* Use of imagery –blossoming of pimples on Madame Bovary’s face (#1)
* Use of realism-use of graphic detail (manure, etc.) to contrast with romantic setting (Rodolphe and Emma holding hands)
* Use of irony and repetition–beggar figure who symbolizes Emma’s own position. Details about the arsenic and Emma’s recollection of where the poison is kept.
* Use of foreshadowing–Lleureux as money lender and swindler
* Fantasy versus the drudgery of everyday life
* Retreating into world of literature and theater
* Division of novel according to major disappointments in Emma’s life: with Charles and marriage more generally, with Rodolphe who fails to sw eep her off her feet, and with Leon who fails to find money for her.
* Incorporation of science and medicine versus the use of folk knowledge and religion
* Charles has touch of disaster (not golden touch of Midas)
* Importance of written word–letters, legal documents, promissory notes, novels and magazines
* Convention and nineteenth century morality–Emma resists notions about women’s roles. She actively pursues affairs and handles money, acting as power of attorney for Charles
* Public and Private life division–the difficulty of keeping the two realms separate (as during the Fair and while Emma undertakes her affair with Rodolphe, crossing the fields)
* Scandal–Charles becomes interested in Emma while he is married to Madame Bovary #1. Emma’s flagrant affairs with Rodolphe and Leon; Emma’s financial crisis and Lleureux’s predatory behavior which exasperated the situation. Misrepresentation of one’s wealth (Madame Bovary #1).
* Emma’s death–buried in a white gown which is soiled by her sickness
* Homais’s creation of local scandals–the Blind Man
Scandals in the scientific community–Hippolyte’s club foot, the surgery, and the amputation