• The term learner-centered approach focusing on the student’s learning and what they do to achieve this, has widespread usage. • Implementing learner-centered approach involves changes in three areas: 1. Curriculum Design,
2. Teaching and Learning Methods and
3. Assessment Practices.
Learner-Centered Approach to Curriculum Design
• A learner centered approach to curriculum design gives
• A Learner-Centered Approach places emphasis on:
✓ Learning communities,
✓ Curriculum integration and
✓ Clearly defined learning outcomes.
What are Learning Outcomes?
• A focus on learning outcomes suggests that faculty focus first on what is essential that students know or be able to do following completion of a program. • Learning outcomes are related to the need analysis of the student rather than the needs of the instructor.
Learner-Centered Curriculum (LCC):
➢ Learner-centered curriculum focus primarily on individual students’ learning. ➢ This design emphasizes on individual development.
➢ This approach is to organize the curriculum on the basis of LEARNER’S ✓ Needs
✓ Interests and
History / Concept of LCC:
➢ This idea was first presented in 18th century by ROUSSEAU ➢ Then in 19th century by PESTALOZZY
➢ Later in 1896-1904 by John Dewey in his laboratory school. ➢ In 1919 the Association for the Advancement of Progressive Education was formed which also supported the idea. ✓ It was later called Progressive Education Association (PEA)
Progressive Education Association:
The aim of this association was
• The development of the individual, based upon the scientific study of his mental, physical, spiritual and social characteristics and needs.
Characteristic Features of LCC:
1. The knowledge in the curriculum plan is based
1. In General—learner’s needs and interests
2. In specific —needs and interests of the population 2. It is Flexible because it is consulted and instructed individually 3. Frequent use of student activity.
4. The learner is actively engage in constructing their own knowledge.
APPLICATIONS OF LCC:
The most common approaches to meet the need and interests of learners are 1. The grouping of students for special programs.
2. Multiple curricula in colleges and universities,
3. Elective system at secondary and higher levels is providing approaches to individualization. 4. Multiplicity of programs for special groups.
5. Provision of options for individual students.
6. The system of mini-courses planned for students to fit their special needs and interests accordingly. 7. Currently the movement in higher education and expansion of it by “Open University” arrangements illustrates the feature of the needs and interests design.
Requirements of LCC:
1. Facilitate exploration by encouraging risk-taking, collaboration, and planning. 2. Provide ample experiences for students to encounter new information, as well as help in making sense of it. 3. Allow students to “personalize” their discoveries
4. Instruction must reflect how learning occurs
5. Focus on large, connected themes
6. Curriculum must include higher-level habits.
7. Both student-driven and teacher-driven appropriate at times; 8. Higher cognitive skills stressed
Benefits of a LCC:
1. A stronger bond between teaching and the curriculum; 2. Greater emphasis on the students’ needs, an aspect which could be especially helpful for students 3. The research on teaching (e.g. action research) can concentrate on more relevant issues; 4. A more realistic description of the role of teachers who have always been and will always be curriculum developers; 5. Problem-based inquiry;
6. Hands-on, on-site, experiential learning;
7. Discovery by students and teachers together;
8. Performance and formative assessment
9. Encourage both group and individual learning;
10. The development of instruments which help teachers to do their jobs more efficiently; 11. A stronger demand on universities to define their requirements more thoroughly; 12. As part of “higher education teaching” this approach will also help students.
Limitations of LCC:
1. It Neglects the social goals.
2. These approaches do not necessarily possess the flexibility of student involvement in planning. 3. There are students who do not relate well to student-centered learning in spite of a teacher’s best efforts. 4. Also students find it difficult to work in teams because they have not been taught team skills.
Teachers’ Role in LCC:
1. Pre -course Planning Procedures
2. Content Planning
4. Assessment and Evaluation
1. Pre -course Planning Procedures:
• Collection of various types of Biographical Data, Current Proficiency Level, Age, Educational Background, Nationality etc. 1.1 Need analysis
• Criteria and rationale for grouping learners
• The selection and sequencing of Course Content, Course Length, Intensity and Duration. 1.2 Grouping learners
• Teachers group students into different groups in one class and teach them by regarding them of the same level.
2. Content Planning:
2.1 Content selection
• Examine learner data and extract information relating to the purposes for which learners are studying or attending a certain class. 2.2 Content gradation
• It needs to be sequenced.
• Teachers should work hard to stimulate classroom acquisition. • They should organize the activities properly so that learners can be fully involved in activities.
4. Assessment and Evaluation:
• In learner-centered curriculum, teachers and learners need to be involved in evaluation process. Besides above mentioned roles there are some other important roles which are played by the teacher in LCC. 1. Facilitate growth by utilizing the interests and unique needs of students as a guide. 2. He acts as a facilitator for helping & guiding students to access information – Interest
– organize &
– use knowledge to solve problems.
3. A teacher helps students to foster critical thinking via • Reasoning
• Decision – making and
• Problem solving.
4. He engages the students cognitively & emotionally with the learning tasks. 5. He promotes collaborative learning.
6. Draw upon the relation between the student’s prior knowledge & experiences to the new knowledge. According to George B. Charles
“I m not a teacher, only a fellow traveler of whom you asked the way.” “My role is to point out the scenic attraction, & decide where the path leads…..”