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Information System Reviewer Essay Sample

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Information System Reviewer Essay Sample

INTRODUCTION

The goal of information system is to deliver the right information to the right person at the right time Approaches: 1. Pen and Paper-Based Approach (Manual Process) 2. Computer-Based Approach (Electronic Process)

Information system (IS)

➡Set of interrelated components: collect, manipulate, store, and disseminate data and information ➡Provides feedback to meet an objective INPUT – PROCESS – OUTPUT – FEEDBACK

Data, Information, and Knowledge

➡Data: raw facts; Information: processed data ➡Alphanumeric, image, audio, and video ➡Information: collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves ➡The Process of Transforming Data into Information DATA – APPLICATION OF KNOWLEDGE – INFORMATION

Data into Information

➡Process ‣Set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined outcome ➡Knowledge ‣Awareness and understanding of a set of information and the ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision ➡KWs ‣People who create, use and disseminate knowledge

The Characteristics of Valuable Information accessible accurate complete economical flexible relevant reliable secure simple timely verifiable

Components of an Information System INPUT

➡the data flowing into the system from outside. ➡an activity of gathering data and capture raw data

PROCESSING OUTPUT

➡Means converting or transforming data into useful outputs

➡involves the production of useful information in form of documents and reports(printed paper copy)

FEEDBACK

➡is information from the system that is used to make changes to input or processing activities.

➡FORECASTING
‣predicting future events to avoid problems

Manual and Computerized Information Systems ➡an information system can be…: 1. Manual ISs ‣Example: Developing patterns and trends on graph paper for stock analysis; Manual Recording of number of hours worked and rate 2. Computerized ISs ‣Example: using program trading to track the market and trade large blocks of stocks when discrepancies occur ; Computerized Library System

Computer-Based Information System

➡a single set of hardware, software, database, telecommunication, network, internet, people, and procedures configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information

I. Hardware ➡computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities. ➡Example: ‣keyboard, Mouse and other pointing devices ‣Automatic scanning devices (UPC Reader) ‣Magnetic ink character recognition reader (MICR) ‣Optical Mark Recognition (OMR) ‣voice-response technology

IBM computer (U.S. Livermore National Laboratories) – fastest in the world , 300 teraflops ( 300 trillion operations per second) Blue Gene – super fast computer($40million) Kraken –World’s fastest academic supercomputer K Supercomputer – 2011-2012, world’s number one supercomputer with 10 petaflops Jaguar – 2011-2012,world’s number 3 supercomputer with 1.75 petaflops

➡Microcomputer output devices: Printer and Monitor Printer Kiosk – used to print pictures by inserting the memory card or disks. EDRs – used to monitor vehicle operation II. Software ➡computer programs that govern the operation of the computer ➡Types: 2. System Software – uses for day-to-day maintenance 3. Application Software – use for day-to-day application ➡ Operating system – most essential software ➡ MS DOS (MS disk operating system) – operating system stored in a disk ➡ – the first electronic communication software III.Database ➡organized collection of facts and information consisting of 2 or more related files.

IV.Telecommunication ➡electronic transmission of signals for communications V. Network ➡connect computers and equipment in a building, around the country, and around the world VI.Internet ➡world’s largest computer network ➡1991 ➡Popular Internet Application Program: Mashing – Play 2 or more songs simultaneously Web Blogs (blogs) – sharing of thoughts or ideas around the world Podcasting – download audio programs or music from the internet and play on PC or music players Vodcasting – download movies from the internet and play on PC or video players Place Shifting – to record TV programs at home and watch them at a different place Webinar – “Web-based seminar”, Seminar on the Web Webcast – To use the Internet to broadcast live or delayed audio and/or video transmissions Simulcast – To use the Internet, radio, and television to broadcast live or delayed audio and/or video transmissions

Wireless Fidelity – Wi-fi’s original meaning Demodulation – the processing of converting digital to analog signal

Modem – the hardware use to convert digital to analog or vice versa. VII.People ➡manage, run programs, and maintain the system ➡most important element of CBIS VIII.Procedure ➡strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using a CBIS

Business Information System

E-COMMERCE – involves any business transaction executed electronically between parties (Electronic Marketing) a.k.a Online Shopping, or online marketing E-COMMERCE LAW / R.A. NO. 8792 – the law regulating or legalizing the exchange or products over the net, or the exchange of electronic messages over the net. (signed on June 14 – took effect – June 19, 2000)

Electronic and Mobile Commerce

SEGMENTS: 1.B2B Business-to-Business(Whole sale level) 2. B2C Business-to-consumers (Retail Level) 3. C2C Consumer-to-Consumer 4.Business & the Public Sector 5.Consumer & the Public Sector ➡M-commerce ‣relies on wireless communications ‣transactions conducted anywhere, anytime ➡E-Procurement ‣using information systems and the Internet to acquire parts and supplies

Enterprise Systems: Transaction Processing Systems and Enterprise Resource Planning TPS transaction processing system ➡the goal of this information system is to automate repetitive activities ➡Transaction: business-related exchange such as: 1. Payments to employees 2. Sales to customers 3. Payments to suppliers ➡Transaction processing system (TPS): organized collection of People, Procedures, Software, Databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions ➡MAJOR ACTIVITIES SUPPORTED BY TPS: Sales Inventory management Payroll Account receivables

ERP enterprise resource planning ➡Set of integrated programs capable of managing a company’s vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization ➡One complete system for many related companies ➡MAJOR ACTIVITIES SUPPORTED BY ERPs: Production Inventory control Coordinate planning Ordering

Information and Decision Support Systems

MIS Management Information System ➡Organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices that provides routine information to managers/decision makers ➡Primary focus is operational efficiency ➡MAJOR ACTIVITIES SUPPORTED BY MIS: Product pricing Advertising Financial management Sales forecasting

➡Areas supported by MIS: 1. MMIS marketing management information system 2.PMIS manufacturing/ product management information system

3.FMIS financial management information system and others DSS Decision Support Systems ➡Organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices that supports problem-specific decision making ➡Primary focus is on making effective decision ➡Group Support System – GROUPWARE (DSS Elements & Software) ➡DSS essential elements: 1. Database 2. Dialogue manager 3. model base 4. DBMS 5. MMS

➡ESS executive support system
➡MAJOR ACTIVITIES SUPPORTED BY DSS: Crisis management Organizing & staffing Strategic management Assist in strategic planning

MIS – helps the org “do things right”

DSS – helps the manager “do the right thing”

Specialized Business Information System: Knowledge Management, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems, and Virtual Reality Knowledge management systems (KMSs) ‣an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices to create, store, share, and use the organization’s knowledge and experience Artificial intelligence (AI) ‣field in which the computer system takes on the characteristics of human intelligence ‣MAJOR ELEMENTS OF AI: 1. Robotics -Machines take over complex, dangerous, routine, or boring tasks 2. Vision Systems -Allow robots and other devices to “see”, store, and process visual images 3. Natural Language -Involves computer understanding and acting on verbal or written commands in Spanish, English, and other languages

4. Learning Systems -Allow computer to learn from past mistakes or experiences 5. Neural Networks -Allows computers to recognize and act on patterns or trends. Expert Systems ‣Give the computer the ability to make suggestions and act like an expert in a particular field ‣Allow organizations to capture and use the wisdom of experts and specialists Virtual Reality ‣Simulation of a real or imagined environment that can be experienced visually in 3 dimensions ‣Immersive virtual reality ‣Can be a powerful medium for communication, entertainment, and learning ‣3D DEVICES: HMD, Data Gloves, Joystick, Handheld Wands

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