* The Non-Aligned Movement of 1961, India developed a closer relationship with the Soviet Union during the Cold War. During that period, India’s relatively cooperative strategic and military relations with Moscow and strong socialist policies had a distinctly adverse impact on its relations with the United States. * After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, India began to review its foreign policy in a unipolar world, and took steps to develop closer ties with the European Union and the United States, in furtherance of its national interests. * Today, India and the US share an extensive cultural, strategic, military, and economic relationship. * US became a close ally to Pakistan by the time to 1971 India Pakistan war and relations were constrained between US and India as US supported Pakistan in war * 1998 Pokhran tests : US laid sanctions along with Japan.. not much affected India’s economic rise.. later sanctions were lifted and resumed economic ties MILITARY RELATIONS:
* The US-India defence relationship derives from a common belief in freedom, democracy, and the rule of law, and seeks to advance shared security interests. These interests include maintaining security and stability, defeating violent religious extremism and terrorism, preventing the spread of weapons of mass destruction and associated materials, data, and technologies, and protecting the free flow of commerce. * Various joint military exercises.
* India-US Counter-Terrorism Cooperation Initiative was signed in 2010 to expand collaboration on counter-terrorism, information sharing and capacity building. BILATERAL TRADE :
* The India-US Trade Policy Forum (TPF) was established in July 2005 to discuss issues related to trade
* Commercial Dialogue has been set up to cover
(a) Trade Defence Measures
(b) Small and Medium Enterprises and
(c) capacity building on Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs).
* India-US CEO’s Forum was reconstituted in 2009.
* The India-US aviation cooperation program (ACP)
* India-US total merchandise trade was US $57.80 billion in 2011. The U.S. is the fourth largest source of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) into India.
CLIMATE CHANGE & CLEAN ENVIRONMENT INITIATIVE:
* An Agreement for Cooperation on Joint Clean Energy Research and Development Center (JCERDC) was signed to help development of critical technologies for renewable energy, energy efficiency, clean coal, including carbon capture and storage, and other areas of clean energy
CIVIL NUCLEAR INTIATIVE:
* Indo-US Civil Nuclear Working Group (CNWG).
* Implementing Agreement on ‘Discovery Science’ that provides the framework for cooperation in accelerator and particle detector research and development with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford Linear Accelerator Laboratory, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility and Brookhaven National Laboratory. * Under the agreement, a project on “US and Indian Institutions Collaboration on Neutrino Physics, Related Experiments and Detector Development” is getting implemented by Delhi University and Fermilab.( RECENTLY UNDER CONTROVERSY).
SPACE RESEARCH RELTAIONS:
* A bilateral Joint Working Group on Civil Space Cooperation has been established as a forum for discussions on joint activities in space.
* current estimates show more than 100,000 Indian origin students are pursuing their higher education in the US universities. The two governments have committed to pursue greater collaboration in the areas of education, research, and innovation. * The “Singh- Obama 21st Century Knowledge Initiative”. * The India-US Higher Education Summit.
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY:
* Bilateral Science and Technology Forum
* Collaboration between the Ministry of Earth Sciences and US National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) * A ‘Monsoon Desk’ was established in NOAA for enhancing monsoon forecasting. * Dept. of Science and Technology (DST) and US National Science Foundation (NSF) are collaborating to establish India-US virtual Mathematical Institute.
* ‘Health Dialogue’ was established between the two countries. * To date, four working groups have been constituted viz. maternal and child health, noncommunicable diseases, infectious diseases and health system strengthening.
26 January 2012
* India demonstrates the newly bought SUPER HERCULES HELICOPTER C-130J from USA.
* C-130 J :
* Equipped with infrared detection set
* Low level flying , air drops, landing in blackout conditions.
* Great responsiveness in relief operations.
29- January 2012
* India signed an agreement with University of Chicago to set u p a Vivekananda chair
15 March 2012:
* DESERT LARK—
1. 7th Indo- US Army Exercise
2. In Thar desert
3. Objective : better coordination in peace keeping programmes 4. Key surveillance, communications and IED detection and neutralization technologies are fielded in the exercise.
7 APRIL 2012:
* EXERCISE MALABAR
1. Yearly India-US bilateral naval exercise
2. 16th in series since 1992
3. Fighter combat operations from aircraft carriers, through Maritime Interdiction Operations Exercises. 8 APRIL 2012:
* State-owned ONGC inked an MoU with the US oil major ConocoPhillips. AIM—
* To conduct a joint study of shale gas potential in all domestic basins, as well as some global ones owned by ConocoPhillips.
* To initiate the cooperation in shale gas exploration through joint studies of opportunities in India, North America, and elsewhere.
* To explore possible cooperation in deepwater areas in eastern offshore fields of India.
* India- US –Japan trilateral talks in New Delhi.
* Core issue :
1. Strategic overview of Asia Pacific
2. Trilateral connectivity of India to Vietnam through Myanmar
3. Projects in Africa
4. Economic side in Afghanistan
* INDIAEX 2012
* Bilateral naval exercise between US and INDIA
* Cooperation between sub marine systems
* Transfer of personnel from simulated distressed vessel to rescue vessel
* INS Nireekshak took part
13 December 2012:
* COLLOBARATION ON SOLAR ENERGY
* SERIIUS: Solar Energy Research Initiative of India and US
* 50 million $ project
* Indian institute of science,B’lore & National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Washington.
* CSP TECHNOLOGY– CONCENTRATED SOLAR POWER