number of human capital/workforce, and in their correct positions (Fisher, 1990).
The employee hiring process normally commence with vacancy identification and need to be filled, then manager should find the relevant sources of labor/workforce to take up the positions and normally include the internal and the external workforce supply and then hirer applicants through advertising, pouching, referrals, or through searching and scouting (Robert, 1996). The employee selection process on other hand is the determination of the suitable job applicants to the organizational needs from among those who applied for the job and it involve processes of screening in/out of the job applicants/candidates. The criteria utilize in employee screening should be fair and equitable to candidates and is normally impacted by various factors ranging from legislations to technology including the economic conditions. This selection process is normally predictive in nature meaning that the hirer/manager is able to assess candidates’ performance in time to come should they be granted the opportunity, though this process may occasionally be biased as it depends on personal judgments.
There exist vital stages in the process of selection and hiring workforce and typical companies need to incorporate this to be able to acquire competent staff and include the vacancy recognition which normally occur due to the natural activities/death, transfers, promotions, retirement, enlargement of jobs, employee redundancies, etc, and the next stage is the recognition that the company may use alternative workforce sources to reduce associated costs and may outsource production services, or use part time workers and may also contract the job or use overtime workers instead of directly hiring new employees who are hard to maintain. The company management should then determine the employee sources with internal employee sources including the reshuffling, promotions and transfers which have motivational impacts on employees and are cheap, though it may result in inbreeding where the competencies, skills and attitudes remain without additions which result in bad habits. The external labor sources include the actions of advertising to reach out to labor market including use of public services/agencies/educational establishments/referrals/recommendations and the rest.
The management should consider their main goals before developing a process and may attain decreased training time, performance improvement, decreased absenteeism and employee turnover, supervision enhancement etc hence these varied goal would make management to establish suitable employee selection process. Then the manager should analyze the profile of success that outlines the characteristics/features of employees that would be connected to business goal including individuals skills/competencies, personality, physical dexterity/ability, mental prowess/ability etc should be analyzed like for health institutions may consider critically employees’ attitudes and personality. The manager should then assess the tools and methods and should not complicate them like using the testing and application phases to screen out candidates who are not suitable and then use interviews to obtain the best candidate for the job, and should seek professional advise on methods applicable and should also ensure that the tests conducted closely march with responsibilities of the intended duties and activities being hired for.
The manager should be prepared when handling employee selection procedures and should support employees disproportionately screened out by use of job-related validation tests/documentations and may include females/minorities in desperate situations. The human resource manager should then consider the administration of the process by recognizing the individual to conduct the tests and how it should be carried out by bringing together the interested parties and users including departments representations from operations, training, legal etc and allow them to review the system of employee selection, and then the manager should make sure he/she hires best candidate. It has been discovered through research by the Harvard University, and reports that 80% of employee turnover is due to the employee selection mistakes and also mistakes during employee hiring process, hence organizations should utilize strategies including psychological testing in employment which is most cost-effective and valid in job candidates’ identification (Schmidt & Hunter, 1998). The traditional employee selection and hiring methods include the use of interviews, resumes, background checks, which would provide 14% potential of obtaining suitable decision, and would reduce the employee turnover costs which normally range from a half to four times the annual benefits and salary of the employee. The hiring manager should be careful since people have many means of convincing that they are the right candidates and only to realize that team member has caused emotional problem in the team, hence he/she should use right know-how and tools to improve success hiring chances (Herbert, 1989).
During employee hiring process, it can range from quick scan of resume to interviews and full review of resume by a hiring committee/panel and days of interviews with departments in the incorporation, and the interview process would be lengthy and detailed depending on size of organization like interviewing the Marketing Vice President of A Fortune 500 company would take longer time duration than interviewing employees to take up lower positions (Joseph, 2003). The employee selection/hiring process normally commences with review of resume which can offer vital information about job applicant and hirer can easily obtain answers to questions as to do with employment gaps, adequate work history to ensure that employee would meet the performance goals, the appropriate certification/education of the applicant, the candidates accomplishments that validate abilities of employees are also portrayed by resumes, together with employees work responsibilities, hence all these would provide indications that the applicant is success potential.
The job interviews on the other hand would provide reliability in employee selection since several things would be determined in the course of employee interviews even if its unstructured, the candidate would be able to provide variety of information, hence the main objectives of interviewing employees is to determine interest of candidate in particular position, candidate’s attitude would also be ascertained, and his/her qualifications/skills/experience/accomplishments would be verified. The employee interviewing process is normally more detailed, however selection process of employees is important to organizations regardless of business type/form since having right people in right places/positions is vital for companies to excel, hence mangers should understand employee selection process and note that the information detailed on resume is useful for the applied job, and should prepare questions to ask applicants during interviews and pay attention to enthusiasm and attitude.
Since interview, each individual is different, the points below would provide guidelines on conducting interviews and include acting friendly at outset but also avoiding small talk since it costs money to conduct interviews, and manager should begin by self introduction and assure confidentiality of taken notes. The interviewer should ask questions that are concise while conversing including open ended questions and avoid direct questions answerable by no or yes (Michael, 1999). The interviewer should prepare thoroughly for the interview below day of appointment by developing list of questions to be asked and he/she should ask the candidates the same question to be able to make comparisons better. The manager should keep in mind objective of determining what candidate is saying about him/herself and be able to assess the candidate’s suitability and he should also allow candidate to make illustration of past behavior of his/her job suitability.
And interviewer should avoid questions on age, race, religion, sexual preferences, health issues, marital status, ethnic background etc. The manager should be able to analyze/determine goals/objectives of applicants by trying to draw candidate out and allow her/him to communicate/talk and manager should avoid snap judgments. For the manager to assess on applicant’s attitude he should ask questions to allow candidate to explain how he would compete with irritation, and how s/he will be able to balance personal and company interests. Candidate should detail his/her personal life priorities and the loyalty should be assessed together with his/her job pride. S/he should be able to demonstrate abilities as team player and cooperativeness (Marilyn 2008). The successful candidate should be able to portray positive motivation, be an initiator of new ideas, he should also be stable and plan a head of time while at same time be insightful and the applicant’s social skills are very paramount (Robert, 2006).
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