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Investigating Visual Programs Essay Sample

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Introduction of TOPIC

As you investigate the programs, List and explain the differences you find as you work in the environments.

Explain the benefits of working in a visual environment instead of a non-visual environment? P6

Visual Basic

Visual Basic is probably the most popular and powerful of all. It has many advanced features which allow you to write great programs in a short time with a minimum of code and sometimes no code at all from your part if you’re to use the application wizard.

QBasic

QBasic (a name derived from QuickBASIC, BASIC being an acronym for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a variant of the BASIC programming language. The source code is compiled to an intermediate form within the integrated development environment (IDE), and this intermediate form is immediately interpreted on demand within the IDE.

QBasic and VB are really just sets of commands to tell the computer what to do. There are significant differences between QBasic and VB.

The first and most obvious difference between Qbasic and Visual basic is that a Qbasic is a dos program whereas VB (Visual Basic) is a windows program. That means that while they both have successful communities of enthusiastic a programmer, Qbasic is old. And while it is perfectly good as a programming language, the operating system that it works and compiles in is getting less and less compatible with modern computers. So while the programs it makes might be intrinsically flawless, they are not useful. On the other hand since VB is a newer programming language, it can be used to make programs that can be distributed and possibly sold because the programs it makes are compatible with modern computers. Even programs that are not so good can be useful if made by VB.

A second difference is in the way the programs are and can be made. VB is preloaded with all kinds of buttons and boxes, however mostly it is limited to these as forms of input and output. Qbasic is not preloaded with any user interface at all, let alone one with preset functionality, but can be programmed to take input anywhere and anyhow, if you can figure out a way to put it into code. But while VB can use many colours, Qbasic can only handle 16 of them.

The third and most important difference is in the way the languages run. Whereas as Qbasic runs like a flowchart and in fact could be written into one, Visual Basic is a series of scripts for events. So, while Qbasic is processing lines of code one by one, VB is waiting for something to happen. Conversely, while VB is recognising a click on a button and running through the event’s script, Qbasic is still trotting through its code, unaware that anything happened because it was not told to check.

Benefits of working in a visual environment instead of a non-visual environment

* Extremely popular due to ease of use.

* Uses same interface as Microsoft’s other Visual Studio Products.

* Can be run either interactively as an interpreted language or compiled into an executable.

* Permits Rapid Application Development (RAD) due to its object oriented – event driven design.

VB is Event-Driven

* In event-driven programs the user dictates the order of program execution.

* For example, in the Move Ball Program by clicking on a button with the mouse (the event), user chooses how the ball will move.

* Because of this user control, event-driven programs are considered to be “user friendly.”

Object Oriented Programming

* A Class defines under what circumstances an object can be created.

* An Object is an instance or example of a class.

* Objects have properties (attributes) and methods (procedures), the details of which are hidden within the object

Procedures

* The best way to build and maintain a large program is to use the “divide and conquer” technique.

* The project is made up of modules.

* Each module is made up of Procedures.

* 4 type of Procedures:

o Event Procedures (e.g., button click)

o VB Procedures and Functions (e.g., IsNumeric)

o User Defined Sub Programs

o User Defined Functions

Objects make programming much easier

* Instead of having to do everything through statements, Objects make programming much easier.

* Objects can be manipulated through their properties and methods.

* Code can be associated with an action upon an object through the objects built-in event procedures.

Comments & Naming Conventions

* The distinction between the label the computer users to track an object (I.e. name) and the label the user sees (I.e., caption) sometimes makes it difficult for the programmers to keep track of which objects they are using.

* Especially difficult for programmers who are working on code that they did not write.

* Need for comments and naming conventions.

Recommended Techniques to Minimize “Bugs”

* Setting “Option Explicit” to force explicit declaration of variables

* Commenting the code

* Using the syntax checker

* Using the recommended naming conventions

* Setting a tight scope on the variables and procedures

* Perform range and validity checking of the variables and data

Debugging

* Many programming errors can be eliminated through a careful program development process and structured programming techniques.

* However, no matter how carefully a program is developed, the code will invariably contain errors which must be eliminated through the process of Debugging before the program can be deployed.

Standard Debugging Techniques

Standard Debugging Techniques include:

* Using print statements to view the progress of a program the errors

Commenting out sections of the code to isolate VB Debugger

* Break Points can be used to halt execution at specific points

* The debug mode can be used to execute specific lines of code and to view the state of variables:

o Step Into executes the next line

o Step Over executes the next line but skips procedures

o Step Out completes the current procedure

* The debugging windows are used to view and change the state of variables:

o Immediate windows (frequently used with debug.print)

o Locals and Watch windows

Purpose of Controls

* Make the Interface clear to the user.

* Simplify the Programming task.

Text and Numbers

* Computers deal with text and numbers differently, (e.g., a different set of operators and functions is used with each).

* The most common text operator is “&”, the concatenation of strings.

* Each text character has an associated code.

* Numeric operators include “+” addition, “-” subtraction, “*” multiplication, “/”division, and “\” integer division.

* Operators have a specific order of precedence.

Variables and Constants

* In order for a computer to efficiently process more than trivial amounts of data, the data must be stored as Variables and Constants.

* Variables are memory locations that can change during the course of the program.

* Constants are memory locations that cannot change during the execution of a program.

* Both variables and constants consist of various data types.

Data Types

* Text is stored as “strings” of characters.

* Each text character has an associated code.

* There are various “types” of numbers depending on the number of digits and decimals needed (e.g., integer, float, double), each has different storage requirements.

* The data type indicates the type of information that will be stored in a variable or constant and the amount of space (number of bytes) that are needed to store data depends on the type.

Data Errors

* Storing information in an incorrect data type can result in both logical (e.g., data loss through truncation) and runtime (e.g., type mismatch) errors.

* The Val function converts text to numbers (double) and the Str function converts numbers to text.

* The variant data type can hold many different types of data but is inefficient in terms of both storage and program performance.

Scope of Variables

* Scope — The scope of a variable depends upon where it is declared.

* Variables declared in a procedure (or undeclared and just used) are “local” to the procedure.

* Variables declared in the declarations section of a module are “module”, available to all procedures in the module/form.

* Variables declared as Public in a module are “global”, can be used by all procedures in the program.

Decision-Making

* Computers make “decisions” by executing different sections of code (branching) depending upon specific conditions.

* The If/Then Else statement is often used to determine the ” program’s flow.”

Selection Structures

* Selection Structures determine which section of code will be executed.

* Visual Basic provides three types of Selection Structures:

o If/Then — single selection

o If/Then/Else — double selection

o If/Then/ElseIf or Select Case — multiple selection

Repetition Structures

* Repetition Structures determine how many times a section of code will be executed.

* Visual Basic provides six types of Repetition Structures:

o While

o Do While

o Do Until

o Do Loop/While

o Do Loop/Until

o For/Next } Used to repeat a specified number of times.

Used to repeat “while” a condition holds

or until a condition changes

Advantages of Structured Programming

* Easy to Write

* Easy to Debug

* Easy to Read and Understand

* Easy to Maintain and Modify

Logic Operators

* And ==> Returns true if both expressions are true, else returns false .

* Or ==> Returns true if either expression is true, else returns false .

* Xor ==> Returns true only if exactly one expression is true, else returns false .

* Not ==> Changes true to false and false to true.

Sub Programs

* Start coding by using either the Add Procedure dialog box or by typing the Sub procedure directly into the code window.

* Invoked by a call.

* When the Sub is invoked, it’s body is executed sequentially until an End Sub or Exit Sub statement is reached.

Functions

* Very Similar to Sub Programs.

* Created by using either the Add Procedure dialog box or by typing the directly into the code window.

* Invoked by using its name in a Procedure.

* When the Sub is invoked, its body is executed sequentially until an End Function or Exit Function statement is reached.

* Returns a value to its position in the calling procedure.

Multiple Forms

* Multiple forms are used to simplify the design of each individual form by reducing the amount of information.

* The reduced information makes each form easier to understand.

Task 2

As you research visual programs, identify 2 visual programs that generate or manipulate graphics. For each program, show how this is done. P1

I have identified 2 visual programs that manipulate graphics.

The first program is called: Moveball

The second program is called: Tictac Toe (game)

Moveball game

As I have investigated this game. I have looked at the coding that actually enables graphics to be manipulated. This is the coding I have identified for this:

‘this is the variables we are using in this game

‘makes an boolean variable named goup

Dim goup As Boolean

‘makes an boolean variable named godown

Dim godown As Boolean

‘makes an boolean variable named goleft

Dim goleft As Boolean

‘makes an boolean variable named goright

Dim goright As Boolean

‘makes an integer variable named lifes

Dim lifes As Integer

Private Sub chec

kcollision_Timer() ‘looks if the ball on the paddle

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style="text-align: justify;">If ball.Top + ball.Height > paddle.Top And ball.Left + ball.Width > paddle.Left And ball.Left < paddle.Left + paddle.Width Then

‘sets godown equals to false

godown = False

‘sets goup equals to true

goup = True

End If

‘looks if the ball is at the top of the form

If ball.Top < Me.Height – Me.Height Then

‘sets goup equals to false

goup = False

‘sets godown equals to true

godown = True

End If

‘looks if the ball is at the bottom of the form

If ball.Top > Me.Height Then

‘sets lifes to lifes – 1

lifes = lifes – 1

‘puts the ball above the paddle

ball.Top = paddle.Top – paddle.Height

‘puts the ball in the middle of the paddle

ball.Left = paddle.Left + paddle.Width / 2

‘sets godown equals to true

godown = True

‘sets goup equals to false

goup = False

‘sets goleft equals to false

goleft = False

‘sets goright equals to true

goright = True

End If

‘looks if the ball is at the right side of the form

If ball.Left + ball.Width > Me.Width Then

‘sets goright equals to false

goright = False

‘sets goleft equals to true

goleft = True

End If

‘looks if the ball is at the left side of the form

If ball.Left < Me.Width – Me.Width Then

‘sets goright equals to true

goright = True

‘sets goleft equals to false

goleft = False

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Form_KeyDown(KeyCode As Integer, Shift As Integer)

‘looks if the left key is down

If KeyCode = vbKeyLeft Then

‘makes the paddle go 120 twips to the left (twip is vb’s opposite to pixel but its not same size its much smaller)

paddle.Left = paddle.Left – 120

‘looks if the right key is down

ElseIf KeyCode = vbKeyRight Then

‘makes the paddle go 120 twips to the right

paddle.Left = paddle.Left + 120

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Form_Load()

‘sets godown equals to true

godown = True

‘sets goup equals to false

goup = False

‘sets goleft equals to true

goleft = True

‘sets goright equals to false

goright = False

‘sets lifes equals to 5

lifes = 5

End Sub

Private Sub moveball_Timer()

‘if goright equals to true then…

If goright = True Then

‘make the ball go right

ball.Left = ball.Left + 40

‘if goright equals to false then…

ElseIf goright = False Then

‘do nothing

End If

‘if goleft equals to true then…

If goleft = True Then

‘make the ball go left

ball.Left = ball.Left – 40

‘if goleft equals to false then…

ElseIf goleft = False Then

‘do nothing

End If

‘if goup equals to true then…

If goup = True Then

‘make the ball go up

ball.Top = ball.Top – 40

‘if goup equals to false then…

ElseIf goup = False Then

‘do nothing

End If

‘if godown equals to true then…

If godown = True Then

‘make the ball go down

ball.Top = ball.Top + 40

‘if godown equals to false then…

ElseIf godown = False Then

‘do nothing

End If

End Sub

Private Sub setlifes_Timer()

‘sets the caption on the label life to the integer lifes

life.Caption = lifes

‘if lifes equals to 0 then

If lifes = 0 Then

‘make these things happens

‘makes the label lostscreen visible

lostscreen.Visible = True

‘sets godown equals to false

godown = False

‘sets goup equals to false

goup = False

‘sets goleft equals to false

goleft = False

‘sets goright equals to false

goright = False

End If

End Sub

TicTacToe game

Tictac Toe is the second visual program I have identified.

The coding for this is shown, highlighting when graphics are manipulated.

Dim sp1 As Boolean ‘Player 1 Var

Dim sp2 As Boolean ‘Player 2 Var

Dim p1p As Integer ‘Player 1 Points

Dim p2p As Integer ‘Player 2 Points

Function lsch()

‘Function To Make All Fields Invisible

O1.Visible = False

O2.Visible = False

O3.Visible = False

O4.Visible = False

O5.Visible = False

O6.Visible = False

O7.Visible = False

O8.Visible = False

O9.Visible = False

X1.Visible = False

X2.Visible = False

X3.Visible = False

X4.Visible = False

X5.Visible = False

X6.Visible = False

X7.Visible = False

X8.Visible = False

X9.Visible = False

End Function

Private Sub Image1_Click()

If sp1 = True And O1.Visible = False Then

X1.Visible = True

sp2 = True

sp1 = False

Exit Sub

End If

If sp2 = True And X1.Visible = False Then

O1.Visible = True

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

Exit Sub

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Form_Load()

‘Set Player1 Playing

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

‘Make All Fields Invisible

X1.Visible = False

X2.Visible = False

X3.Visible = False

X4.Visible = False

X5.Visible = False

X6.Visible = False

X7.Visible = False

X8.Visible = False

X9.Visible = False

O1.Visible = False

O2.Visible = False

O3.Visible = False

O4.Visible = False

O5.Visible = False

O6.Visible = False

O7.Visible = False

O8.Visible = False

O9.Visible = False

End Sub

Private Sub Image2_Click () ‘When you click on the image2 box image appears and it show you “O or X”

‘On Click Make Field Visible ‘When you click on the image it will show you the image field which is “O”

If sp1 = True And O2.Visible = False Then

X2.Visible = True

sp2 = True

sp1 = False

Exit Sub

End If

If sp2 = True And X2.Visible = False Then ‘When you click on the image it will show you the image field which of “X”

O2.Visible = True

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

Exit Sub

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Image3_Click()’When you click on the image3 box image appears and it show you “O or X”

If sp1 = True And O3.Visible = False Then

X3.Visible = True

sp2 = True

sp1 = False

Exit Sub

End If

If sp2 = True And X3.Visible = False Then

O3.Visible = True

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

Exit Sub

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Image4_Click() ‘When you click on the image3 box image appears and it show you “O or X”

If sp1 = True And O4.Visible = False Then

X4.Visible = True

sp2 = True

sp1 = False

Exit Sub

End If

If sp2 = True And X4.Visible = False Then

O4.Visible = True

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

Exit Sub

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Image5_Click() ‘When you click on the image5 box image appears and it show you “O or X”

If sp1 = True And O5.Visible = False Then

X5.Visible = True

sp2 = True

sp1 = False

Exit Sub

End If

If sp2 = True And X5.Visible = False Then

O5.Visible = True

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

Exit Sub

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Image6_Click()’When you click on the image6 box image appears and it show you “O or X”

If sp1 = True And O6.Visible = False Then

X6.Visible = True

sp2 = True

sp1 = False

Exit Sub

End If

If sp2 = True And X6.Visible = False Then

O6.Visible = True

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

Exit Sub

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Image7_Click()’When you click on the image7 box image appears and it show you “O or X”

If sp1 = True And O7.Visible = False Then

X7.Visible = True

sp2 = True

sp1 = False

Exit Sub

End If

If sp2 = True And X7.Visible = False Then

O7.Visible = True

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

Exit Sub

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Image8_Click() ‘When you click on the image2 box image appears and it show you “O or X”

If sp1 = True And O8.Visible = False Then

X8.Visible = True

sp2 = True

sp1 = False

Exit Sub

End If

If sp2 = True And X8.Visible = False Then

O8.Visible = True

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

Exit Sub

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Image9_Click()’When you click on the image9 box image appears and it show you “O or X”

If sp1 = True And O9.Visible = False Then

X9.Visible = True

sp2 = True

sp1 = False

Exit Sub

End If

If sp2 = True And X9.Visible = False Then

O9.Visible = True

sp1 = True

sp2 = False

Exit Sub

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Label2_Click() ‘ When you click on the Email to Master sky a message box pops up with master sky’s email address

MsgBox “Email to [email protected]”, vbOKOnly, “EMail”

End Sub

Private Sub Timer1_Timer()

If sp1 = True Then Form1.MousePointer = 2

If sp2 = True Then Form1.MousePointer = 12

End Sub

Private Sub Timer2_Timer()

‘Has Player X Won ???

If X1.Visible = True And X2.Visible = True And X3.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player X wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p1p = p1p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If X1.Visible = True And X4.Visible = True And X7.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player X wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p1p = p1p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If X1.Visible = True And X5.Visible = True And X9.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player X wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p1p = p1p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If X2.Visible = True And X5.Visible = True And X8.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player X wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p1p = p1p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If X3.Visible = True And X6.Visible = True And X9.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player X wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p1p = p1p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If X3.Visible = True And X5.Visible = True And X7.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player X wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p1p = p1p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If X4.Visible = True And X5.Visible = True And X6.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player X wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p1p = p1p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If X7.Visible = True And X8.Visible = True And X9.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player X wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p1p = p1p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

‘Has Player O Won ???

If O1.Visible = True And O2.Visible = True And O3.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player O wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p2p = p2p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If O1.Visible = True And O4.Visible = True And O7.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player O wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p2p = p2p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If O1.Visible = True And O5.Visible = True And O9.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player O wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p2p = p2p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If O2.Visible = True And O5.Visible = True And O8.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player O wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p2p = p2p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If O3.Visible = True And O6.Visible = True And O9.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player O wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p2p = p2p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If O3.Visible = True And O5.Visible = True And O7.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player O wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p2p = p2p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If O4.Visible = True And O5.Visible = True And O6.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player O wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p2p = p2p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

If O7.Visible = True And O8.Visible = True And O9.Visible = True Then

MsgBox “Player O wins”, vbOKOnly, “The End”

Timer2.Enabled = False

lsch

p2p = p2p + 1

Timer2.Enabled = True

End If

End Sub

Private Sub Timer3_Timer()

‘Update Score Labels

Label3.Caption = p1p

Label4.Caption = p2p

End Sub

Task 3

As you research these programs, comment on the programming, (such as selection or iteration, procedures, functions etc,) by identifying a piece of code, and explaining the the purpose of each code segment, and showing how programming techniques can be used for a specific purpose. M3

I am going to use a “Puzzle game” to explain the purpose of each code segment, and showing how programming techniques can be used for a specific purpose.

I will first present the game, the controls, and then I will explain how I design it.

First the user starts the game by clicking on “ok”:

Then a Main window appears .Here numbers are arranged randomly you have to arrange numbers in ordered way.

How is Puzzle played?

To Swap number with its adjacent empty block, just click the number. Continue this process until all numbers are arranged in an ordered way.

To End game click icon in the upper right corner.

To End game click icon in the upper right corner.

To Re-arrange number click button in the upper middle of screen.

Design

The code is easy to read: this is not a bunch of unreadable code lines, and the game is fully functional.

Global Variable Declaration:

Dim x, Y, c As Integer

Dim bug As Integer

Dim flag As Integer

Dim

TEMP As Integer

The game is built up from a number of smaller sub-Modules. Each Module provides a distinct purpose. I have identified the Modules below.

* CMD_Click( )

* SWAP ( )

* COMPARE()

CMD_Click( ) :

If CMD(Index).Caption <> “” Then ‘To check that block is not empty

If selected block is not in first row:

If Index > 3 Then

If CMD(Index – 4).Caption = “” Then

To check that empty block is in first row or not

Call SWAP(Index, -4)

‘if Ok Swap

Call COMPARE

‘To check all number are arranged or not

Exit Sub

End If

End If

If selected block is not in last row:

If Index < 12 Then

If CMD(Index + 4).Caption = “” Then

‘To check that empty block is in first row or not

Call SWAP(Index, 4)

‘if Ok Swap

Call COMPARE

‘To check all number are arranged or not

Exit Sub

End If

End If

If selected block is not in last column:

< If (Index + 1) Mod 4 <> 0 Then

If CMD(Index + 1).Caption = “” Then

‘To check that adjacent right block is empty

Call SWAP(Index, 1)

‘if Ok Swap

Call COMPARE

‘To check all number are arranged or not

Exit Sub

End If

End If

If selected block is not in first column:

If Index Mod 4 <> 0 Then

If CMD(Index – 1).Caption = “” Then

‘To check that adjacent left block is empty

Call SWAP(Index, -1)

‘if Ok Swap

Call COMPARE

‘To check all number are arranged or not

Exit Sub

End If

End If

End If

SWAP ( ):

Module to swap selected number with empty block:

TEMP = CMD(A).Caption

CMD(A).Caption = CMD(A + B).Caption

CMD(A + B).Caption = TEMP

COMPARE():

‘Module to check that all number are arranged in

‘order or not if so, Show win Screen

For x = 0 To 14

If CMD(x).Caption = x + 1 Then

flag = flag + 1

ElseIf CMD(x).Caption <> x + 1

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Most programs may have many different stakeholders some will be investors or funders while others will be clients yet others will be the people responsible for the program and its outcome. All of which will have different influences, and different effects on how it run its course. To understand these influences we must put ourselves in the place of the stakeholder. By definition alone a stakeholder is a person, group or organization that has interest or concern in an organization. Stakeholders can be affected by the organization’s actions, objectives and policies. Some examples of key stakeholders are creditors, directors, employees government (and its agencies), owners (shareholders), suppliers, unions, and the community from which the business draws its resources.( http://www.businessdictionary.com) Not all stakeholders are equal. A company’s customers are entitled to fair trading practices but they are not entitled to the same consideration as the company’s employees. An example of negative...

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