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Literature Survey on Job Satisfaction Essay Sample

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Literature Survey on Job Satisfaction Essay Sample

Berikut merupakan survei literatur tentang faktor-faktor yang menentukan kepuasan kerja. Kepuasan kerja dan motivasi dipengaruhi secara positif oleh variabel pengakuan dan penghargaan dengan dimensi sebagai berikut: peluang promosi, prosedur operasi, pekerjaan itu sendiri, pengakuan, relasi dengan rekan kerja, kepuasan terhadap kompensasi, rasa aman, supervisor, dan pengembangan karier (Danis & Usman, 2010). Kepuasan kerja juga berkorelasi positif dengan keadilan organisasional: keadilan distributif, prosedural, interaksional (Al-Zu’bi, 2010). Pada perusahaan dengan tingkat upah yang rendah dan tingkat kepuasan karyawan sedang, kontribusi faktor-faktor kepuasan kerja paling besar ditentukan oleh faktor rekan sekerja, lingkungan kerja, dan pemimpin, tetapi paling rendah oleh faktor upah dan tunjangan (Salviah, 2002).

Persepsi karyawan terhadap keadilan kompensasi memiliki korelasi yang signifikan terhadap kepuasan kerjanya (Astuti, 2001) Kebalikannya dari kepuasan kerja karyawan tingkat operasional, Batthi (20010) stres ditentukan 67% oleh faktor di dalam organisasi (beban kerja, waktu kerja, kepemimpinan, kebijakan perusahaan, kondisi kerja) dan 33% faktor di luar organisasi (kondisi ekonomi, keluarga karyawan, cuaca). Selain faktor di atas, salah satu yang perlu diketahui oleh pemimpin adalah seberapa besar pengaruh kepemimpinan, gaya kepemimpinan, dan spiritualitas pemimpin terhadap kepuasan kerja. Penelitian Aydin dan Ceylan (2009) menunjukkan bahwa kepuasan kerja lebih dipengaruhi oleh faktor budaya organisasi daripada kepemimpinan spiritual (Aydin & Ceylan, 2009), sedangkan kepemimpinan spiritual merupakan konsep yang sama sekali berbeda dengan spiritualitas dan religiositas dari pemimpin, walaupun begitu spiritualitas dan religiositas memiliki korelasi yang rendah dengan kepemimpinan spiritual Ayranci & semercioz (2010).

Gaya kepemimpinan mempunyai pengaruh yang kuat terhadap organizational citizenship behavior bawahan, dengan moderating effect tingkat kompetensi bawahan (Salleh, 2009). Sedangkan gaya kepemimpinan seseorang dipengaruhi oleh umur dan pendidikannya. Semakin tinggi umur dan pendidikannya, semakin kurang ia memakai gaya direktif. Semakin tinggi pendidikan juga semakin sering pemimpin memakai gaya situasional (tidak memakai satu gaya kepemimpinan saja). Selanjutnya, semakin tinggi umur dan pendidikan seorang, semakin memiliki korelasi positif dengan komitmen, komunikasi, keefektifan, dan kepuasan kerjanya (Aydin & Ceylan, 2010) . Semakin tinggi umur, pendidikan pemimpin, masa kerjanya semakin tinggi pula tingkat emotional intelligencenya. Emotional intelligence seorang pemimpin secara signifikan berelasi dengan praktek kepemimpinannya, karena EQ berkontribusi terhadap kemampuan magnetic dan engaging dari pemimpin. Meningkatkan tingkat EQ pemimpin akan meningkatkan efektivitas dan efisiensinya dalam memimpin tim (Ekaterini, 2010)

6.Study on: Spiritual leadership Aydin and Ceylan ( 2009)

PROBLEM STATEMENT
To what extent do the spiritual leadership and organizational culture effect the employee satisfaction?

VARIABLES
Employee satisfaction (dependent variable), organizational culture, spiritual leadership (independent variable).

SAMPLE
578 employees of metal working firms in Turkey

DATA COLLECTION
All 578 employees joined the surveys by clicking the link of surveys on the internet developed by web programmer. The data were collected within a period of 8 months in 2007-2008.

DATA ANALYSIS
Correlation and regresion analysis.

RESULTS
There is significant correlation between organizational culture and employee satisfaction. The relationship between spiritual leadership and employee satisfaction is significant, but spiritual leadership does not have as muchconsiderable effect as the cultural dimensions on employee satisfaction.

CONCLUSIONS
The organizational culture gets more importance than spiritual leadership in satisfying the employees in metalworking area

7.Study on: Spiritual leadership Ayranci & Semercioz ( 2010)

PROBLEM STATEMENT
What is the relationship between spiritual leadership, spritituality and religiosity?

VARIABLES
Spiritual leadership, spirituality, religiosity

SAMPLE
408 top managers from top 500 Turkish industrial enterprise

DATA COLLECTION
Questionares distributed by email and mail. Physically distribute and collect from top mmanagers who did not respond to emailquestions (authors worked with consulting company to do so)

DATA ANALYSIS
Correlation and explanatory analysis (Kaisser-Meyer-Olkin & Bartlet’s test).

RESULTS
Spiritual leadership is not significantly related to spirituality and religiosity. Religiosity is not closely connected to spiritualitiy or spiritual leadership

CONCLUSIONS
Spiritual leadership is a distinc concept with spirituality and religiosity on top level management, although the factor that make up these concepts have a weak relationship. Any Other Info/Comments.

ANY OTHER COMMENTS
This conclusion is true only for top level management, further research on middle or low level management should be conducted

9. Study on: Leadership styles Aydin and Ceylan ( 2010)

PROBLEM STATEMENT
What is the impact of leadership styles on communication, commitment, satisfaction, and effectvenes of executives?

VARIABLES
Leadership styles (Independent variables): directive style, empowering style, transformational style, transactional style, age, education Dependent variables: comunication, commitment, satisfaction, effetiveness

SAMPLE
190 managers of Emporiki Bank in Greece

DATA COLLECTION
All 190 managers joined the questionnare surveys sent by Lotus Notes (internal electronic communicational).

DATA ANALYSIS
Correlation and cross tabulation analysis.

RESULTS
The higher the education, the less directive leadership style takes place. Under the directive leadership, the interaction between age and commitment, satisfaction, communication and effectiveness is positively and statistically significant.

The higher the education level, the less transformational and empowering leadership occur. Managers that hold a university degree use both of the two leadership styles and they have positive relation with the satisfaction, commitmen, communication,and effectiveness.

Education levels are negativeley associated with each of transformational and empowering leadership styles. There is a significance relation between transformational and empowering styles when the managers are 36-45 years old. At the age of 46-60 there is not a good relationship for the above mentions couple of variables.

Age is not positively related to transactional leadership at the age of 46-60. The involvement of transational leadership style in combination with the satisfaction, commitment, communication, effectiveness concerned, there is not a good relationship with any level of education. Older managers at higher education levels tend to use a composite leadership style (situational leadership)

CONCLUSIONS
The older the employee the less level of empowering and participation that he tends to engage in within organization in the performance of his job. As of greater use of technology today, older workers are not follow the changes, feel panicked and don’t share their experience with other. 10. Study on: Leadership and Emotional inteligence Ekaterini ( 2010)

PROBLEM STATEMENT
What is the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership practice?

VARIABLES
Leadership practices, emotional intelligence, age, education, length of service

SAMPLE
256 executives from public sector organization in South India

DATA COLLECTION
Questionnares distributed and collected under the personal supervision of the investigator

DATA ANALYSIS
t-test, f-test, Pearson Product momment correlations

RESULTS
•Emotional intelligence is high for above 45 years of age, non profesioal degree holders, and above 20 years of service •The exeutives above 20 years of service, profesional and non profesional degree holders have preference of modeling the way dimension of leadership practices, where as diploma holders have preference of inspiring a shared vision •Encouragingg the heart dimension of leadership practices is preferrend by up to 45 years of age and non profesional degree holders •Emotional intelligence has a significant relationship with the leadership practices of exeutives. •The problem solving and self regard has a significan positive relationship with all dimensions of leadership practices except inspiring a shared vision •The stress management has a significant positive relationship with modeling the way and enabling others to act •The flexibility and empathy has a significant positive relationship with enabling others to act •The assertiveness has a significant negative relationship with all the dimensions of leadership practices except the enabling others to act •The emotional intelligence total has a positive relationship with modeling the way and enabling others to act

CONCLUSIONS
The emotional intelligent significantly related to the leadership practices of executives. Emotional intelligent contributes to the magnetic and engaging qualities of the managers who possess exceptional abilities of the leaders. This will enable them to analize, organize, utilize informations in an effective manner. Enhancing the levels of emotional intelligence will help the executives to lead their team effectively and efficiently.

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