ICT Reviewer Essay Sample

ICT Reviewer Pages
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Difference Engine- It is called the first computer
Root kit Virus- A kind of virus that is undetectable and gains control of the system. Transistors- Second generations of computer were powered by them. Web camera- A component of the computer that is used to take pictures and video chat with other users. File Extensions- A suffix connected with a file that denotes the type [of file. Macro Virus- A type of virus that infects documents such as MS Word and Excel. Monitor-A.K.A. display screen that shows the graphical interface through resolutions. Laptop- It is a portable, usually battery-powered microcomputer small enough to rest on the user’s lap. Anti Virus- It is a protective software designed to defend your computer against Malware Hardware- A comprehensive term for all of the physical parts of the computer. Laser Printer- A type of printer that uses the same quality as copy Machines having very high quality text and graphics. Resolution- It indicates how densely packed pixels are.

Charles Babbage- He discovered the computer.

Acronyms
EDVAC- Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer
ENIAC- Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer
UNIVAC- UNIVersal Automatic Computer
COBOL- COmmon Business Oriented Language
IBM- International Business Machine
UPS- Uninterruptable Power Supply
AVR- Automatic Voltage Regulator
PDA- Personal Digital Assistant

Main Parts of the Computer
1. Monitor
2. Keyboard
3. Mouse
4. CPU- Central Processing Unit
5. Printer

Peripheral and Auxiliary Components of the Computer
1. Speakers or Audio Components
2. Web camera
3. External CD-Rom
4. USB and External Hard Drive
5. Router
6. AVR
7. UPS

Types of Viruses
1. Malware (Malicious Software) – includes computer viruses and malicious functions 2. Trojan Horse – Appears harmless but hides malicious functions. 3. Worms – A kind of virus that makes & facilitates the distribution of copies of itself. 4. Root Kit – Undetectable virus which attempts to allow someone to gain control of a computer system. They are normally disguised as OS files. 5. Polymorphic – not only replicates itself by creating files of itself but it changes its signature every time it replicates. 6. Macro Virus – Uses another application’s macro programming language to distribute itself. 7. Boot sector – attaches itself to the first part of the hard disk that is read by the computer upon bootup. 8. Memory Resident – resides in a computer volatile memory (RAM). 9. Time Bombs / Logic Bombs – Programmed to initiate at a specific date or when an event occurs.

Advantages of Computer
Entertainment- we can watch movies, listen to music, take pictures, play games and etc. E- Learning- Trivia, tutorials, and educational questions can be accessed from the internet. Communication- with the aid of the internet and its auxiliary can bridge the gap between two distant people / families Paper Works-Typing, encoding and printing.

Presentation- Can make Power point Presentaions and Educative and Attractive Presentations. Social Networking- Easy to make friends
E- Shopping- Via internet in which valuable items or second hand items can be sold online Storage- Huge storage device for important files and documents.

Disadvantages of Computer
* Addiction
* Exposure to Cyber Bullying –
* Vision Effect

Uses of Super Computer
* Space Exploration
* Earthquake studies
* Weather forecasting
* Nuclear Weapon Testing

Generations Of Computers
First Generation (1940 – 1956) Vacuum Tubes – Used for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. Often enormous taking up entire rooms, very expensive and use a great deal of electricity and generate heat. Second Generation (1956 – 1963) Transistors – Replaced vacuum tubes and was far superior to the vacuum tube. Allowing computers to become smaller, cheaper, more energy-efficient and more reliable. Third Generation (1964 – 1971) Integrated Circuits – Transistors were miniaturized and placed on silicon called semiconductors which increased speed efficiency. Fourth Generation (1971 – Present) Microprocessors – Thousands of integrated circuits were built onto a single silicon chip. Fifth Generation (Present – Beyond) Artificial Intelligence – Developing of devices.

Printers
* Daisy Wheel- Doesn’t make images
* Dot Matrix- Creates characters trough dots
* Ink Jet- Sprays ink at a sheet of paper
* Impact- touches the paper in order to print
* Non- Impact- Doesn’t touches the paper when printing
* LCD/ LED- uses Liquid Crystal Display and Light Emitting when printing * Thermal- works by pushing heated pins against heat sensitive printer

Monitors
* Monochrome- displays 2 colour
* Greyscale- black, white and grey in colour
* Coloured- any clours

Terms
* Dot- Pitch – amount of space between each pixel
* Convergence- Clarity

Keyboard (keys)
* Alphanumeric- letters and numbers only
* Function- F1- F12
* Control- up, down, left, right
* Punctuation- . , ? ! And etc.

Mouse
1. One click 4. USB mouse
2. Mouse ball 5. Pad less Mouse
3. Optical 6. Wireless mouse

Storage devices
1. Floppy Disk
2. External Memory

Internet
Internet is invented in 1975 by team experts but was later destroyed during the war. Microsoft Improved the Internet in 1998 Internet is only used in research data sharing. Internet- Short for interconnected network 1. Supports the public WWW and many special purpose client/ server software systems. 2. Web browser- locate, retrieve, and also display content on the WWW , including web pages, video, and other files. Also used to access internet. 3. Website- a group of WWW pages usually containing hyperlinks 4. Domain name- Used to identify one or more IP addresses 5. DNS- Domain Name System

Parts of Web addresses
1. Prefixes- is headed by Hyper Text Transfer Protocol and the WWW. * http:// = helps your web browser locate the web page or web site, and to display it for you to see. * WWW. -The page you’re looking for is somewhere in the WWW 2. Suffix- tells you where the webpage is registered and often tells you what kind of website it is. 3. Name of the site- Main name of the site at which it was registered.

Good Effects of the Internet
1. Best Info
2. Communication
3. Business Transaction
4. News and Information Acquisition
5. E- Learning

Bad Effects of the Internet
* Exposure to mature content
* Wastage of time
* Illegally download / Piracy
* Addiction
* Spreading of Computer Viruses
* Thinking Capacity Reduced
* Hacking
* Insomnia/ Health Problems
* Cyber Bullying

Important Events

* Email (Electronic Mail)- by Roy Tomlinson in 1972

* TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)- by Vinton Cerf and Robert Khan in 1973 with the help of Yogen Dalal and Carl Sunshine in December 1974 in RFC 675

* DNS (Domain Name Server)- introduced in 1984 by Paul Mockopetris and Jon
Postel

* HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)- by Tim Berners-Lee in 1990

* WWW ( World Wide Web)- by Tim Berners-Lee in August 6 , 1991

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