Indian Economy Essay Sample

Indian Economy Pages
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This Act came into force on February 2, 2006. The twin objectives of the Act are augmenting wage employment and strengthening natural resource management. As per the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, job cards are issued to the rural unskilled labour by guaranteeing work for 100 days in a financial year at a minimum daily wage of Rs.100. It is the largest programme in the world for rural reconstruction. The scheme covered 604 districts in India in three phases and provided employment opportunities for more than 4.47 crore households in 2008-09 .The total outlay for the scheme is $8 billion during 2009-10. NREGA creates transparency and accountability in governance. All NREGA beneficiaries now have accounts with banks or post offices. The scope of the programme is limited to unskilled manual labour. The scope can be extended through increased land productivity. Land productivity can be maximized through better convergence of NREGA with other programmes Sustainable development is the ultimate goal of NREGA. M.S. Swaminathan, Father of Green Revolution in India argues that there is a synergy between National Food Security Act and NREGA.

NREGA through its diversified programmes on human development helps to ensure food security for all. It is the realisation of Gandhi’s dream to make India self-sufficient. The scheme has now been renamed as Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarantee Act. Gandhiji thought us how unskilled manual labour can be made use of for the betterment of society This act was introduced with an aim of improving the purchasing power of the rural people, primarily semi or un-skilled work to people living in rural India, whether or not they are below the poverty line. Around one-third of the stipulated work force is women. The government is planning to open a call center, which upon becoming operational can be approached on the toll-free number, 1800-345-22-44.

It was initially called the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) but was renamed on 2 October 2009.

NREGA AFTER 2 OCTOBER 2009
PROCESS
Adult members of rural households submit their name, age and address with a photo to the Gram Panchayat. The Panchayat registers households after verification and issues a job card. The job card contains the details of the adult member enrolled and his/her photo. A registered person can submit an application for work in writing (for at least fourteen days of continuous work) either to the panchayat or to Programme Officer. application daily unemployment allowance will be paid to the applicant.No discrimination between men and women is allowed under the act. Therefore, men and women must be paid the same wage. All adults can apply for employment. PLAN

This act was introduced with an aim of improving the purchasing power of the rural people, primarily semi or un-skilled work to people living in rural India, whether or not they are below the poverty line. Around one-third of the stipulated work force is women. The government is planning to open a call center, which upon becoming operational can be approached on the toll-free number, 1800-345-22-44. It was initially called the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) but was renamed on 2 October 2009. ACTIVITIES

The MGNREGA achieves twin objectives of rural development and employment. The MGNREGA stipulates that works must be targeted towards a set of specific rural development activities such as: water conservation and harvesting, afforestation, rural connectivity, flood control and protection much as construction and repair of embankments, etc. Digging of new tanks/ponds, percolation tanks and construction of small check dams are also given importance. The employed are given work such as land leveling, tree plantation, etc.

* The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA, also known as National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, NREGS) is Indian legislation enacted on August 25, 2005. The NREGA provides a legal guarantee for one hundred days of employment in every financial year to adult members of any rural household willing to do public work-related unskilled manual work at the statutory minimum wage. The Ministry of Rural Development (MRD), Govt of India is monitoring the entire implementation of this scheme in association with state governments * This act was introduced with an aim of improving the purchasing power of the rural people, primarily semi or un-skilled work to people living below poverty line in rural India.

It attempts to bridge the gap between the rich and poor in the country. Roughly one-third of the stipulated work force must be women. * Adult members of rural households submit their name, age and address with photo to the Gram Panchayat. The Gram panchayat registers households after making enquiry and issues a job card. The job card contains the details of adult member enrolled and his /her photo. Registered person can submit an application for work in writing (for at least fourteen days of continuous work) either to panchayat or to Programme Officer. * The panchayats programme officer will accept the valid application and issue dated receipt of application, letter providing work will be sent to the applicant and also displayed at panchayat office. The employment will be provided within a radius of 5 km: if it is above 5 km extra wage will be paid.

IMPLEMENTATION

* The scheme was introduced in 200 districts during financial year 2006-07 and 130 districts during the financial year 2007-08 * In April 2008 NREGA expanded to entire rural area of the country covering 34 States and Union Territories, 614 Districts, 6,096 Blocks and 2.65 lakhs Gram Panchayats. Salient Features of the Act

a) Adult members of a rural household, willing to do unskilled manual work, mayapply for registration in writing or orally to the local Gram Panchayat.

b) The Gram Panchayat after due verification will issue a Job Card will bear thephotograph of all adult members of the household willing to work under NREGAand it is free of cost.

c) The Job Card should be issued within 15 days of application.

d) A Job Card holder may submit a written application for employment to GramP anchayat, stating the time and duration for which work is sought. The minimum days of employment have to be at least fourteen.

e) The Gram Panchayat will issue a dated receipt of the written application foremployment, against which the guarantee of providing employment within 15days operates.

f) Employment will be given within 15 days of application for work, if it is not thendaily unemployment allowance as per the Act, has to be paid. Liability of payment of unemployment allowance is of the States.

g) Work should ordinarily be provided within 5 km radius of the village. In case workis provided beyond 5 km, extra wages of 10% are payable to meet additional transportation and living expenses.

h) Wages are to be paid according to the Minimum Wages Act 1948 for agriculturalLabourers in the State, unless the Centre notifies a wage rate which will not beless than Rs. 60/ per day. Equal wages will be provided to both men and women.

i) Wages are to be paid according to piece rate or daily rate. Disbursement ofwages has to be done on weekly basis and not beyond a fortnight in any case.

j) At least one-third beneficiaries shall be women who have registered andrequested work under the scheme.

k) Work site facilities such as crèche, drinking water, shade have to be provided.

l) The shelf of projects for a village will be recommended by the gram sabha andapproved by the zilla Panchayat.

m) At least 50% of works will be allotted to Gram Panchayats for execution.

n) A 60:40 wage and material ratio has to be maintained/no contractors andmachinery is allowed.

o) The Central Government bears the 100 percent wage cost of unskilled manuallabour and 75 percent of the material cost including the wages of skilled andsemi skilled workers. p) Social Audit has to be done by the Gram Sabha.

q) Grievance redressal mechanisms have to be put in place for ensuring aresponsive implementation process.

r) All accounts and records relating to the Scheme should be available for publicscrutiny. Various stake holders of the project are:

1. Citizen
2. Gram Panchayats, Block Panchayats, Zilla Panchayats 3. Workers
4. Programme officers
5. District Programme Co-ordinators
6. Implementing agencies other than PRIs
7. State RD Departments
8. Ministry of Rural development and administrators in Government of India.

Himachal Pradesh
Himachal Pradesh is located in the northwestern part of the country. It is bounded by Jammu and Kashmir in the North, Punjab and Haryana in the Southwest, Uttaranchal in the Southeast and China (Tibet) in the East. The geographical area of the state is 55673 sq. kms.

Topography
The state has a mountainous topography with elevation ranging from about 450 meters to over 6500 meters from the mean sea level. The state is traversed by the Himalayan and trans-Himalayan ranges. These ranges generally have northwest-southwest disposition. The Shivalik range runs along its south-western boundary. The lesser and the Great Himalayan ranges are located to the north of Shivalik range. The Zanskar range is located in the extreme northwest. The land elevation generally increases as one move from south to north, as well as, from east to west.

Climate
District profile has been taken from the official website Because of topographic variations, the state has a vast climatic diversity which rangesform hot and sub-humid tropical in the southwestern part to cold, alpine and glacier inthe higher reaches of Himalayan and trans-Himalayan ranges. Like the variations in temperature, there are also vast variations in rainfall. The state hasplaces like Dharamshala (Kangra District) which receive very heavy rainfall and on theother hand Lahul and Spiti areas receive very scanty rainfall. The state broadly experience three seasons that is summer season, rainy season and winter season. Summer season lasts from mid April to June end. During this period mean maximum temperature remains between 28°c to 32°c in most of the areas. In alpine zone summersare comparatively milder. The rainy season extends from the beginning of July to theend of September. Winter season lasts from mid-November to mid March. Snowfall is common during winter, especially in areas having elevation more than 2200 meters.

Administrative Divisions
The state is divided into 12 districts and further into 75 tehsils and 34 sub-tehsils for administrative purposes. Under Community Development Programme the district is divided into 75 C.D. Blocks. For the governance at the grass root level the 20,690 villages have been organized into 3243 Gram Panchayats under the Panchayati Raj System.

Population
As per details from Census 2011, Himachal Pradesh has population of 68.56 Lakh, an increase from figure of 60.78 Lakh in 2001 census. Total population of Himachal Pradesh as per 2011 census is 6,856,509 of which male and female are 3,473,892 and 3,382,617 respectively. In 2001, total population was 6,077,900 in which males were 3,087,940 while females were 2,989,960. The main characteristics of this population are as follows:

_ Population Density (persons per sq. km) 123
_ Sex ratio (Number of females per thousand males) 974
_ Percentage of Rural Population 89.96%
_ Percentage of Urban Population 10.04%
_ Percentage of Population dependent on Agriculture 93
_ Literacy:

(a) Total 83.78%
(b) Male 90.83%
(c) Female 76.60%
_ Number of Villages 20,690
_ Number of Towns 59
_ Number of Panchayats 3,243
These figures show that Himachal has a comparatively low density of population. This is mainly due to hilly terrain. The low level of urbanization in the state can also beattributed to a great degree to adverse terrain conditions and low level of industrialization. About 93 percent of the population in the state is dependent on agriculture which suggests that employment opportunities outside agriculture should be created.

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