Jose Rizals Poem and Writings Essay Sample
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Jose Rizals Poem and Writings Essay Sample
A depressive disorder is an illness that involves the body, mood, and thoughts. It interferes with daily life, normal functioning, and causes pain for both the person with the disorder and those who care about him or her. A depressive disorder is not the same as a passing blue mood. It is not a sign of personal weakness or a condition that can be willed or wished away. People with a depressive illness cannot merely “pull themselves together” and get better. Without treatment, symptoms can last for weeks, months, or years. Depression is a common but serious illness, and most people who experience it need treatment to get better. Appropriate treatment, however, can help most people who suffer from depression.
Not everyone who is depressed or manic experiences every symptom. Some people experience a few symptoms, some many. Severity of symptoms varies with individuals and also varies over time. Persistent sad, anxious, or empty mood
Feelings of hopelessness or pessimism
Feelings of guilt, worthlessness, or helplessness
Loss of interest or pleasure in hobbies and activities that were once enjoyed, including sex Decreased energy, fatigue, being “slowed down”
Difficulty concentrating, remembering, or making decisions
Insomnia, early morning awakening or oversleeping
Appetite and/or weight loss, or overeating and weight gain
Thoughts of death or suicide, suicide attempts
Persistent physical symptoms that do not respond to treatment, such as headaches, digestive disorders and chronic pain
There is no single known cause of depression. Rather, it likely results from a combination of genetic, biochemical, environmental, and psychological factors. Research indicates that depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain. Brain-imaging technologies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have shown that the brains of people who have depression look different than those of people without depression. The parts of the brain responsible for regulating mood, thinking, sleep, appetite, and behavior appear to function abnormally. In addition, important neurotransmitters—chemicals that brain cells use to communicate—appear to be out of balance.
But these images do not reveal why the depression has occurred. Some types of depression tend to run in families, suggesting a genetic link. However, depression can occur in people without family histories of it as well. Genetics research indicates that risk for depression results from the influence of multiple genes acting together with environmental or other factors. In addition, trauma, loss of a loved one, a difficult relationship, or any stressful situation may trigger a depressive episode. Subsequent depressive episodes may occur with or without an obvious trigger. Top of Form
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Depression in Women
Women experience depression about twice as often as men. Biological, life cycle, hormonal, and other factors unique to women may be linked to their higher depression rate. Researchers have shown that hormones directly affect brain chemistry that controls emotions and mood. Some women may be susceptible to a severe form of premenstrual syndrome called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Women affected by PMDD typically experience depression, anxiety, irritability, and mood swings the week before menstruation, in such a way that interferes with their normal functioning. Women with debilitating PMDD do not necessarily have unusual hormone changes, but they do have different responses to these changes.
They may also have a history of other mood disorders and differences in brain chemistry that cause them to be more sensitive to menstruation-related hormone changes. Scientists are exploring how the cyclical rise and fall of estrogen and other hormones may affect the brain chemistry that is associated with depressive illness.. Many women also face additional stresses of work and home responsibilities, single parenthood and caring for children and aging parents, abuse, poverty, and relationship strains. It remains unclear why some women faced with enormous challenges develop depression, while others with similar challenges do not. Depression in Men
Researchers estimate that at least 6 million men in the United States suffer from a depressive disorder every year. Research and clinical evidence reveal that while both women and men can develop the standard symptoms of depression, they often experience depression differently and may have different ways of coping with the symptoms. Men may be more willing to acknowledge fatigue, irritability, loss of interest in work or hobbies, and sleep disturbances rather than feelings of sadness, worthlessness, and excessive guilt. Some researchers question whether the standard definition of depression and the diagnostic tests based upon it adequately capture the condition as it occurs in men. Depression can also affect the physical health in men differently from women.
One study shows that, although depression is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in both men and women, only men suffer a high death rate. Instead of acknowledging their feelings, asking for help, or seeking appropriate treatment, men may turn to alcohol or drugs when they are depressed, or become frustrated, discouraged, angry, irritable, and, sometimes, violently abusive. Some men deal with depression by throwing themselves compulsively into their work, attempting to hide their depression from themselves, family, and friends. Other men may respond to depression by engaging in reckless behavior, taking risks, and putting themselves in harm’s way. More than four times as many men as women die by suicide in the United States, even though women make more suicide attempts during their lives. In light of the research indicating that suicide is often associated with depression, the alarming suicide rate among men may reflect the fact that many men with depression do not obtain adequate diagnosis and treatment that may be life saving.
There are several types of anxiety disorders including panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, specific phobias, and generalized anxiety disorder. Anxiety is a normal human emotion that everyone experiences at times. Many people feel anxious, or nervous, when faced with a problem at work, before taking a test, or making an important decision. Anxiety disorders, however, are different. They can cause such distress that it interferes with a person’s ability to lead a normal life. An anxiety disorder is a serious mental illness. For people with anxiety disorders, worry and fear are constant and overwhelming, and can be crippling. There are several recognized types of anxiety disorders, including: Panic disorder: People with this condition have feelings of terror that strike suddenly and repeatedly with no warning.
Other symptoms of a panic attackinclude sweating, chest pain, palpitations (unusually strong or irregular heartbeats), and a feeling of choking, which may make the person feel like he or she is having a heart attack or “going crazy.” Social anxiety disorder: Also called social phobia, social anxiety disorder involves overwhelming worry and self-consciousness about everyday social situations. The worry often centers on a fear of being judged by others, or behaving in a way that might cause embarrassment or lead to ridicule. Specific phobias: A specific phobia is an intense fear of a specific object or situation, such as snakes, heights, or flying. The level of fear is usually inappropriate to the situation and may cause the person to avoid common, everyday situations. Generalized anxiety disorder: This disorder involves excessive, unrealistic worry and tension, even if there is little or nothing to provoke the anxiety. What Are the Symptoms of an Anxiety Disorder?
Symptoms vary depending on the type of anxiety disorder, but general symptoms include: Feelings of panic, fear, and uneasiness
Cold or sweaty hands and/or feet
Shortness of breath
An inability to be still and calm
Numbness or tingling in the hands or feet
What Causes Anxiety Disorders?
The exact cause of anxiety disorders is unknown; but anxiety disorders — like other forms of mental illness — are not the result of personal weakness, a character flaw, or poor upbringing. As scientists continue their research on mental illness, it is becoming clear that many of these disorders are caused by a combination of factors, including changes in the brain and environmental stress. Like other brain illnesses, anxiety disorders may be caused by problems in the functioning of brain circuits that regulate fear and other emotions. Studies have shown that severe or long-lasting stress can change the way nerve cells within these circuits transmit information from one region of the brain to another.
Other studies have shown that people with certain anxiety disorders have changes in certain brain structures that control memories linked with strong emotions. In addition, studies have shown that anxiety disorders run in families, which means that they can at least partly be inherited from one or both parents, like the risk for heart disease or cancer. Moreover, certain environmental factors — such as a trauma or significant event — may trigger an anxiety disorder in people who have an inherited susceptibility to developing the disorder. Bipolar Disorder
Bipolar disorder is a mental condition that causes a person to fluctuate between mania and depression. It is characterized by unusual shifts in mood and energy levels. Bipolar disorder is also sometimes called “manic-depressive illness.”
Symptoms of bipolar disorder can gravely diminish a person’s quality of life. These symptoms are different from the normal highs and lows that everyone experiences at times. Bipolar disorder can damage relationships, hinder performance at work or school, cause dangerous or risky behavior, and even lead to suicidal thinking. But bipolar disorder can be treated and managed. People with this condition can lead full lives, usually with the aid of medication and ongoing therapy. Types of Bipolar Disorder
There are multiple types of bipolar disorder:
Bipolar I Disorder
The main symptom of bipolar I disorder is one or more manic episodes or mixed episodes that are not explained by another medical condition, and that are not the result of medications or other substances. Bipolar II Disorder
The main symptom of bipolar II disorder is the occurrence of one or more major depressive episodes accompanied by at least one hypomanic episode. Symptoms cause significant distress or impairment in work, at school, or in other personal endeavors. Frequently, people with bipolar II disorder do not recall their manic episodes. Cyclothymic Disorder
Cyclothymic disorder causes mood swings that are less severe than those of bipolar I or bipolar II. Symptoms include rapid changes in mood. It is more common in people who have their first episode at a younger age. Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
Someone may be diagnosed with this classification of bipolar disorder if he or she has too few symptoms or has symptoms that do not last long enough to meet the diagnostic criteria for other bipolar disorders. Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder
This is the diagnosis given when a person has had rapid changes in mood—with four or more episodes of major depression, mania, hypomania, or mixed symptoms within a year. What Causes Bipolar Disorder?
The exact cause of bipolar disorder is not known. But research has revealed some potential factors: Genetics
Bipolar disorder seems to run in some families, but having a relative with bipolar disorder does not mean that you will have the condition. Researchers have located some genes that are linked to bipolar disorder. Biological Abnormalities
Brain imaging and other types of studies are helping uncover differences in the brains of people with bipolar disorder. The significance of these differences is still uncertain. But some notable discoveries have been made. For example, some people with bipolar disorder have blood-flow and structural differences in parts of the brain that regulate mood and impulse control. Faulty Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters are naturally occurring chemicals in the brain and nervous system. They facilitate the communication between cells. In examining people with bipolar disorder, researchers have found hindered production and function of neurotransmitters that play important roles in mood regulation. Who Is at Risk for Bipolar Disorder?
Children with a parent or sibling who have been diagnosed with bipolar disorder (compared with those with no family history of it) are four to six times more likely to develop the illness (NIMH). One study found that 20 percent of adolescents suffering from major depression developed bipolar disorder within five years of the onset of depression (NIMH). The World Health Organization lists bipolar disorder as the sixth leading cause of disability in the world. The median age of onset for bipolar disorder is 25 years, although the illness can appear as early as childhood or as late as 50 (NIMH).
Almost half of all sufferers experienced onset before age 25 (Kessler, et al.). Individuals who are widowed, separated, or divorced have a greater likelihood of developing bipolar I disorder than people who are married or living with a partner (Kessler, et al.). (This may reflect the negative impact that early onset bipolar disorder can have upon the capacity to maintain intimate relationships.) A number of drugs are used to treat bipolar disorder, including mood stabilizers, antidepressants, and drugs that relieve anxiety. Depending on the type of bipolar disorder and the person’s individual symptoms, medical history, and overall health, he or she may be prescribed any one or a combination of these drugs. Some of the most commonly prescribed medications for bipolar disorder include: How Is Bipolar Disorder Treated?
Bipolar disorder requires lifelong treatment, even when the affected person feels fine. A psychiatrist or other mental health professional skilled in treating bipolar disorder usually leads treatment. A treatment plan may include a combination of medication, therapy, and other treatments that may be necessary, such as rehabilitation from substance abuse. Hospitalization may be necessary if a person is behaving dangerously, feeling suicidal, or becoming detached from reality. Psychiatrists typically recommend medication as a first step, to balance moods and control symptoms as quickly as possible. Once symptoms are managed, maintenance treatment is needed to manage bipolar disorder in the long term. Maintenance treatment is very important.
Without it, risk of relapse is higher, and there’s a greater chance that minor mood swings can turn into full-blown mania or depression. Some people with bipolar disorder benefit greatly from psychiatric treatment at a hospital. In a hospital setting, a patient can get help stabilizing his or her mood in a safe environment. Other options to consider are partial hospitalization or day treatment programs, which provide support and or counseling until symptoms are under control. What Are the Symptoms of Bipolar Disorder?
The symptoms of bipolar disorder depend on whether a person is in a manic phase or a depressed phase. These phases may last from days to months. In rare cases, manic and depressed symptoms occur at the same time or in fast succession. This is called a mixed episode. Mania Symptoms
A manic phase is marked by elevated mood and poor impulse control. A person in a manic episode might exhibit: increased energy
little need for sleep
One of the most dangerous symptoms of mania is the practice of reckless behavior, including: unprotected sexual encounters
binge drinking or drug use
A depression episode is marked by debilitating feelings of sadness. A person in a depression episode might exhibit: sadness
feelings of worthlessness or hopelessness
sleep disturbances (either oversleeping or inability to sleep) eating disturbances (either eating too much or too little)
withdrawal from friends and family
In bipolar disorder, suicide is a significant risk, occurring in 10 to 15 percent of people (Center for Quality Assessment and Improvement in Mental Health). Suicidal thoughts and attempts are more likely to happen when the individual is in a depressed state. Other forms of self-harm, such as self-mutilation, are also common in people with bipolar disorder. Seek emergency medical care if you or a loved one is experiencing suicidal thoughts. What is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD, ADD)? Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity). ADHD has three subtypes:
Most symptoms (six or more) are in the hyperactivity-impulsivity categories. Fewer than six symptoms of inattention are present, although inattention may still be present to some degree. Predominantly inattentive
The majority of symptoms (six or more) are in the inattention category and fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present, although hyperactivity-impulsivity may still be present to some degree. Children with this subtype are less likely to act out or have difficulties getting along with other children. They may sit quietly, but they are not paying attention to what they are doing. Therefore, the child may be overlooked, and parents and teachers may not notice that he or she has ADHD. Combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive
Six or more symptoms of inattention and six or more symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity are present. Most children have the combined type of ADHD.
Scientists are not sure what causes ADHD, although many studies suggest that genes play a large role. Like many other illnesses, ADHD probably results from a combination of factors. In addition to genetics, researchers are looking at possible environmental factors, and are studying how brain injuries, nutrition, and the social environment might contribute to ADHD. Genes. Results from several international studies of twins show that ADHD often runs in families. Researchers are looking at several genes that may make people more likely to develop the disorder. Knowing the genes involved may one day help researchers prevent the disorder before symptoms develop. Learning about specific genes could also lead to better treatments.
Children with ADHD who carry a particular version of a certain gene have thinner brain tissue in the areas of the brain associated with attention. This NIMH research showed that the difference was not permanent, however, and as children with this gene grew up, the brain developed to a normal level of thickness. Their ADHD symptoms also improved. Environmental factors. Studies suggest a potential link between cigarette smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy and ADHD in children. In addition, preschoolers who are exposed to high levels of lead, which can sometimes be found in plumbing fixtures or paint in old buildings, may have a higher risk of developing ADHD. Brain injuries. Children who have suffered a brain injury may show some behaviors similar to those of ADHD. However, only a small percentage of children with ADHD have suffered a traumatic brain injury. Sugar. The idea that refined sugar causes ADHD or makes symptoms worse is popular, but more research discounts this theory than supports it.
In one study, researchers gave children foods containing either sugar or a sugar substitute every other day. The children who received sugar showed no different behavior or learning capabilities than those who received the sugar substitute. Another study in which children were given higher than average amounts of sugar or sugar substitutes showed similar results. In another study, children who were considered sugar-sensitive by their mothers were given the sugar substitute aspartame, also known as Nutrasweet. Although all the children got aspartame, half their mothers were told their children were given sugar, and the other half were told their children were given aspartame.
The mothers who thought their children had gotten sugar rated them as more hyperactive than the other children and were more critical of their behavior, compared to mothers who thought their children received aspartame. Food additives. Recent British research indicates a possible link between consumption of certain food additives like artificial colors or preservatives, and an increase in activity. Research is under way to confirm the findings and to learn more about how food additives may affect hyperactivity. Signs & Symptoms
Inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be inattentive, hyperactive, or impulsive sometimes, but for children with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe and occur more often. To be diagnosed with the disorder, a child must have symptoms for 6 or more months and to a degree that is greater than other children of the same age. Children who have symptoms of inattention may:
Be easily distracted, miss details, forget things, and frequently switch from one activity to another Have difficulty focusing on one thing Become bored with a task after only a few minutes, unless they are doing something enjoyable Have difficulty focusing attention on organizing and completing a task or learning something new Have trouble completing or turning in homework assignments, often losing things (e.g., pencils, toys, assignments) needed to complete tasks or activities Not seem to listen when spoken to
Daydream, become easily confused, and move slowly
Have difficulty processing information as quickly and accurately as others Struggle to follow instructions.
Children who have symptoms of hyperactivity may:
Fidget and squirm in their seats
Dash around, touching or playing with anything and everything in sight Have trouble sitting still during dinner, school, and story time Be constantly in motion
Have difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.
Children who have symptoms of impulsivity may:
Be very impatient
Blurt out inappropriate comments, show their emotions without restraint, and act without regard for consequences Have difficulty waiting for things they want or waiting their turns in games Often interrupt conversations or others’ activities.
ADHD Can Be Mistaken for Other Problems
Parents and teachers can miss the fact that children with symptoms of inattention have the disorder because they are often quiet and less likely to act out. They may sit quietly, seeming to work, but they are often not paying attention to what they are doing. They may get along well with other children, compared with those with the other subtypes, who tend to have social problems. But children with the inattentive kind of ADHD are not the only ones whose disorders can be missed. For example, adults may think that children with the hyperactive and impulsive subtypes just have emotional or disciplinary problems. Treatments
Currently available treatments focus on reducing the symptoms of ADHD and improving functioning. Treatments include medication, various types of psychotherapy, education or training, or a combination of treatments. Treatments can relieve many of the disorder’s symptoms, but there is no cure. With treatment, most people with ADHD can be successful in school and lead productive lives. Researchers are developing more effective treatments and interventions, and using new tools such as brain imaging, to better understand ADHD and to find more effective ways to treat and prevent it.
Did you know that kulintang music is used for a cure of the sick? “A special use of the kulintang applies to a cure of the sick bpagipat, the more complex of similar rituals among the Magindanaon… The music is a necessary part of the ritual… Many cures have been made… and the tradition persists, despite new beliefs introduced by Islam.” (From Gongs & bamboo: a panorama of Philippine musical instruments. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1998)
Did you know that the lyrics of the Philippine National Anthem had versions in three languages? The national anthem composed in 1898 remained without words until Jose Palma wrote the poem Filipinas, which was used as the anthem’s lyrics in 1899. In the 1920s, the American colonial government commissioned the translation of the original Spanish lyrics into English and the product of which was officially adopted by the Philippine Commonwealth in 1934. In 1956, the Filipino translation by Ildefonso Santos and Julian Cruz Balmaceda was officially proclaimed. Some revisions were still made in 1962, the product of which is the version which is now sung publicly.