Impact of Globalization on Non Western Culture Essay Sample
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Impact of Globalization on Non Western Culture Essay Sample
Globalization is far reaching in this day and age. Globalization is the worldwide flow of goods, services, money, people, information, and culture. It leads to a greater interdependence and mutual awareness among the people of the world (Tischler, 2011, 2007, p. 430). One non-Western culture that has been impacted by globalization is China. An example of the impact of globalization on China is their economy. Since joining the World Trade Organization, China has transformed from a culture that relied on economic self-sufficiency and shunned the thought of globalization to an economy that is progressively more open to trade and foreign investment. The second non-Western culture that has been impacted by globalization is India. The impact of globalization on India has altered the way women are viewed, treated and bound by their society. With globalization impacting India, both men and women of all ages are able to see other cultures varying outlook on women in society, this has impacted India in the way women are looked upon in their society.
Circumstances Before and After Event
The Chinese culture before the transformation of globalization was one of the world’s most significant opponent of globalization. Before globalization, China relied on a self-sufficient economy and shunned the global economic order. China opposed the major global institutions such as the IMF and the World Bank. Under communist rule, China believed that global disorder was a good thing, and under it, actively promoted disorder throughout the world (Overholt, 2005). The Chinese culture after the transformation of globalization has embraced the idea of globalization by not looking at the global financial institutions with dejection. China is now a participating party to institutions like the IMF. China also entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in December 2001 after more than two decades of reforms aimed at gradually shifting the country toward a free market economy that is more open to foreign investment and trade (Wen, n.d.).
Indian culture before the transformation of globalization was a male dominated society with very little respect or regard for females. According to India’s constitution, women are legal citizens of the country and have equal rights with men (Indian Parliament), however due to lack of acceptance from the male dominated society; Indian women have suffered immensely prior to globalization (Tripod, n.d.). Indian culture after the transformation of globalization has had an innervation of mass media, most prominent being satellite television bringing images and dialogue from countless other cultures. This global influence has started to turn the tables in the marked sexist roles in Indian culture prior to globalization.
Analysis of Example
An analysis of example can be derived from the aforementioned discriminatory sexist roles in India that prior to globalization highly favored the male population verses the female population. The female population in India has previously been less than second class citizens. Indian women’s cultural roles have been previously defined by traditional customs that are centuries old and no longer apply in this day and age. Previous to globalization, Indian women were to take total domestic responsibility. They were not allowed formal education as the majority of teachers and pupils were male, and the chances of a female remaining chaste was slim in those settings, and related to tradition, females must be chaste for their husband. Women also worked in labor intensive jobs related to their lack of education. At meal time, men were to be served first and would consume the majority of the meal, leaving little for the women to eat which in turn would lead to most females being malnourished. Malnutrition in females was especially concerning for pregnant and nursing women, however women were not provided pre-natal health care as pregnancy was thought of a temporary condition, leading to increased maternal and fetal mortality (The Hunger Project, 1998).
Since globalization has been increasing in India, via satellite television, internet access, and international travel views and treatment of women in India have changed dramatically for some. For the women who have embraced Western culture, they feel less oppression, more independence, that they have a stronger voice, and there is more acceptance of their rights. They are more likely to pursue higher education and work in technical rather than manual positions outside the home. Higher education leads to better practices in health management, and birth control is being practiced as globalized women are exposed to wants other than a traditional family. Globalization has created certain needs based on consumerist attitude. This is a direct reflection of Western culture. Advertising everyday emphasizes new needs and creates a vicarious desire for consumer goods. The result is a need to increase household income to be able to afford these items. Therefore, the women need to work and contribute to the household income to afford a certain lifestyle (Tripod, n.d.)
Cause of Influence
The cause of influence is the very definition of globalization; it is the worldwide flow of goods, services, money, people, information, and culture (Tischler, 2011, 2007, p. 430). As globalization has slowly moved across borders and infiltrated cultures, people have become more and more curious of the unknown. Human curiosity also contributes to the cause of the influence of globalization; it is human nature to explore the mysterious and unknown. Another cause of influence of globalization is technology. As technology has evolved, so have the means and ways of globalization. Technology has increased the speed to which globalization is effecting the world. Today, one cannot enter a café or walk down the street without seeing someone talking, texting, or surfing the Internet on their cell phones, laptops, tablet or PCs, this is the modern cause of globalization.
Categorization of Influence
The influence of globalization can be categorized as both direct and indirect. Direct globalization influence in India would be business development of Western companies such as fast food chains and Western clothing stores. This is an intention and deliberate influence on the Indian society. Press and media fall into the category of indirect influence on Indian culture. It is indirect because there is third party involvement with the intent to expose the culture in the hope that they will persuade the culture to accept Western influence and utilizes those resources advertized or reported about. The influence of globalization can also be categorized as both intentional and unintentional. Unintentional influence is characterized by the Indian culture possessing access to satellite television, and intentionally influencing the globalization of the Indian culture by advertizing Western images and practices via the television. Globalization can be categorized as both a positive and a negative influence. In India, globalizations positive effect has been noted in better treatment, standing and education of the female population. By the same token, there have been negative influences caused by globalization, such as too much Westernization and blurring of traditional customs and beliefs. Native Society’s Response to Influence
India’s native societal response to the influence of globalization is a mix of optimistic and pessimistic perspective. The pessimists’ views are that globalization has undermined the sovereignty of the country in many ways, and feel that there is a spread of Western corporations that influence the culture with no accountability (Tripod, n.d.). The Indian optimists’ response to the influence of globalization are excited by the liberalization of societal constraints, that they are more aware of world events and can contribute to world issues, and enjoy the fusion of Indian and Western cultures that is unique and characteristic of globalization (Bhattacharya, 2011).
Bhattacharya, S. (2011). Globalization in a shrunken world. [Google books]. Retrieved from http://books.google.com/books?id=R6q5p-dsqXUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Globalization+in+a+shrunken+world&hl=en&sa=X&ei=goV4UpPUJaTTiwLq-ICQBQ&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Globalization%20in%20a%20shrunken%20world&f=false Overholt, W. H. (2005, May 19, 2005). Chiina and Globalization [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/testimonies/2005/RAND_CT244.pdf The Hunger Project. (1998). http://www.thp.org/reports/indiawom.htm Tischler, H. (2011, 2007). Collective Behavior and Social Change. In E. Mitchell, R. Krapf, & M. Cregger (Eds.), Cengage advantage books: Introduction to sociology (10th ed. (pp. 416-436). [VitalSource]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781285396835/pages/55837065 Tripod. (n.d.). http://members.tripod.com/global_india1/us.htm Wen, D. (n.d.). China copes with globalization. Retrieved from http://www.ifg.org/pdf/FinalChinaReport.pdf