The proponent has observed many opportunities by automating the light effects of the hotels and other commercial establishments that offer lodging, food, and other services to the public. The increasing demand in intelligent automation to most industries was observed in the past few years particularly in the lodging industry. It is because of the transition to modernize their structure just to give all the needs of the customers and to gain competitive advantage over their business rivals. The root of building of most intelligent automations were explicitly patterned from the Alan’s Turing principle which was published in 1950, the “Computing Machinery and Intelligence.” It is seminal paper on the topic of artificial intelligence in which the concept of what is now known as the Turing Test. It was designed to provide a satisfactory operational definition of intelligence. Rather than proposing a long and perhaps controversial list of qualifications required for intelligence, Turing suggested a test based on undistinguishability from undeniably intelligent entities-human beings.
Dr. Melquiades R, Hayag, Jr., considered the Alan Turing principle as he applied in his thesis for Masters, The Deployment of Intelligent Automation in University of the Immaculate Conception, Davao City and his dissertation ―Intelligent Automation for Buildings: An Application of Artificial Intelligence Sensory Approach at St. Paul University Philippines-Tuguegarao City. Think of a building that thinks and anticipates situation of the environment on what is going on. It would be amazing seeing doors open/close in its own as the situation demands. The light in the receiving area dims or switches on/off depending on the need of the occupant. The building call the attention of the occupant and the authorities as the intruder breaks in. (Dr. Hayag, 2005) The paragraph above was quoted from Dr. Hayag’s discussion about different applications of intelligent automation to society and people. Those were only few of the different examples that could be happened through building intelligent systems. In his research, he used relay and different types of sensors to run his robot and explicitly followed the Turing principle.
The proponent decided to consider some of the functionality of Dr. Hayag’s project research and delimited specifically in developing an intelligent system wherein luminance detection is the concern. It was just that the proponent had observed problems at the hotels with regards to their lighting structures, that is why he obtained and utilized some of the functionality, features and sensors in Dr. Hayag‘s project research. In a huge hotel scenario, the structure of lights was so complex, and mostly they do not have intelligent application to ensure that these lights were properly used. If there are lots of customers in the hotel, you need to monitor the proper lighting in most common areas for customers where they are used to stay like (front-office/front desk, bar, swimming pool, restaurants and lobby lounge, gym & casino, spa etc) to ensure that these customers are comfortable with lights as they approach these areas.
Additionally, without intelligent system to control and monitor the proper usage of these artificial lights inside the hotel, the power bill increases. The distribution of lights is very essential in a particular hotel, its quantity and quality that would satisfy the needs of all concerned individuals. It should be well planned for this is one way of persuading customers. Part of the plan in constructing the artificial lights in the hotel should be to include the building of automation. This idea triggered the proponent to have this study called Intelligent Luminance Detection System of the Hotel. The sensors would be set-up at the said customers’ common areas inside the hotel to gather the data and store it in the database to track down the previous and current activity of the sensors particularly the luminance, for any proper action depending on the need of the customers. The system would detect the luminance of these areas through the intelligent sensor devices.
This is to monitor if the customers who are in those areas are well lighted or not. The proponent used the state of the art Java-based open architecture technology wireless sensor network base device. It is a comprehensive sensor equipment by the small wireless sensor network base device. In general, this kind of sensor is very important in broad range of emerging technology applications. The proponent strongly believe that if the hotels particularly in the Philippines would adapt the technology such as this, they could minimize their expenses for they would not employ many hotel staffs to monitor the lights, reduce power consumption and avoid conflagration. It provides convenience in the part of the customers in which one way or another would help them gain competitive advantage over the other existing hotels.
Fig1. Production System Diagram (Theoretical Framework)
This study was based on the principles of Production Systems(Knowledge Based Architecture Enhanced) and the Cybernetic View of Cognition that discusses the different mental states of cognition and their relationship a tool for Artificial Intelligence (By: Dr. Melquiades R. Hayag, Jr. AI, Robotics, KBS, Intelligent Automation Specialist) . In the Production System Diagram, the data are based from the level of luminance captured through the capability of the Sensor (Small Programmable Object Technology -SPOT) by Sun Micro System as a device used. The captured data would then be passed through the Working Memory.
The data are being held in the WM to match it with the data stored in the Knowledge Base through the Search Unit. If the datum captured is matched with one of the data stored in the KB then it would be fired after making the decision following the rule and adds new data item to WM or delete old (unnecessary) data, as suggested by the fired rule from the WM. In case that the datum captured, matches multiple data in the KB, the Conflict Resolution Strategy is Specificity. The Refractoriness and the Recency cannot be applied in this purpose. The Specificity is appropriate Conflict Resolution Strategy considering that, for this study, only the exact and specific data should be matched and this strategy requires this principle that the rule with more number of antecedent clauses be fired than rules handling fewer antecedent clauses. Thus, this principle applies in this study.
Fig.2 System Implementation Diagram (Conceptual Framework)
In this research, the Small Programmable Object Technology or SPOT of Sun Microsystems is a wireless sensor used by the proponent. This technology would be installed in the different areas inside the hotel where the customers are usually spending their time like: (front-office/front desk, bar, swimming pool, restaurants and lobby lounge, gym & casino, spa etc). The intelligent sensor would perceive the luminance of the area if it is Deep Twilight, Twilight, Very Dark Day, Dark Day or Abnormal, and the data would be sent to the server located in a secured and favorable area of the hotel which is managed by the IT staff assigned by the Hotel Management. Each of these states of luminance has a corresponding value stored in the database (knowledge based and will be used following the production rules). The equivalent action fired depends on the data sensed by the said sensor.
Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to create an intelligent based system that has a capability of detecting the luminance of the different areas of the hotel through the use of a wireless sensor device of Sun Miscrosystems, which is the Small Programmable Object Technology or SPOT. The proponent is hoping to answer the following questions: 1. Is it possible that the SPOT or wireless sensor network- based device can sense the luminance from the area it was installed? 2. Is it possible that SPOT or the wireless sensor network-based device can fire action based from its collected data? 3. Is it possible that SPOT or wireless sensor network-based device can handle decisions of data received from wireless transmissions without human interventions?
Significance of the Study
This study is significant to the following:
The Hotel Management
The output of the research can really help the Hotel Management in a way that they can not spend much of their money to employ additional number of staffs to do the monitoring and checking of the lights all night and all day long. It also removes the risk of conflagration or cause of burn/fire. Additionally, it helps them to minimize the power consumption, thus, it decreases their expenditures.
The Hotel Staff
The output of the research can also give benefits to the hotel staffs for this can assist them check the usage of the artificial lights. It will intelligently detect the luminance of the area which will give them information for them to take proper action.
The Customers of the Hotel
Psychologically, the artificial lights have something to tell the people compared to the natural lights. In the hotel, if these artificial lights are properly installed and managed through intelligent system such as this project research, it simply gives them a comfortable atmosphere to stay and relax.
Scope and Limitation
The study was to come up with an Intelligent Luminance Detection System of the Hotel wherein the management was open to adapt the new technology. The specific technologies used were Sun Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT) devices, network device, and computer technology (both software and hardware). This study was delimited to a prototype that is a replica of An Application of Artificial Intelligence Sensory. The prototype implementation was further Limited to the following: SPOT Light Sensor – detecting and calculating luminance light of the artificial lights. Simulated System of packet transmission over TCP/IP – the application software that handles the packet received bytes to readable data from Sun SPOT Environmental Data Collector Robot and Computes real-time luminance states.
Definition of Terms
The following terms were defined theoretically and operationally as used in this study.
Algorithm – A step-by-step problem solving procedure, especially an established, recursive computational procedure for solving a problem in a finite number of steps. (http://www.answers.com) Application – A set of files that make up the software for the user. Candela-is the SI base unit of luminous intensity; that is, power emitted by a light source in a particular direction, weighted by the luminosity function (a standardized model of the sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths, also known as the luminous efficiency function. A common candle emits light with a luminous intensity of roughly one candela. If emission in some directions is blocked by an opaque barrier, the emission would still be approximately one candela in the directions that are not obscured.
Desktop Computer- A single-user computer, it typically refers to a PC or Mac, but may also refer to a workstation from Sun, IBM, etc. Also called “client computer” or “client” or simply a “desktop,” the term implies stationary use, whether it resides on the top of the desk or under the desk in a tower case. Luminance – is a photometric measure of the luminous intensity per unit area of light travelling in a given direction. It describes the amount of light that passes through or is emitted from a particular area, and falls within a given solid angle. Program- To write the lines of code in a program. A collection of instructions that tell the computer what to do. A program is generically known as “software” and the programs users work with, such as word.
Recency – requires that the most recent elements of the WM be used up for instantiating one of the rules Refractoriness – this strategy requires that the same rule should not be fired more than once when instantiated with the same set of data. (discard instantiations from WM) Server- A computer system in a network that is shared by multiple users. Servers come in all sizes from x86-based PCs to IBM mainframes. A server may have a keyboard, monitor and mouse directly attached, or one keyboard, monitor and mouse may connect to any number of servers via a switch. Sensor – A type of transducer. Direct-indicating sensors, for example, a mercury thermometer, are human-readable. Other sensors, such as a thermocouple, only produce an output voltage or other electrical output which must be interpreted by another device (such as a computer). Most sensors are electrical or electronic, although other types exist. S
ensor array- A set of several sensors that an information gathering device uses to gather information (usually directional in nature) that cannot be gathered from a single source for a central processing unit. Specificity – requires that the rule with more number of antecedent clauses be fired than rules handling fewer antecedent clauses SPOT – a Sun wireless sensor which stands for a SMALL PROGRAMMABLE OBJECT TECHNOLOGY Transmissions- In telecommunications, it is the forwarding of signal traffic over distances that are too great to be simply connected by a twisted pair wires. Techniques available now may be microwave link, satellite link, coaxial cable or fibre optic cable. Most modern transmission is digital.
The proponent discussed every detail of the specific extension of the project research of Dr. Hayag ―An Application of Artificial Intelligence Sensory with SPOT Distributed Data System.
The proponent has used an Exploratory Research Design (a sub-type of Experimental Research Design) for the entire study. Exploratory Research Design is often conducted when a problem is not clearly established as yet or its real scope is ambiguous. The proponent allows familiarizing himself with the problem or concept to be studied, a perhaps generate hypotheses to be tested. It is initial research, before more conclusive research is undertaken. Exploratory research is informal, relying on secondary research such as reviewing available literature and/or data, or approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors, and more formal approaches through in-depth interviews, focus groups, prospective methods, case studies or pilot studies.
Respondents of the Study
The proponent has chosen several Hotels at Davao City whose managements are open to adapt Intelligent Automation particularly this kind of technology and the following are: Marco Polo Hotel, Grand Men Seng Hotel, Mandaya Hotel and Apo View Hotel.
Instrumentation/Data Gathering Procedure
The proponent has used several fact-finding methods during the information gathering. The sampling of the existing documentation particularly the standard operating procedure for the current implementation of the artificial light structures was gathered. Research and site visits specifically in the official websites they have were also done to ensure to get some details needed for the requirements analysis. The work environment was keenly observed. Interviews were also conducted, which is the most important information gathering technique.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
PART I- PROJECT ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
Description of the Present System
Most of the hotels in the Philippines do not have the intelligent automation to manage the artificial lights that they have installed. The present system of monitoring and controlling of lights of these hotels is simply deploying the additional hotel staffs to check every now and then if the lights are properly used.
Description of the Proposed System
The proponent has checked the presented data displayed in the screen in response to what the sensors have sensed or detected, following the production rules set to execute the data that are in the knowledge based . The data were limited only to 1000 cd/m2 and divided into different ranges that are fitted to the types of luminance, and the following are:
=<2 -Deep Twilight
=<107-Very Dark Day
>= 997-Dark Day
If the sensor senses the luminance that is within the range of =<2 for example the Deep Twilight will be displayed and so on and so forth depending on the data gathered by the sensor from the location to the server.The values greater than or equal to 998 is abnormal because it exceeded already within the ranges set for it to follow. But the overall data interpretations are also good.
Data Data Data
Fig4. Data Flow Diagram of the Project
PART II -SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION
Description and Features of the System
The Intelligent Luminance Detection System of the Hotel will work intelligently to satisfy the purpose which is to have a well-managed Artificial Lights installed within the hotel. In the prototype, the proponent used two sensors of SUN the Small Programmable Object Technology or SPOT and a server (see Physical Design for an illustration). The send data to server function was composed of comprehensive algorithm that is responsible for Wireless Portal Robot Data Receiver Server as decision maker for all distributor servers, this includes Artificial Intelligent function that they could decide on its own decision.
The algorithm function was real-time computation of Luminance. The procedure was also having real-time environment status, which is a visual monitoring with actual computation and status of all gathered data from Wireless Sensor Network-Based Transmitter Device. It shows the capability of performing luminance monitoring control and it was responsible for detecting light condition in the environment. The Java Programming language was used because of its flexibility. This language is very capable of serving web, desktop and mobile implementations.
Fig6. Physical Design of the Project
Functions of the Developed System
The Intelligent Luminance Detection System of the Hotel will work intelligently to help the Hotel Management to check and balance the usage of the Artificial Lights which is one of the important structures to be considered within the hotel. It is one way of persuading costumers to stay, relax and feel comfortable with the ambience.
Summary, FINDINGS, Conclusion, Recommendation
The proponent in this study indeed tried to develop an Intelligent Luminance Detection System of the Hotel. This was made from an idea of the proponent because of several problems found out during his initial investigation of the lighting structures implementation to most of the hotels. Lodging industry here and abroad is now trying to adapt the changes of time. In this intelligent system to detect the luminance of an area is very essential particularly in the huge hotel.
It helps all the concerned to become productive for they can manage well the artificial lights installed for the benefit of the customers. This study was implemented to specify the luminance of an area, using the Sun Small Programmable Object Technology (SPOT), the other term was called Wireless Sensor Network-Based Device. This device was not available in the Philippines as of now due to US export restriction. This was acquired through the effort of Dr. Hayag.
The study was working well during the testing. The proponent set up all the devices used and run the system. The display shows the data based from the luminance the sensor has detected from the area where it was installed. The performance of the system was based also from the stored knowledge served as the data to be followed during its execution. If the sensor detected =<2 candela per square meter, it displays DEEP TWILIGHT, =<11 for TWILIGHT, <=107 for VERY DARK DAY, <=997 for DARK DAY and >=998 for abnormal, it is abnormal considering the designed was being limited to that candela per square meter. These data are very useful for the hotel management for them to know the luminance of an area if it has lighted well for the customer’s satisfaction.
Based on the output of the study, the proponent concludes that the Intelligent Luminance Detection System of the Hotels set intelligently to help the hotel management in managing their artificial lights, since it gives them timely information of the current luminance of the area, they would then be able to attend the customer’s needs.
The Intelligent Luminance Detection System has been created and functioned like a very basic intelligent system, but concepts applied were solid for future development. The proponent recommends the following for further development and acceptance of the lodging Industry: Actual implementation of the system in the hotel to see its usefulness. Every hotel must have and IT division to check and maintain the different technologies installed, especially the artificial lights managed by an intelligent system.
Centralized the structure of implementation to fully monitor the luminance of the different areas within the hotel. To acquire more powerful Sun SPOT to perform the purpose in wide areas like a hotel. Add other algorithm that allows AI capability of SPOT widen the range of decision making and assessment for every gathered data. Add triggering features to take intelligent action that will fit the to customers’ need in a particular area of the hotel based on the detected luminance through the use of intelligent devices.