Impact of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance: An Empirical Study of Autonomous Medical Institutions of Pakistan Alamdar Hussain Khan, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Ishfaq Ahmad, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Muhammad Aleem, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Wasim Hamed, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan Abstract In Pakistan, the Doctor’s profession is considered gorgeous and dignified because it is directly related to the lives of human beings. In Pakistani society, there is general inclination that in Government hospitals, the patients are not properly treated by the doctors. The purpose of this study is to find out factors that influence level of job satisfaction among the workforce of Autonomous Medical Institutions of Pakistan and its effects on performance. The sample of the study is comprised of 200 doctors, nurses, administrative and accounts staff working in Autonomous Medical institutions in Punjab. 250 Questionnaires were distributed out of which 200 were received back and used for analysis. SPSS is used for data analysis statistically.
It is concluded from study that facets such as: Pay, Promotion, Job Safety and Security, Working Conditions, Job Autonomy, Relationship with Co-Workers, Relationship with Supervisor and Nature of Work; affect the job satisfaction and performance. Keywords: Job satisfaction; Performance; Facets; Pakistan; Doctors; Medical Introduction Human resource is most vital asset for organizational development. It is the source that makes other source use and gets best return out of them. But getting best of human resource requires enormous moves by organization and their management. If the human resource or employees are happy and contended with the moves and actions of employer they do their best for the best of organization.
But if they are not in this state they might cause organization unmatchable loss. Thus managing human resource has become an art. Management always tries to use that art to satisfy their workforce. Greater the level of satisfaction of employees is higher will be returns for organization. And this has been realized by various researches, scholars, academicians, writers and leaders. In the literature of organizational behavior and organizational psychology, job satisfaction is considered the most extensively researched area (Keung-Fai, 1996, George & Jones, 2008). The different ways of satisfying the employees were found by 1
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the scholars and facilitated to the human resource managers to attract, motivate and retained the most committed workforce. Job satisfaction has direct impact on level of absenteeism, commitment, performance and productivity. Furthermore job satisfaction improves the retention level of employees and reduces the cost of hiring new employees (Murray, 1999). Alternatively, the outcome of job dissatisfaction is increase in the cost of recruitment, selection and training, discouragement of current employees and reduction in the growth of organization (Padilla-Velez, 1993). The dissatisfaction of the employees has adversely effect on the efficiency of the organization. So studying job satisfaction is one of the most important topics of organizations setup. Importance of job satisfaction can be realized by the example of doctors in Pakistan. When there was a severe strike by doctors in the province of Punjab, followed by strike in Sind, Baluchistan and Capital city/Islamabad. They were not satisfied with the pay, promotion and development policies, care given to doctors and many other factors. This led them to start strike and stay out of their jobs.
This proved to be a lash on the administration and public, as due to absence of doctors 60% of the country clinics and hospitals were out of action which in result caused 500 deaths of patients (Kazmi, 2011). It shows that satisfying employees at job is one of the most important functions of management and in its absence crisis like medical crisis in Pakistan might arise. This study aims to find out the factors which are present their in medical sector of Pakistan that makes employees stand for strike and restraining themselves from job. Literature Review Following section addresses various determinants of job satisfaction and their impact on various factors like job satisfaction and employees performance.
Impact of Rewards/pay on Job satisfaction and Performance Job satisfaction is an outcome of different factors like pay, promotion, the work itself, supervision, relationships with co-workers and opportunities for promotions (Opkara, 2002). Out of these factors pay is very important factor. Frye (2004) found that there is positive relationship between equity based compensation and performance. It was further concluded that compensation plays vital role in human capital intensive firms to attract and retain expert workforce. Furthermore the compensation has significantly impact on the level of job satisfaction of employees. It was also found that flexible compensation has no effect on the level of job satisfaction (Igalens & Roussel 1999). The study regarding the job satisfaction level of public sector mangers was conducted and it was concluded that the income is the major determinants of job satisfaction (Sokoya, 2000). The investigation about relationship among job satisfaction and pay was conducted and it was also found that job satisfaction is affected by the pay (Nguyen et al. 2003) Brudney and Coundry (1993) have explained different variables that influence performance of the employee in the organization. They included such as pay, organization commitment, relationship between pay and performance etc.
There are some empirical evidences that there is positive correlation between compensation and performance (e.g. Gneezy & Rustichini, 2000; Gardner et al., 2004; Tessema & Soeters, 2006). From the Literature Review we propose the Hypothesis: H1: Pay has positive impact on job satisfaction H2: Pay has positive impact on employees’ performance Imapct of Promotion on Job Satisfaction and Employee Performance The researcher in their results found the influence of different determinants of job satisfaction. Several studies focus on the demographic factors while others link the job satisfaction with reference to working environment. The other factors such as fair promotion system, job autonomy, leadership behavior, social relations are also the dominant in determining the level of job satisfaction (Dawson, 1987). Nguyen, Taylor, and Bradley (2003) concluded that Job satisfaction is the result of promotion opportunities in the organization. Teseema and Soeters (2006) concluded that there is positive relationship between promotion practices and perceived performance of employee.
And if organizations want to accelerate performance of employee and organization fair promotional opportunities should be given to employees (Park et al., 2003). On the basis of said previously studies conducted, we formulate the hypothesis: H3: The Promotion has positive impact on job satisfaction. H4: The Promotion has positive impact on employee performance. Impact of Job Safety and Security on Job satisfaction and Performance Various researcher conducted studies and found that job dissatisfaction is the outcome of insecurity among employees. (Ashford et al., 1989; Davy et al., 1991).The important factors like low job security, working conditions and the nature of work, low wages and lack of promotion, low job autonomy have adversely affect on the level of job satisfaction of employees.(Guest, 2004; Silla et al.,2005). Abegglen (1958) found during the study of Japanese workers that employment arrangement like lifetime employment and seniority system, job securityleads to high commitment. Bolt (1983), Mooney (1984), and Rosow and Zager (1985) concluded that the job performance decreases due to insecurity of job. Iverson (1996) argued that job security has significant impact on the organizational commitment. Morris et al. (1993) concluded the same.
The research on the job insecurity was conducted and it was found that job performance and organizational commitment are negatively correlated with job insecurity (Rosenblatt & Ruvio, 1996). In view of formerly studies we hypothesis: H5: The Job safety and security has positive impact on job satisfaction. H6: The Job safety and security has positive impact on employee performance. Impact of working Conditions on Job satisfaction and Performance The Researcher found that wok environment is the important determinant of job satisfaction of employees (Herzberg, 1968; Spector, 2008). The work environment in the new research was found the better determinant of job satisfactions by the scholars. (Reiner & Zhao, 1999; Carlan, 2007; Ellickson & Logsdon, 2001; Forsyth & Copes, 1994) Moreover variation exists in terms of pay packages, working conditions, incentives, recognition and fringe benefits for the employees (Lavy, 2007). It was found that job satisfaction is adversely affected by the factors such as lack of promotion, working conditions, low job security and low level of autonomy (Guest, 2004; Silla et al., 2005).
Ceylan (1998) concluded that the working conditions have affect on the satisfaction of employees. These include comfortable proper work and office spaces, temperature, lighting, ventilation etc. It supports the following hypothesis: H7: The working conditions have positive impact on job satisfaction. H8: The working conditions have positive impact on employee performance. Impact of Autonomy on Job satisfaction and Performance In politics, bioethical and moral attitude the concept of autonomy has its ancestry. It relates to the capacity of rational individual to take decision independently. The underpinning of the autonomy is to fortitude an individual’s actions in the context of moral responsibility. Self-governing of the people is referred to autonomy. (Smith, 1993) The researcher in their results found the influence of different determinants of job satisfaction. Several studies focus on the demographic factors while others link the job satisfaction with reference to working environment. The other factors such as fair promotion system, job autonomy, leadership behavior, social relations are also the dominant in determining the level of job satisfaction(Dawson, 1987).It was found that job satisfaction is adversely affected by the factors such as lack of promotion, working conditions, low job security and low level of autonomy (Guest, 2004; Sillaet al.2005).
Brewer et al. (2000) suggested that employees should be involved in the decision-making process. Kuo et al. (2010) argued the employee commitment and loyalty toward organization are significantly affected due to job characteristics like work redesign and employee self-governed. The literature review thus supported the hypothesis as under: H9: The Autonomy has positive impact on job satisfaction. H10: The Autonomy has impact on employee performance. Impact of Relationship with Co-Workers on Job satisfaction and Performance The scholars previous found that environmental factors are the important determinant of job satisfaction (Lambert et al., 2001). The level of salary, promotion, appraisal system, climate management, and relation with co-workers are the vital factors. James (1996) concluded that the working as a team has significant impact on the satisfaction level of employees as it affects their performance. It is essential to recognize to the significance of these factors to boost the satisfaction level in the workforce.
The researcher founds the factors like pay, promotion and satisfaction with co-workers that influence the employee feeling towards job satisfaction (Schermerhorn et al., 2005, p. 158). Padilla-Velez (1993) argued that the performance can be improved and absenteeism can be decreased with the help of socialization and interaction among employees. Thus on the basis of earlier studies we propose the hypothesis: H11: The relationship with co-workers has positive impact on job satisfaction. H12: The relationship with co-workers has positive impact on employee performance. Impact of Relationship with Supervisors on Job satisfaction and Performance Brunetto and Farr-Wharton (2002) concluded that supervision of the immediate manager increases the level of job satisfaction in the public sector employees. The productivity and performance of subordinates can be improved with managerial actions and supervision.
The recognition of the achievements by the supervisors leads toward job satisfaction and useful to solve the problems (Yen & McKinney, 1992). Okpara (2004) conducted the study of IT managers and found that job satisfaction among managers can be increased with the help of supervisions. It was different found that social relation, supervisor’s relationship little influence on job satisfaction at workplace. (Brown & Mcintosh, 2003).It was further found that job satisfaction is not the result of satisfaction with supervisors. (Roelen et 5 al., 2008).The recognition of the subordinate attainment by the supervisors enhances their job satisfaction level and also useful for solving the day to day problems. The productivity and performance of the subordinates is significant toward the managerial actions and supervision of the workers.(Yen & McKinney, 1992).
In view of said Literature we propose the Hypothesis: H13: The relationship with supervisors has positive impact on job satisfaction. H14: The relationship with supervisors has positive impact on employee performance. Impact of Nature of work on Job satisfaction and Performance The scholars have found different factors have significantly influence the job satisfaction. These factors are like pay, promotion opportunities, task clarity and association with co-workers and supervisors. Ting (1997) and Locke (1995) studied that the work itself has positively correlated with the satisfaction of employee. Robbins et al. (2003) refer to the work itself as “the extent to which the job provides the individual with stimulating tasks, opportunities for learning and personal growth, and the chance to be responsible and accountable for results. “The jobs matched with the competencies and mentally stimulating are likely by the employees (Robbins, 1993). Hence the Literature supports our Hypothesis: H15: The nature of work has positive impact on job satisfaction.
H16: The nature of work has positive effects on employee performance. Impact of Job satisfaction on Performance In the labor market there is demand of highly skilled, trained and qualified employees. The output and productivity is measured in terms the performance of its workforce. (Currall et al., 2005).It was found that better performance of the workforce is the result of level of job satisfaction. (Sousa-Poza & Sousa-Poza, 2000).Nanda and Brown (1977) have investigated the important employee performance indicators at the hiring stage. They concluded that level of job satisfaction and motivation affects the employee’s productivity. The high performer demand attractive packages from the employers. And now it becomes predicament for the human resource experts to retain the performer. (Sumita, 2004).The low level of job satisfaction adversely effects on the employee commitment and sequentially effect the achievement of organizational objectives and performance. Meyer (1999).So we propose the final Hypothesis: H17: The job satisfaction has positive impact on employee performance. Theoretical Framework
The above literature review supports the following theoretical framework that is as under: Pay Promotion Job Safety and Security Working Conditions Job Autonomy Relationship with Co-Workers Relationship with Supervisor Nature of the Work Job Performance
Fig. 1 Theoretical framework Methodology The study investigates the effects of Pay, Promotion, Job Safety and Security, Working Conditions, Job Autonomy, Relationship with Co-Workers, Relationship with Supervisor and Nature of the Work on job satisfaction and employee performance. The quantitative data was collected from the Autonomous Medical Institutions (AMI’s) of the Punjab that consists of a sample size of 200 including the Doctors, Nurses, Administrative, and Accounts & Finance staff from Basic Pay Scale 7-19. The convenient sampling technique was used to collect the data from the target population. The questionnaires were distributed to the AMI’s of Punjab and received by hand or mail. Instrument The questionnaire comprising of two parts, the first part was used to quantify the effects of different factors on job satisfaction and performance supported by the literature review. The first section included the questions about pay, promotion, job safety and security, working conditions, autonomy, relationship with co-workers, relationship with supervisor and nature of work.
The questions of job satisfaction and performance were also included in the questionnaire. The second part of the questionnaire was deliberated to enumerate the demographic factors like age, designation, education, experience, gender, job relevancy and nature of job. The alpha range was .901 that is adequate. The Likert scale was used to get the response indicating a score of 1 for strongly disagree, 2 for disagree, 3 for undecided, 4 for agree and 5 for strongly agree. Data analysis procedure The scholars argued that for accurate and comprehensive statistical results on large scale, the statistical packages are the most consistent instruments (Buglear, 2005). Due to accuracy in performing the statistical functions, many scholars have used SPSS and other statistical packages for data analysis.
The SPSS with 16 version is used in this study for statistical analysis of data collected through the questionnaire (version 11 was used by Okpara, 2004). Results and Findings Response rate The 250 questionnaires were distributed in the Autonomous Medical Institution’s of the Punjab and 200 were received, hence there was the 80% response received from the respondents.
The compositions of respondents are included in the demographic section of the questionnaire. The majority of the employees having the age 25-31 years are included in the sample because the induction age is 18 years in the Public Sector. Moreover, the satisfaction level of these employees is lesser as compared to employees having more tenure in the organization as the retirement age in the Public Sector is 60 years. The sample also consists of other age groups. The Pakistan is the male dominant society, therefore, the male are greater than the female in the sample. The population consists of doctors, paramedics, accounts and admin staff. Most of the employees have master qualification, so the majority of the sample has Master Degree. The benefits offered to the BPS 7-16 employees are less as compared to upper scales employees, so these are the major portion in the sample to check the job satisfaction level thoroughly.
The satisfaction level in the newly appointed employees is less as compared to employees having more tenure in the organization; hence the majority of the employees in the sample are having less tenure. As the most of the employees in the Health Department are appointed on permanent basis, so majority of the respondents in the sample are permanent employees. The procedure of Judd and Kenny (1981) and Baron and Kenny (1986) is used for the mediation of factor i.e. job satisfaction in this study. Three equations are developed to interpret the results. In the first equation the independent factors like Pay, Promotion, Job Safety and Security, Working Conditions, Job Autonomy, Relationship with Co-Workers, Relationship with Supervisor, Nature of the Work and mediating variable job satisfaction are regressed.
The second equation involved the regression of independent variables with the dependent variable performance of the employee. In the third equation the independent variable including the moderating variable are also regressed.
We examined in the equation 1a, 2a and 3a the mediating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between facets of job satisfaction such as Pay, Promotion, Job Safety and Security, Working Conditions, Job Autonomy, Relationship with Co-Workers, Relationship with Supervisor, Nature of the Work and the employee performance in the Autonomous Institutions of the Health Department.
In the equation (1a) the job satisfaction was regressed on facets of job satisfaction (mediator) and the results are found significant. In the second equation (2a) employee performance (dependent variable) was also regressed on the independent variables (predictor) to find the positive relationship. In the third equation (3a) the employee performance was regressed on the facets of job satisfaction and job satisfaction. In the equation 2(a) Beta (.057) is less than the equation 1(a) (.250) hence the job satisfaction is the significant mediator and fulfills the conditions of mediation. In the Table 2 three regression equations (1a, 2a and 3a) were used to find out the mediating effect of job satisfaction and relationship of facets of job satisfaction and employee performance. The relationship was found in the job satisfaction and facets of job satisfaction and the employee performance. The relationship between job satisfaction and facets of job satisfaction was more significant as compared to employee performance as indicated in the equation (3a).
The finding confirmed that job satisfaction is mediating in this model. Conclusions and Recommendations The study was conducted to find out determinants of job satisfaction and impact of job satisfaction on the employee performance in the Autonomous Medical Institutions of Health Department of Pakistan. It can be concluded from the study that facets of job satisfaction such as Pay, Promotion, Job Safety and Security, Working Conditions, Job Autonomy, Relationship with Co-Workers, Relationship with Supervisor, Nature of the Work; significantly affect the level of job satisfaction among Autonomous Medical Institutions of Pakistan.
The Government should consider all factors like promotion, working conditions, co-workers and nature of work which have significant impact on the job satisfaction level as proved in this study. In the light of above results it is, therefore, recommended that in order to enhance the employee performance in the Autonomous Medical Institutions, the Government should focus on all facets of job satisfaction and not only on any one of these factors. Limitation and future directions of the study This study considered only few facets of job satisfaction like pay, promotion Job Safety and Security, Working Conditions, Job Autonomy, Relationship with Co-Workers, Relationship with Supervisor and Nature of Work. There may be both explicit and implicit factors that may affect job satisfaction level. Sample size of the study is low which should be increased in order to realize the most important determinants at more generalized level.
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