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Management Motivation Essay Sample

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Introduction of TOPIC

Motivation is commonly used as a way to improve business performances through their employees in order to increase their productivity and contribution for the business. Motivation is defined as a theory of set of internal and external forces which encourage and inspire people to improve their performance to achieve the organization goals. (Williams, C., & McWilliams, A 2010). There is one theory inside motivation to increase employees performance rate, which is expectancy theory, expectancy theory is a theory where as employees think that if they are giving good performance for the business, their effort will be rewarded an attractive rewards. Expectancy theory is believed that it can be used to motivate employees to do their job and provide a good performance for the business. Discussion

1. Basic Model of motivation
There are four basic model of motivation, such as; effort and performance, needs satisfaction, extrinsic and intrinsic rewards, and motivating. 1.1 Effort and performance

Effort and performance are related through some basic structure whereas effort is done through initiation, direction and persistence, through that stages it will leads to performance. Job performance is commonly represented with an equation; Job Performance = Motivation x Ability x Situational Constraints. In that equation job performance is the progress of employee in doing the requirements of the task given. The job performance will be greatly affected if one of these components above (Motivation, Ability, and Situational Constraints) is weak. Motivation will not create high performance if the employee only have little ability and high situational constraints. 2.2 Need Satisfaction

Needs is the physical or psychological requirements that need to be met to make sure survival. In order to know what leads to employees’ effort, first thing to do is to determine what the employee needs are. People are commonly be motivated by an unmet needs, but once the needs are met; employees are often no longer motivated.

2.3 Extrinsic and Intrinsic Rewards
Extrinsic rewards are a tangible reward and by contrast intrinsic rewards are the natural rewards. Both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards are important for employees where employees prefer that extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to be relatively stable. 2.4 Motivating with equity theory

Motivating with equi

ty theory focuses on distributive justice and procedural justice. Distributive justice is the degree

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to which outcomes and rewards are fairly distributed while procedural justice is the fairness of the procedures used to make reward allocation decisions. 2. Expectancy Theory

Expectancy theory is a theory that state that employee will be motivated in which they believe that their involvement in doing task with their full effort and good performances will be rewarded and will be offered attractive rewards depends on how good they are on doing their task. Expectancy theory is based on four assumptions; first assumption is people join organizations with expectations about their needs. Second is assumption that an individual’s behavior is a result of conscious choice. Third is assumption is that people want to want different things from the organization. Fourth is that people will choose among alternatives so as to optimize their outcomes personally. Expectancy theory on these assumptions has three key elements which are expectancy, instrumentality and valence. Expectancy is a person’s estimate of the probability that job-related effort will result in a given level of performance. Instrumentality is an individual’s estimate of the probability that given a level of achieved task performance will lead to various work outcomes.

Valence is the strength of an employee’s preference for a particular reward. There is a basic expectancy model, which is effort to performance to rewards, between effort and performance there is expectancy and between performance and rewards there is instrumentality and rewards as the valence. Effort will lead to acceptable performance, performance will be rewarded and the rewards value is highly positive. Motivation, expectancy, instrumentality and valence are related to one another. Motivations will be highly effective when expectancy, instrumentality and valence is high, if any of these three factors is zero, the overall level of motivation will be zero as well. How Expectancy theory works to motivate employee, first company need can systematically gather information to find out what employees demanded from the job, company need to survey their employees regularly to determine their wants, needs and dissatisfactions since people always consider the valence. Second managers should take specific steps to link rewards to individual performance in a way that is clear and understandable to employees. 3. Examples on expectancy theory

Based on experience on how expectancy theory has been an effective motivator for is when I do a part time as a waiter here, I only work two days a week and need to work six hours per day, and only work for a month. While working there I do my job efficiently which make supervisor satisfied with the job I done, therefore I got extra paycheck because of the supervisor is satisfied. From the beginning of my work there, I already expect that I can do good work and will be rewarded because of my work and my hypothesis is right. So expectancy theory has been an effective motivator for me. Conclusion

Expectancy theory does not provide a specific suggestion on what motivates organization’s employees, but expectancy theory could be a very effective way to motivate employee, because expectancy theory could inspire people to do the task given more effective and efficient. Expectancy theory process gives cognitive variable that define individual differences in work motivation. Employees need to give their best effort to get the rewards. However, expectancy theory is hard to apply in people, because expectancy theory has to put more in expectancy, instrumentality, and valence in order to achieve the expectancy model.

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