1.1 Explain the features of effective team performance
Tuckman (1965) suggests that understanding is required in order for teams to reach maturity. Tuckman phases of team development are: Forming
And later he added Adjourning.
1.2 Identify the challenges experienced by developing teams
Team development often requires organisational change and some staff are fearful of change and worried about working with people they do not know. Personality clashes sometimes may become issues. It is important when developing teams to recruit staff with the relevant skills and expertise required and new team members should be inducted in a way that they understand the team working principles and what their roles are so they can quickly fit in as part of the team. 1.3 Identify the challenges experienced by established teams Established teams can become complacent and it is important to maintain enthusiasm and momentum. It is important any conflicts are resolved quickly, fairly and appropriately and that staff have regular performance reviews so they are clear on how they are performing and credit is given for good performance and also for good team working.
1.4 Explain how challenges to effective team performance can be overcome It can be difficult to maintain effective team performance. It is important to select and support appropriate people who are capable of sharing the organisational goals and who are committed to the service outcomes. It is important providers are transparent about their values and communicate a clear vision of what their teams are expected to achieve in a reasonable timescale. 1.5 Analyse how different management styles may influence outcomes of team performance Management styles can be divided into three main categories of autocratic, paternalistic or democratic and they reflect the ways managers make decisions relating to their subordinates. A leader can be anyone in a team that has the ability to influence others. As teams mature and develop confidence the style of management and leadership will change to enable team members to take on the leadership functions themselves. Within my organisation team leaders are developed to successfully run each shift. 1.6 “Analyse methods of developing and maintaining:
1.6a trust & 1.6b accountability
People who arrange their own care through the use of personal budges and direct payments may be particularly vulnerable when they have to employ their own team to deliver services. Enabling Excellence (Dept of Health 2011) sets out to propose a system of assured voluntary registration for unregistered workers. Service users may be vulnerable and they will need to have confidence in the teams that provide their services. The primary focus of a leader is to establish trust and this arises from character and competence. Staff registered with professional bodies will have systems of accountability. 1.7 Compare methods of addressing conflict within a team
Conflicts and arguments may occur within teams, particularly at key times in the year (eg during summer holidays or at Christmas time with staff having young families who want time off. The workload or the type of work, possibly with challenging service users can be stressful, along with unsociable or long working hours. This can all lead to stress within the staff members. Conflict can be an inevitable result of working in a team but it must not be left to get out of hand. Sometime disputes can be viewed as a positive allowing teams to discuss issues and work better together supporting one another and focussing on positive outcomes for the service users.
Fisher and Ury (1983) argue that most disputes can be resolved with principled negotiation. They suggest a four stage process: Separate people from the problem
Focus on interests rather than positions
Generate a variety of options
Insist that the agreement can be based on the above criteria It is important for a manager to select team player that work well with each other to ensure good performance.
2.1 Identify the components of a positive culture within own team It is important that there is cultural awareness and acceptance within the staff team, as well as a tolerance of difference and diversity. Team culture encompasses the professional values of the team members. As a new team member you are inducted to understand the team’s culture and values and how you can become a valued member of the team. Working in health and social care staff care for others and they should expect to be cared for at work. A good manager can create a workforce community culture where talented staff are valued and retained.
A positive culture within a team promotes a positive outcome for the service users. 2.2 Demonstrate how own practice supports a positive culture in the team Reflection on and in practice allows individuals to consider their performance, this is your own internal supervisor and you can identify your strengths and weaknesses within the team. All team m embers can support each other to develop their weaknesses and share their strengths. When workers consider their own practice the two most collaborative skills they need to have as a team member are to: Appreciate and understand their own responsibilities within a team Communicate from a service user perspective
2.3 Use systems and processes to support a positive culture in the team It is important that there are mechanisms in place to support the exchange of information on effective working practice Hackman (2002) describes four types of teams:
1. Manager led teams
2. Self-managing teams
3. Self-designing teams
4. Self-governing teams
2.4 Encourage creative and innovative ways of working within the team
It important to promote an environment where innovation and change can be developed. Staff need to feel free to challenge the status quo and suggest ideas for improvement.
Staff should be encouraged to be proactive with the early identification of service users at risk to enable more service users to take control over their own well-being.
3.1 Identify the factors that influence the vision and strategic direction of the team
Strategy is about planning. Setting a vision is about ensuring service users and staff, as well as other professionals and organisations have clear ideas about social care should look like in the future.
Factors to consider would include:
What service targets do we want to meet?
What level of services do we provide now?
What could we do better for our service users?
What do service users say we need to stop doing?
What service provision do we need to preserve?
What do we need to do to maintain motivation within our team?
3.2 Communicate the vision and strategic direction to team members
Communication systems are vital in health and social care teams. They provide clarity of purpose and reinforce and check for common understanding among team members.
The main formal communication channel is team meetings which should be meaningful discussions that produce ideas and solutions to service problems in the minimum amount of time.
Team cohesion can be supported by the use of IT solutions eg texting, teleconferencing, emails etc.
3.3 Work with others to promote a shared vision within the team
Team members must also engage positively across other groups and agencies, such as the police force and the education system. This provides the opportunity to share ideas and experiences.
Service users and their advocates or carers need to engage fully in service development plans. Also voluntary or unpaid staff can play a part in team development.
3.4 Evaluate how the vision and strategic direction of the team influences team practice
The acceptance of team working as an effective means of delivering quality health and social care services has been evident in policy since 1993 (Borrill et al, 1999)
Targets should be reviewed as the part of any team development activity. The process of review should raise issues around how the team works together and highlights what will enable the team to grow and develop their practice.
Targets should have a service user focus. Accurate and timely feedback is required.
4.1 Identify team objectives
A team needs to know what is expected of it. Objectives are statements that define the purpose of the team, often referred to as targets or goals.
All health and social care services are now expected to be responsive to the individual and person-centred. Team objectives need to be aligned with national and local service priorities.
4.2 Analyse how the skills, interests, knowledge and expertise within the team can meet agreed objectives
A health and social care team with the right mix of people, with the right values and experiences to deploy in support of people with complex needs is more likely to be able to deliver successful outcomes.
Practice settings often provide an ideal setting in which teams can learn and reflect on their experiences (Eraut & Hirsh, 2008)
4.3 Facilitate team members to actively participate in the planning process
The task of team planning is to create an organisation that responds to the needs of its service users (Dowling et al 2006).
The plans produced should cover all the team’s objectives and each one should specify:
Steps to achievement
4.4 Encourage sharing of skills and knowledge between team members
One of the most important ways in which new members of any health and social care team are empowered to share their understanding of each other’s roles is via a system of induction that has a consistent format. (Skills for Care 2010a)
Team members benefit from learning from the more experienced team members who can help the less experienced by mentoring and coaching the to become more confident and thus more capable of handling their practice.
4.5 Agree roles and responsibilities with team members
All team members should have interesting and valued roles to perform that are clear and unambiguous.
Team roles need to be flexible enough to accommodate individual differences. In addition as the concepts of personalisation are adopted then service users need to be accepted as core members of the team.
5.1 Set personal work objectives with team members based on agreed objectives
Health and Social care teams are subject to regular supervision and annual individual performance reviews (Morrison 2005).
Individuals need to be able to consider how they can relate to service users and be able to assess their team working strengths and weaknesses.
5.2 Work with team members to identify opportunities for development and growth
All practice settings or situations provide learning opportunities and everyone within the team should have the desire to develop and grow their existing role.
All team members should fully engage with continuing professional development opportunities to ensure they are up to date with practices in their field.
5.3 Provide advice and support to team members to make the most of identified development opportunities
All team members need time to reflect and opportunities to discuss their concerns, they need a safe and supportive environment that values their contribution.
Mentorship or shadowing is one way in which a trusted colleague can guide a team member on both personal and career development.
Individuals can start the process of managing themselves by forward planning their future and their personal development plans.
5.4 Use a solution focused approach to support team members to address identified challenges Positive change approaches are ways of communicating positive outcomes that can help individuals envision a gradual change in their practice (Myers 2008)
The process involves helping the individual envision a preferred practice outcome, using scales to measure and develop progress towards that outcome and identifying the small practical steps towards their successful future.
6.1 Monitor and evaluate progress towards agreed objectives
Monitoring a health and social care team’s performance is essential so that any threats to its service delivery are identified early and corrective actions taken.
There are two dimensions of team functioning, the tasks the team are required to do, and the social climate that impacts on how they operate. Of the two the social climate will determine how team members cope with diversity of opinions, accept difference and resolve conflict.
6.2 Provide feedback on performance to:
6.2a the individual & 6.2b the team
Feedback on individual performance should be based on how well individuals have completed their work assignments and cooperated with other team members. It is an ideal opportunity to motivate by giving praise where deserved.
One method of team feedback is to have one team member observe or audit the team and keep a careful record of what members say in team interactions and the effects on team behaviour. Teams should be able to agree on realistic performance indicators.
6.3 Provide recognition when individual and team objectives have been achieved
People feel valued and motivated if they are rewarded for their efforts. Rewards need not be financial if someone makes a difference to a service user’s wellbeing this can intrinsically be rewarding and motivating.
Team rewards are more effective when they do not focus on any individuals but on the whole team.
6.4 Explain how team members are managed when performance does not meet requirements
If clear objectives are not met it is easier to notice someone who is underperforming. Some people often put less effort in if they are working as part of a team, often those that are more experienced or of a higher status.
If issues of poor performance are to be discussed there must be clear evidence that standards of service were not met. In dealing with the worst case scenario of poor performance there should be policies and procedures in place to ensure that if they need to discipline staff they do so in a way that is legal, fair and transparent (ACAS 2009)