Mental Health providers work to promote opportunities to people with mental health illness to improve their ability to seek treatment, socialize with others, and work towards a job and a better living condition for themselves with the most appropriate therapeutic support. Mental health services operate under specific principles which are for services to be delivered by mean of comprehensive system of care which points out the most appropriate and least restrictive setting to deliver the highest level of functioning. There should also be continuity of care within the state and between the public and private sectors. The ranges of these services within the system must respond to the needs of the individual consumers and the population served. Interoperability means the ability of health information systems to work together within and across organizational boundaries in order to advance the effective delivery of healthcare for individuals and communities. For Human services provider, the ability is critical to meeting objectives.
Interoperability affects care delivery, continuity of care, and the ability to share information with patients for patient engagement. For the Administration for children and families, the three methods of interoperability would probably be information sharing/exchanging, improve service delivery, and provide better outcomes for children and families. The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) Human Services (HS) Domain was established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and recognized by the NIEM Executive Steering Council in March 2012 to support information sharing and promote interoperability between and beyond Human Service organizations and federal, state, local and tribal agencies.
“NIEM enables information sharing, focusing on information exchanged among organizations as part of their current or intended business practices” (“The National Information Exchange Model”, 2015). A national program, NIEM is supported by and used within all levels of government for a broad set of missions including but not limited to justice, homeland security, international trade, human services, and cyber. Robust communities of practitioners use NIEM to ensure that when information is exchanged between various systems, it is standardized and commonly understood for quicker and more effective use. Methods of Interoperability
There are different ways and methods to implement interoperability. Almost every organization creates its own interoperability models and methods. The three methods or models of interoperability are discussed below. The three breakdown areas and methods of interoperability are outlined below:
* Information Interoperability:
* Knowledge management
* Business intelligence
* Information management
* Trusted identity
* Business Interoperability:
* Delivery networks
* Enterprise resource management
* Relationship and case management
* Technical Interoperability:
* IT infrastructure
( Togaf, 2013)
1. “Foundational” interoperability allows data exchange from one information technology system to be received by another and does not require the ability for the receiving information technology system to interpret the data. 2. “Structural” interoperability is an intermediate level that defines the structure or format of data exchange (i.e., the message format standards) where there is uniform movement of healthcare data from one system to another such that the clinical or operational purpose and meaning of the data is preserved and unaltered. Structural interoperability defines the syntax of the data exchange. It ensures that data exchanges between information technology systems can be interpreted at the data field level.
3. “Semantic” interoperability provides interoperability at the highest level, which is the ability of two or more systems or elements to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.5 Semantic interoperability takes advantage of both the structuring of the data exchange and the codification of the data including vocabulary so that the receiving information technology systems can interpret the data. This level of interoperability supports the electronic exchange of patient summary information among caregivers and other authorized parties via potentially disparate electronic health record (EHR) systems and other systems to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and efficacy of healthcare delivery.
There are many benefits of interoperability. Interoperability is significant in linking health and human services. It enhances the client’s experience by caring for the whole person with enhanced and advanced care coordination, enhanced timely contact to getting critical information for decision making, prevent illness, reduce exacerbating conditions, decrease hospital reentries and help build individuals’ self-sufficiency. Interoperability helps in providing The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) timely and accurate information, to provide a more compatible enrollment process. The system will also enhance the access of information. The system helps access a wide range of data from every human service organization to link the clients to. The transparency through interoperability across programs will also enhance the capability of systems to reduce fraud, waste and abuse.
The backup and recovery plan regarding the interoperability is discussed below. Some of the techniques that are employed for back-up are discussed below. The techniques vary according to the data that is required to be back up and also the convenience regarding the recovery process.
* Normal/full backups: In this method every file that is selected is backed up, apart from the setting of the attributes of archive. If there is modification required in a file, this attribute is set, which shows the requirement for file back up.
* Copy backups: Every file selected for back up is backed up fully, without the consideration of the setting of the archive attribute. Contrasting a normal backup, the modification does not occur to the archive attribute on files. It gives rise to opportunity to create other backups in future.
* Differential backups: Invented in order save the changes to files since the last backup of the system. Only files with the archive attribute are backed up. The files with the archive attribute aren’t modified. This lets you perform other kinds of backups on the files at a later date.
* Incremental backups: This is designed to generate backups of files that have changed since the most recent normal or incremental backup. The existence of the archive attribute indicates that the file has been modified. Only files with this attribute are backed up. The archive attribute is cleared when a file is backed up. If the file is modified later this attribute is set. When the attribute is set it indicates that the file needs to be backed up.
* Daily backups: Designed to create backup files on the date the file was created. The file will also be backed up if the file has been changed on the same day as the backup. Daily backups do not change the archive attributes of files (Microsoft, 2013).
Overall, The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM) is hoping to perform full backups once a week and balance this with daily, differential, or incremental backups. The organization would like to produce a prolonged backup set for monthly backups. By keeping these backups balanced each week all the information will stay updated and more accurate. Interoperability enhances the process within every organization and allow the collaboration to be more sufficient.
Margaret Rouse, (2006), “Interoperability”. Retrieved from: http://searchsoa.techtarget.com/definition/interoperability
Microsoft, (2013), “Data Back Up and Recovery”. Retrieved from: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb727010.aspx
The National Information Exchange Model. (2015). Retrieved from https://it.ojp.gov/default.aspx?area=nationalInitiatives&page=1012 Togaf, (2013), “Interoperability Requirements”. Retrieved from: http://pubs.opengroup.org/architecture/togaf9-doc/arch/chap29.html