Barangay 663 in Ermita Manila is surrounded by three (3) universities namely, Adamson University, Technological University of the Philippines and Philippine National University. In this case, this said barangay has obviously many carinderias, sari-sari stores and bakery. Most of the time, students hang-out in these places and it cannot be denied that the area or the streets have trashes.
Ever since, flood is the main problem whenever there is a typhoon. The people in the community have nothing to blame on but the garbages that are not properly thrown in the trashcans, especially plastics. This research paper is conducted to help the people in Barangay 663 lessen their carelessness in throwing their trash anywhere they want. Also, the group will be providing solutions to the problem of the community.
Theoretical Framework of this thesis is focused on the community, the action of the government in order to manage the waste, reduce the effect of the waste and their choice of action to solve the problem (Scientific Framework – Chapter 1. Theory). Waste is deﬁned as “a portable object that has been abandoned by the owner” and also as an “orderly disposal garbage” (Bilitewski et al 1994, p. 21). Waste is classiﬁed in categories such as municipal solid waste (MSW), agricultural and animal refuse, industrial residues, extraction and mining waste, construction and demolition debris and sewage sludge among others. The distinction that is made from MSW to other types of waste is in its origin (Scientific Framework – Chapter 1. Theory). MSW emerges from households, commerce and trade, small businesses, ofﬁce buildings and institutions (schools, hospitals, government buildings).
This includes bulky waste, which includes voluminous unwanted items such as old furniture, found in households; green waste such as garden waste (i.e. leaves, grass, tree branches); street sweeping products and market cleaning materials (United Nations Statistic Division, 2007) Waste is intimately related to our consumption patterns as well as the development, population growth, and economy of every nation. It is part of the fabric of our life; its adequate disposal is crucial to sustaining the well-being of all living things in our world (Scientific Framework – Chapter 1. Theory).
Waste disposal is not a problem because it is natural for human to produce waste. On the other hand, waste disposal system is a system that would make sure that the waste that the people has produce would turn into a productive material for the society or it could simply be considered a waste and be put off to a different location. This could produce a negative effect, because some people are uneducated with the system that the government has produced in order to maintain the cleanliness of the community.
Climate change is the effect of waste disposal to the environment due to the effect of carbon dioxide. When people have no place for their own waste, then waste is burn and that produce carbon dioxide that goes to the atmosphere that is reactive to tha molecules of the atmosphere. Thus, it is the waste is the cause of the hole in the atmosphere that is melting the icebergs that is why it is sometimes too cold or too hot in the country.
Students are responsible to ensure that their personal waste would go to the trash bin in order to be dispersed properly in the waste disposal. In order to integrate the waste disposal system in the community that would lessen personal waste from water and air pollution. Statement of the Problem
1.What are the profile of the respondents with regards to:
c)( ) Living in Brgy. 663 or School
2.What is the level of awareness by the households in Barangay 663 especially to the people who do not live there (e.g. students, office personnel) in the possible calamity that may take place in the area? 3.How is the treatment of the different households and students in disposing their garbage? 4.How do the public servants deal with the problem of garbage disposal?
Nowadays, people in Barangay 663 are becoming conscious about their surroundings through observation and experience. All they can do now is to be more responsible to avoid unwanted situations.
Scope and Limitations of the Study
This study will tackle the problem of waste and how it should turn into something that would benefit the community and awareness of how individuals and students could play an active role to the solutions.
The study will be conducted in Barangay 663. The respondents are the households in the barangay and students that study near the area.
This research is limited on suggesting solutions to help the problems that the community is facing. The researcher does not discuss all about the Republic Act 9003. However, the researchers would provide information on how the awareness of the household to waste affects their course of action to the problem. Significance of the Study
The significance of this study is to broaden the knowledge or educate and awareness of the people who involved or who may involve in the community about the effects of improper disposal of waste in the community. To critically study and analyze the situation that provides effective solution regarding disposal of waste in the baranggay that may lead to any various effects to the community that affects the everyday lives of the people surrounds the community and that can also resulted to unhealthy living. Moreover, through this research study, people will become responsible to the community to protect and to preserve the environment and also for the sake of the next generation.
Definition of the Terms
The following terms are defined in the context of how it is being used in the research study. Disposing – Get rid of by throwing away or giving or selling to someone else. Emissions – The production and discharge of something, esp. gas or radiation. Garbage – Wasted or spoiled food and other refuse, as from a kitchen or household. Greenhouse gases – A gas that contributes to the greenhouse effect by absorbing infrared radiation. Improper disposal – is a global phenomenon that we people are facing nowadays. Pollutants – waste matter that contaminates the water or air or soil. Recyclables – it is capable of being used again.
Solvents – The liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution. Waste Disposal – is determining if materials have any inherent value that can be used for composting or recycling. Waste Management – the collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products.
Review of Related Literature
I.Meaning of Improper Waste Disposal
Improper disposal means having no proper waste management systems, which ensures safe disposal of wastes. Waste from industries when improperly disposed may cause toxins to be released in air, water and land. There is also a danger of greenhouse gases being released from this. Some wastes also contain substances hazardous in nature, when not properly disposed. They are plastics, electronic wastes or better known as e-waste (Improper waste disposal, 2010). The sources, types and effects of air pollution are known and can be monitored. Scientists look at the emissions sources that release pollutants into the air and their effects on the natural environment. Some kinds of air pollution can be perceived or detected by humans, others cannot. Pollutants can be transported long distances and are measured as concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, particular matter and carbon monoxide among other components. Scientists have proven that a high concentration of all the above causes discomfort such as eyes irritation and respiratory problems (Scientific Framework – Chapter 1. Theory, n.d.).
II.Effects of Improper Waste Disposal in the Community
A.Effects of Improper Waste Disposal
We all know that tossing everyday items into the trash can seem like second nature to many people. We are implementing recycling techniques into your lifestyle; we are taking a positive step toward helping the environment. Improper garbage disposal isn’t just an eyesore; it poses a serious threat to nature (Coleene, 2012). Every household has some hazardous products stored inside the home and most of this is thrown away without reference to correct disposal. Chemicals are poured down the drains, leak into storm water disposal systems and eventually pollute the drainage system, which ran a direct threat to Human health. Products such as aerosols, bleaches, polishes, batteries, waste oil, bleach, pesticides, and electronics contain hazardous material. They contain solvents that affect the lungs, affect the body and skin; some of these items contain petroleum products that can catch fire. Car batteries contain lead which is slow to deteriorate and can affect the healthy lives of thousands of people over a long period of time. Burning of waste creates atmospheric pollutants which affect the air we breathe so that Asthma (for example) is on the increase (What are the environmental impacts of improper disposal of waste, 2012). Some of the effects:
It is important to learn the basics of recycling so that the waste that does end up in landfills can be disposed of properly. Plastics, metals, papers and certain types of glass can all be recycled at your local recycling center. If you take the time to send these items to recyclable locations, the items can be reused and returned to consumers. They won’t end up as trash or hurting the environment. If recyclables are placed into the ground they can potentially contaminate the surrounding soil. The Western Courier shares with readers that as plastic water bottles break down they can release DEHA, a type of carcinogen that can cause reproductive problems, liver issues and weight loss. This type of chemical can leach into the soil and cause contamination that can reach plant and animal life as well as water sources. Newspapers or paper that contains ink can be toxic to the soil as well. If the garbage is dumped or not contained properly in a landfill it will contaminate the surrounding ground (Boehlke, 2010). b)Air Contamination
When disposing of garbage that contains harmful chemicals such as bleach, acid or oil it is important that it is disposed of in approved containers and labeled correctly. Paper, plastics and other materials that are burned can contaminate the air when they are burned. Over time the chemicals can build up in the ozone layer (Boehlke, 2010). B.Garbage Disposal
Humans have always had an impact on their surroundings. Garbage is one of our biggest effects on nature. Unlike other animals, humans create too much waste for nature to keep up. American’s create almost 210 million tons of waste a year. Almost 42 percent of that garbage is in paper wastes. With the continually rising of the earth’s population, the situation is going to get harder and harder to slow, or fix (Garbage Reduction, n.d.). With garbage comes pollution. In our burning of garbage we are destroying the atmosphere just as fast as we are just leaving the garbage on the ground. When you burn garbage it gives off extremely poisonous gases into the atmosphere. If a person breathes this air it can hurt their lungs and if untreated can result in death. Even if we bury our garbage it will not go away. By polluting the ground it can seep into our farming soil and even into our ground water (Garbage Reduction, n.d.). C.Improper Waste Disposal Consequences
Most people know that certain types of waste need to be disposed of in specific ways, in order to keep from contaminating the environment through improper waste disposal. Taking old paint to the hazardous facility, keeping recyclables out of the trash, and various other rules of disposal are all designed as a form of protection for the world around you. However, not everyone realizes the major consequences that can come from disregarding these rules. Everyone slips at one time or another and disposes of waste in an irresponsible way, but once you’re aware of what improper waste disposal can do – and once you realize the scope of the problem if everyone in the world keeps slipping once or twice – you’ll probably pay a lot more attention to the issue (Improper Waste Disposal Consequences, 2013). Few side effects of improper waste disposal:
•Litter can pose a threat to the health and well being of various animals:
the stories about fish stuck in six-pack rings that blew into the water aren’t fictions (Improper Waste Disposal Consequences, 2013). •Hazardous waste, if dumped into the environment, leeches into the ground – and the ground water. The ground water is used for lots of things you may not realize, including watering the local fields, which grow the food people eat. Oh, and most communities get their drinking water from down there, too (Improper Waste Disposal Consequences, 2013). Waste disposal procedures exist because people have realized that certain types of waste can do damage if they’re just thrown anywhere. The system of waste disposal was developed through lots of research, and is carefully planned to funnel waste into various places, and through various disposal methods, in order to ensure the safety and health of humans as well as the planet. The problem is that this carefully planned system doesn’t work if people don’t participate in it; when you dispose of your waste, you’re the first step in the chain. if you do it properly, the waste goes on to its safe destination. If you don’t – or if anyone else along the chain doesn’t – do it right, the waste gets sent off into places where it can do plenty of damage (Improper Waste Disposal Consequences, 2013).
III.Definition, Principles and Concepts of Waste Management
Waste Management shall mean the collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage, and other waste products. Waste management encompasses management of all processes and resources for proper handling of waste materials, from maintenance of waste transport trucks and dumping facilities to compliance with health codes and environmental regulations (Waste management, 2013). A.Basic principles and concepts of Waste Management
Waste is introduced into the environment due to the day-to-day activities of humans. Waste management refers to the many methods and processes of dealing with waste at every stage from generation and collection through to final disposal. Waste needs to be managed in order to prevent contact with humans or their immediate environment. Therefore, the main purpose of waste management is to isolate waste from humans and the environment, and consequently, safeguard individual, family and community health. In addition, the aesthetic value of a better outlook and a clean physical environment is important for our emotional well being (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
The waste that people produce can be categorized as liquid waste or solid waste depending on its physical state. It can also be categorized as hazardous or non-hazardous (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
Hazardous wastes are not classified by their physical state (solid, liquid or gas) but by their properties and potential to cause harm. Hazardous wastes are defined as wastes that have one or more of the following properties. They may be: •Corrosive (substances that cause damage on contact, e.g. acids) •Ignitable (materials that can catch fire easily like benzene) •Toxic (materials that can be poisonous to humans when inhaled or ingested, or come in contact with skin or mucous membranes) •Reactive (substances that can yield a harmful chemical if they react with other substances) •Infectious (substances that are capable of causing or communicating infection). Non-hazardous wastes include all other types of waste.
Liquid waste includes human waste, runoff (storm water or flood water), sullage, industrial wastewater and other forms of wastewater from different sources. Human waste is mainly composed of feces and urine, which together are known as excreta. All human body waste is classed as liquid waste. The mixture of human waste with wastewater is known as sewage and also sometimes known as blackwater. Runoff is simply rainwater that collects on the ground and runs off into channels, ditches and rivers. Sullage, also known as greywater, is water that has been used for washing in bathrooms and kitchens; it does not include human waste (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
Human waste is biodegradable and when contained in a waste containment facility (for example, a pit latrine or septic tank) it undergoes a biological digestion process by which microorganisms, particularly bacteria, decompose the organic matter. The decomposing bacteria found in pit latrines and septic tanks do not require oxygen and are called anaerobic bacteria. The digestion process may take from several days to a few months, depending on the atmospheric temperature and other local conditions, before it is completely decomposed or degraded. The digested waste matter is called sludge (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
Biodegradable wastes are those that can be broken down (decomposed) into their constituent elements by bacteria and other microorganisms. The term can be applied to both liquid and solid waste. Human and animal wastes, food waste, paper, and agricultural wastes are all biodegradable. This natural biological decomposition process ensures that, under the right conditions, these wastes do not accumulate in the environment (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.). ii.Solid Waste
Solid waste is defined as any waste that is dry in form and is discarded by people as unwanted. You can describe the solid waste from general housekeeping as residential waste, refuse, household waste or domestic waste. Waste produced in other areas is defined as industrial, commercial, institutional or agricultural waste, or street sweepings, depending on its source. In urban settings, municipal waste refers to the solid waste that is collected by local government (the municipality) and may include household, commercial, industrial waste and street sweepings. The solid waste that is produced as a result of food preparation, or any foodstuff leftover after eating, is called kitchen waste or garbage (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
Understanding the appropriate methods for the management of solid waste is closely related to the characteristics of the waste and therefore to its source. Considering the sources one by one: a.Residential waste or domestic waste is generated from households. It is mostly characterized as non-hazardous wastes, especially in rural households. It may include rubbish, such as packaging materials, kitchen wastes, ash, etc. (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.). b.Agricultural solid wastes could include food residues, animal dung, crop residues, grass and leaves. Such wastes are mostly non-hazardous and biodegradable in nature. However, containers for used or obsolete pesticides, herbicides and rodenticides could be a health hazard to families and sprayers. Therefore, these items should be safely removed in collaboration with the agricultural development extension agents in your kebele (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.). c.Commercial wastes are those generated from business establishments, food and drink service establishments, shops, or open market places.
These vary a great deal but may include packaging paper, cardboard, electronics, timber, wire, metals, plastic bags (festal), tin cans, garbage and other wastes that are generally of non-hazardous nature (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.). d.Industrial waste can be produced from small, medium or large-scale industries. The type of waste produced may vary depending on the raw material used and the product of the industrial process. These wastes may be hazardous or non-hazardous, depending on the process. The solid waste produced could contain chemicals, wood, metal, ceramic or other components (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.). e.Institutional solid waste is produced from public or government institutions, offices, schools, universities, religious institutions, sporting fields, etc. It can be very mixed in its components (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.). f.Healthcare waste is produced from healthcare facilities such as Health Posts, health centers and hospitals. This category of waste is composed of both hazardous (infectious) and non-hazardous wastes (also referred to as general waste) (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
B.Public health importance of waste management
Improper disposal of wastes, such as solid waste, human excreta and sewage, is one of the major risk factors that affect the health and comfort of individuals in rural Ethiopia where municipal or onsite facilities do not exist, or are not functional. Poor waste handling and disposal can lead to environmental pollution, encourage the breeding of disease-vector insects, animal scavengers and rodents, and result in a range of diseases through different routes of exposure such as faeco-oral and soil transmitted mechanisms (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
*This figure how these routes of exposure diagrammatically. In this figure, you can see that faeces are the common source of contamination to the other ‘Fs’ – fluids, fingers, fomites and flies. These then contaminate our food and, consequently, a new susceptible human host (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
According to the survey conducted in different parts of Ethiopia indicate that there are many highly prevalent faeco-orally transmitted intestinal parasites and other infectious agents (bacteria and viruses) in our environment. To break the transmission route of these disease agents, there needs to be total sanitation, which means prevention of any human contact with waste, i.e. no open defecation and the proper handling of solid waste. The broken lines in the figure show the points at which a barrier or intervention can be made to prevent transmission. The first line of defense is to contain the faeces. The second is to protect the food from contamination and the third is to protect the potential host, the person who may become infected, from contaminated food, fingers, drinking water or other objects. To achieve total sanitation, the community needs to be involved in any plan to clean the local environment and must initiate its own waste disposal methods (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
In addition to the dangers of disease transmission, health hazards associated with improper solid or liquid waste disposal include: •Public or community nuisance due to foul odor and unsightliness of open defecation faecal matter and openly dumped solid wastes. •Obstruction of drainage systems leading to creation of favorable conditions for disease vector breeding sites. •Fire hazards.
•Psychological health hazards.
C.Main components of waste management
In any waste management process, there is a stage when waste will be temporarily stored or contained onsite (i.e. in the place where the waste is produced). This may be temporary or be a final disposal site. If storage is temporary, then subsequent stages will be the transfer or transport to a treatment facility or technology, followed by final disposal offsite (i.e. away from the waste generation site) (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.). 1.Liquid Waste Management
Liquid waste management will include both onsite sanitation and offsite treatment and disposal methods. The most usual method of onsite liquid waste containment in rural Ethiopia is the pit latrine. Pit latrines are simple drop-and-store systems in which the liquid waste collects in a pit below. In places where water is more easily available, typical methods are drop-flush-and-discharge systems, also known as water carriage systems, such as the pour-flush latrine. Wastewater from water carriage systems may be piped into a septic tank or into a community or municipal treatment system, if one exists (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.). 2.Solid Waste Management
Solid waste management can be classified into five main stages. These stages are also referred to as the functional elements of solid waste management. These are: •Onsite handling, storage and processing
•Transfer and transport
•Resource recovery and processing
Onsite handling, storage and processing methods are undertaken at household level. This includes compacting waste by squashing it and changing its size and shape for easy handling. It also includes sorting the waste in order to separate the items that can be reused or recycled. For example, organic wastes should be separated out for composting as part of onsite handling. Bottles and cans can be reused. Collection and transfer or transport activities are not common in rural areas because the waste is usually disposed of immediately onsite in a prepared waste disposal or composting pit (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.).
Ideally, waste management should go beyond pollution prevention and disease prevention for humans and should benefit society by providing economic gain for families and communities. The preferred approach for dealing with solid waste is integrated solid waste management (ISWM). ISWM means considering not only the appropriate disposal of solid waste but integrating this with other management options such as minimizing waste production, recycling, composting and other waste recovery options. The advantages of ISWM are that it considers all options and aims to manage waste in ways that are most effective in protecting human health and the environment. ISWM can also have many economic and social benefits for your community. For example, you could consider composting of human waste and animal manure to produce natural fertilizer for gardening and for cultivating vegetables and crops. Some solid wastes can be recycled or reused. You could also consider helping your community in the development of a biomass waste digestion plant that will produce biogas to be used for cooking and lighting energy. Biomass is any biological material from living or recently living plants that is used to generate energy, usually in the form of biogas (Basic principles and concepts of waste management, n.d.). D.Methods of Disposal
Disposal of waste in a landfill involves burying the waste, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Landfills were often established in abandoned or unused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly designed or poorly managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common product of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down an aerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas (Waste management, 2013). Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity (Waste management, 2013). ii.Incineration
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to convert them into residue and gaseous products. This method is useful for disposal of residue of both solid waste management and solid residue from waste water management. This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as “thermal treatment”. Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash (Waste management, 2013). Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials such as biological medical waste (Waste management, 2013). iii.Recycling
Recycling is a resource recovery practice that refers to the collection and reuse of waste materials such as empty beverage containers. The materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles are sorted directly from mixed waste streams and are known as kerb-side recycling, it requires the owner of the waste to separate it into various different bins (typically wheelie bins) prior to its collection (Waste management, 2013). The most common consumer products recycled include aluminum such as beverage cans, copper such as wire, steel food and aerosol cans, old steel furnishings or equipment, polyethylene and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines and light paper, and corrugated fiberboard boxes (Waste management, 2013).
In this chapter, the researchers will discuss the locale of the study and the target respondents in which the study will be conducted. The research team will also elaborate the type of research design and the sampling technique that would be utilized. This chapter is also concerned with the development, testing and evaluation of research instrument and methods used.
Methods of Research
Population, Sample Size and Sample Technique
This study will have thirty (30) respondents from the barangay. The researchers will have to use a type of probability sampling technique known as simple random sampling which involves the use of random selection process to select a sample from members of a population.
Description of Respondents
The target respondents are the households from Brgy. 663 in Ermita, Manila. They are composed of male and/or female inside their houses. These people are living within the baranggay and have the responsibility on the progress of the community. Since these people are already have their experiences on what is happening in their baranggay therefore, this study will base also on their observation, experience and opinion.
The research instrument that the researchers used in the study was the sample survey wherein the respondents are the representative from their respective houses within the community.
The questionnaire is subdivided into two (2) parts, the respondent’s profile and the questionnaire proper.
Data – Gathering Procedure
The researchers used the answered survey and online resources for gathering data and information for the effectivity of this study. The data that gathered are the foreign and local studies and foreign and local literature.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The researchers that would provide in analyzing and interpreting the survey clearly and accurately gather statistical computations. The data that will be gathered will be presented through percentage to create a better understanding to the readers in terms of significance in each data.