Introduction to Social Sciences Essay Sample

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1. A key contributor towards Anthropology: R​uth Fulton Benedict

Ruth Fulton was an American born in New York on June 5,1887. She had attended Vassar College, and was able to graduate in 1909. Benedict decided to start her graduate studies completing her phd at Columbia University, she had joined in 1923. Franz Boas, Ruths mentor and teacher had held the title to be the American father of Anthropology. Franz Boas teachings are clear through many works of Ruth. From many of the books Ruth Fulton had wrote “ Chrysanthemum and the sword” was an idea that stood out. She was able to recompose her ideas of the japanese and the culture, and society. Ruth was able to use cultural materials to produce studies from a distance.Each of the readings dealt in some way on the nature  of experimental ethnography. “Benedict necessarily made use of it, but primarily because the culture she was tasked with examining was an enemy state at the time she began collecting and analyzing data”(Carl,Feagans,2008).​

After completing her phd, she had started teaching and became a professor but two months later had passed away on September 17,1948.

A key contributor to Sociology Karl Marx

Karl Marx a German born on May 5,1818, was one of the people to discover sociology, and social sciences. Marc had attended the University of bonn and berlin where he became interested in philosophical ideas. In 1849 where he had continued writing his theories about social and economically abilities. Marx’s speculations about society, financial matters and governmental issues the aggregate understanding of which is known as Marxism—hold that human social orders advance through class battle: a contention between a proprietorship class that controls generation and a confiscated laboring class that gives the work to creation. After moving from Germany to france, then the UK, After Karl’s wifes death, Karl Marx had followed from an illness that had killed him on March 14,1883.

Sigmund was an Austrian born on May 6,1856. He had attended the University of Vienna, qualifying in medicine and becoming a Doctor, later he had later carried out research of cerebral palsy,aphasia and microscopic neuroanatomy at the hospital of Vienna.After completing his research he had become a professor of a docent in neuropathology.”Freud developed psychoanalysis, a method through which an analyst unpacks unconscious conflicts based on the free associations, dreams and fantasies of the patient. His theories on child sexuality, libido and the ego, among other topics, were some of the most influential academic concepts of the 20th century”(bio.2015). On september 23,1939 Sigmund had died of cancer in his jaw, and three days later was cremated, acting on the request of his son.

Ruth Fulton Benedict wrote ​
Chrysanthemum and the sword her main point discusses the japanese cultural terms,and their system. ​
As Benedict states in her introduction to the book, ​ The Chrysanthemum and the Sword​
grew out of wartime research she did for the American State Department and Office of War Information. Despite the stated intention to understand “the Japanese” on their own cultural terms, Benedict shows the comparative method she first articulated in ​ Patterns of Culture​

Within this profusion of comparison, “American culture” remains the important to which Benedict returns, describing Japanese beliefs and actions in idioms compared to the American audience she expected. (For example, in describing the elaborate Japanese system of moral debt and obligation, she returns repeatedly to the comparative metaphor of American beliefs in money lending; Benedict 1947:121) . The enemy who at the beginning of the book is the most alien we have ever fought is, by the end of it, the most reasonable we have ever conquered

Ruth was an anthropologist, and later became a professor. Benedict had used the American State Department and Office of War Information, to gather inside information from Japan. Many people have agreed to what Ruth had said, and many are actually adding on to the facts that she had found. Its interesting to know and find out what Ruth had been telling the americans about the japanese system and culture. I do agree with what Ruth had said although times have changed it still would apply to japan now, knowing that japan has tried keeping its law an dreadions firm without westernization getting in the way.

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