I. Is there a significant relationship between managerial competencies and teaching competencies?
II. Related Literature
A. Basic of Managerial Competencies
1. The term competence as a concept that serves to connect individuals and their actions has been defined as “ the capacity to get in touch with the environment in a constructive way”. (Ingalls,1979) 2. Competency is a set of abilities, general knowledge, motives, traits, social roles and skills of individual. (Hayes, 1979) 3. Competency is the basic characteristic of individuals that leads to better performance and effective role in a job. (Boyatzis, 1982) 4. Competence is the ability and willingness to perform task. (Burgoyne, 1989) 5. Competence also refers to areas of work in which a person is competent and competency refers to the dimension of behavior lying behind the competent performance. (Woodruffe, 1991) 6. Managerial competencies are the ability to accomplish particular types of managerial goal through personal action. The action may be as simple as a single behavior or may comprise a system or behaviors implemented interactively over a period of time. (Bigelow,1993) 7. The concept of competency refers to applied knowledge and skills, performance delivery and the behaviors required to get things done very well. (Armstrong and Baron, 1995)
8. Competency is set of interrelated knowledge, skills and attitudes that are affected on the significant part of a person’s job and is correlated with person’s job performance. This competency is measurable according to standards and is expandable with the education and improvement. (Parry, 1996) 9. Competencies are products of analyzing jobs and they link work, people and strategy for improving performance once they are generated. (Mc Lagam, 1997) 10. Managerial competencies refer to personal-oriented and task-oriented skills that are associated with effective management and leadership. (Martin and Staines, 1994) 11. Competency is the related knowledge, skill, abilities and specifications for achieving superior performance in a job such as: problem solving, analytical, thinking and leadership. Some of the definitions of competency are including motives, beliefs and values. (Mirabel, 1997) 1
2. Managerial competencies consist qualities and capabilities of managers which leads to effectiveness of managers in work environment. (Voudal,1998) 13. Competency is the behavior of individuals in a specific condition that have the maximum efficiency and effectiveness in implementing the results. (Herling, 2000) 14. Competence, competency and competencies are three vocabularies that in the current literature of management have been used frequently. (Moore, Cheng and Dainty, 2002) 15. Competency is the combination of attributes which enable an individual to perform a set of tasks to an appropriate standard. (Shilton et,al,2003) 16. Competency standards describe what people do at work and what they need to be able to do so that tasks are teachable, reproducible and measurable. (Melville, et,al,2006) 17. Competency is a combination of implicit and explicit knowledge and also behaviors and skills that enables a person to do a specific task or duty. (Draganidis and Mentzas, 2006)
18. Competent is to identify someone who is efficient and effective in performing to a standard. Competency refers to a specific behavior and characteristics of a person that result in a effective or superior performance. (Kagive and Munene, 2007)
B. Research on Managerial Competencies
1. The development of management skills and competencies in higher education institution as essential. (Botha and Camphor,2008) The focus of management training and development should be on developing the management skills and competence required in support of the school’s vision, mission and strategy. 2. In literature, the term competency is attributed multiple meanings depending on the context and perspective. (Garavan and McGuire, 2001: Viitala,2005). For instance, a competency is seen as an input or an output of human behavior. In the UK, competencies are viewed as outputs: employees display competencies in the degree to which their work meets or exceeds prescribed work standards. In the USA, competencies are seen mainly as inputs: they consist of cluster of knowledge, attitudes and skills that affect an individuals’ ability to perform (Brophy and Kiely, 2002, Cheng et,al;2003: Heffernan and Flood,2000; Stuart and Lindsay, 1997)
3. The identification of management competencies helps individuals to refer to common definitions of the skills and attributes essential for competent performance in the role. Competency is an underlying characteristics of a person in that it may be a motive, trait, skill, aspect of one’s self or social role or a body of knowledge. (Boyatzis, 1982) 4. There are four managerial functions which are commonly referred to in the management literature, the performance of which are thought to be essential for competent management. The four functions are planning, organizing, directing and controlling and each is composed of a number of underlying activities. These activities are the embodiment of managerial competencies which are defined as the “underlying characteristics of a person in that they may be a motive, trait, skill, aspect of one’s self-image or social role or a body of knowledge which he does or she uses. (Boyatzis, 1982)
1. I believe that teachers are managers since he manages a classroom environment to maximize learning. They are environmental engineers who organize the classroom space to fit their goals and teach effectively. Teachers are also competent individuals who unceasingly do their task with commitment and provide better performance not only in the four walls of the class but in the school as well. In line with this view, the researcher would like to find out the managerial competencies of teachers in the school she is teaching. Furthermore, the researcher wants to find out the competencies possessed by the teachers and how these managerial competencies affect their teaching competencies.
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