A child’s development can be affected both positively and negatively in many different ways, three of the ways are their background or family structure, their health, and their background. Background and family structure:
There are many different types of family structure and depending on which structure the child is involved in will affect their development in various ways. For example, the ‘nuclear family’ is classed as a ‘normal’ family. This usually consists of two parents, married and living together and children with the parents being the primary carers. If the child has older brothers and sisters then they will most likely have a lot of people as role models and rely on. If they an older sibling then they will grasp the concept of responsibility and ability to share and sacrifice much earlier in life than an only child or younger sibling. On the other hand, a child may belong to a lone-parent household, this could be for a number of reasons; maybe one parent has died, parents have separated or a teenage pregnancy.
Unlike the nuclear family structure where the child will get abundant amounts of support, the child may not get enough attention as the parent will have to work extra hard to support the two of them or for some other reason, this may affect their behaviour and may feel very unstable. Another thing that plays a big part in a child’s development, either positive or negative, is parental interactions. If a parent spends lots of time playing and teaching their children can have a positive impact on their communicational and intellectual development and also their emotional and behavioural development. However, if a parent was to ignore or neglect their child then it will have a negative affect and may hinder their development, health wise which will affect their physical development and lack of play and interaction will have a greatly negative affect on their communication, intellectual and social development. Environment:
There are many factors within the influence of environment on the development of a child. For example, the location and safety within the home. This greatly affects their development. For instance, if a child lives in a rural area it may lead to more outdoor activities and exercise having a positive effect on their physical development, it also provides a close-knit community, normally with a range of ages so increasing the development of social behaviour from an early age and also respect for older ones that may live in the village. The schools in rural areas tend to be smaller, therefore less children, allowing the teachers to focus on each individual student more closely which affects their intellectual development. On the other hand, in the inner city, choices of schools are much wider allowing parents to choose the best school possible for their child, there are also a range of play groups and day-care nurseries encouraging and having a positive effect on their social and emotional development from a very early age. Children who are surrounded by a strong learning environment may improve their development. Research shows that children who come from a poor background or have underprivileged educational environments tend to be at a higher risk of being negatively affected in terms of their development. Health:
Unhealthy eating can lead to weight gain which in turn leads to a negative effect on the physical development and maybe their social, emotional and behavioural development as a result of bullying. if they lack the proper nutrition then their immune system will suffer and will be at a higher risk of getting ill more regularly, therefore having a negative impact on their physical development. If they have proper nutrition and learn the need for proper nutrition at an early age then it will have a positive impact on the physical development of the child, this can be done by exposure to healthy eating habits, both hands-on and leading by example. If a child is diagnosed with an illness, this can make it difficult for them to develop socially and emotionally at the same rate as other children.