Inferential Statistics and Introductory to Operations Essay Sample
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Introduction of TOPIC
A population consists of all the possible observations of the random variable under study. A census involves the gathering of data on a random variable from every member of the target population A sample is a subset of all members of a target population. Sampling is the process of selecting a representative subset of observations from a population to determine the characteristics of the random variable under study.
Two methods of sampling are:
probability sampling methods non-probability sampling methods
In probability sampling (random-based sampling) every member of the target population has a chance of being selected for the sample. Sampling units are selected from the target population on a random basis. There are four probability-based sampling methods: 1 2 3 4
simple random sampling systematic random sampling stratiﬁed random sampling cluster random sampling.
Simple random sampling: Each member in the entire population has an equal chance of being
Cluster random sampling: The entire population is divided into clusters, and a random sample of these clusters are selected. The sampling units are selected from these randomly selected clusters.
NON-PROBABILITY (NON-RANDOM) SAMPLING:
In non-probability sampling sample members are not selected randomly, the main selection criteria are the personal judgement of the researcher and/or convenience. There are four types of non-probability based sampling methods: 1 2 3 4
Convenience sampling Judgement sampling Quota sampling Snowball sampling
Convenience sampling: This method is used when the sampling units are selected to suit the convenience of the researcher. Judgement sampling: Personal judgement is used by the researcher to select the best sampling units to include in the sample. Quota sampling: The population is divided into segments and a quota of sampling units is selected from each segment. Snowball sampling: Snowball sampling is used to reach target populations
where the sampling units are diﬃcult to contact.