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Insulin to Glucagon Concentration Ratio Essay Sample

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Insulin to Glucagon Concentration Ratio Essay Sample

1. When was plasma insulin concentration highest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma insulin concentration was highest. 1 hr post meal
2. When was plasma insulin concentration lowest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma insulin concentration was lowest.
It was lowest during fasting
3. When was plasma glucagon concentration highest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma glucagon concentration was highest. 0 hr post meal and 2 hr post meal
4. When was plasma glucagon concentration lowest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma glucagon concentration was lowest. 1 hour post meal
5. When was plasma insulin/glucagon concentration highest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma insulin/glucagon concentration was highest.
1 hr post meal
6. When was plasma insulin/glucagon concentration lowest? If values are similar for several time points, then give range of times when plasma insulin/glucagon concentration was lowest.
It was the lowest during fasting

Discussion
1. Explain how insulin changed plasma glucose concentration over the course of the experiment. Insulin changed the plasma glucose because after a meal the amount of insulin secreted into the blood will increase and that caused the plasma glucose to rise.

2. Explain how glucagon changed plasma glucose concentration over the course of the experiment. Plasma glucose is usually low between meals and when this happens glucagon secrets the blood glucose.. When the plasma glucose is high there is no secretion of the glucagon.

3. Explain what caused the change in plasma ketone concentration over the course of the experiment. The body was getting all the sugar it needed during 0 to 1 hour post meal and after that the levels started to go down. The body got what it needed and began to store the ketone’s for later use.

4. Explain how negative feedback caused the changes in plasma insulin concentration observed during the experiment. Negative feedback caused the changes in plasma insulin because when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin it takes glucose from the blood and lowers the high blood glucose levels and then they go back to normal range. 5. Explain how negative feedback caused the changes in plasma glucagon concentration observed during the experiment. When the blood glucose levels are low the pancreas releases glucagon to the liver and the liver releases glucose into the blood and then the body achieves normal blood glucose levels.

6. The insulin/glucagon ratio changed over the course of the experiment indicating changes in glucose storage and changes in ability to increase blood glucose concentration via glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. State when glucose storage capability was highest and why.

Glucose storage capability was the highest at 0 and 1 hour post meal and the reason for this is because that is when the body has absorbed the nutrition it needs in order for the glucose level to be where it needs to be.

7. State when glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis were highest and why. They were the highest 1 hour post meal because when the body doesn’t get enough carbohydrates to produce energy then Gluconeogenesis is stimulated by cortisol causing it to be higher.

8. Explain how a high blood ketone level helps the body conserve blood glucose. It helps because even when your not eating the body has to make its own sugar. So when you body’s glycogen is running low the body will start to conserve sugar supplies for the organs that require it.

9. Restate your predictions that were correct and give the data from your experiment that supports them. Restate your predictions that were not correct and correct them, giving the data from your experiment that supports the correction. My predictions were correct and honestly I’m not sure how I got them correct. The only thing I can figure is because my step father has diabetes and he was on a carbohydrate diet and he had set times when he would eat. So from observing him over the years I knew when the levels would be the highest. Even though I don’t completely understand all there is to know about the levels and how they work that just happened to be the part I did know.

Application
1. During exercise, epinephrine and norepinephrine are released from the adrenal medulla. Epinephrine and norepinephrine have the same effect on plasma glucose levels as glucagon. Explain how epinephrine and norepinephrine affect plasma glucose and why this is important during exercise.

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are hormones and they are responsible for breaking down the glycogen from the liver into the glucose in the blood stream. During exercise the body needs more glucose so that is why it is important. 2. The symptoms of diabetes mellitus include high plasma glucose levels and ketoacidosis (blood pH decreases due to increasing levels of ketones). Explain how diabetes causes these symptoms. It causes these symptoms because when your cells don’t get the proper glucose they need for energy then it begins to burn fat and cause the production of ketones.

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