1. We are living in the age of information explosion, where the world has shrunk into a global village. 2. The vital function of Mass Media is that it is the thinking mode of any society. Following are the types of Mass Media: – (a)Print Media (b)Electronic Media (c)Interactive Media 3. Tools of Media. Since the media plays a war of words, the important tools Include ‘vocabulary’, being ‘vigilant about different developments’. (a)Reading. (b)Vigilant (c)Punctual (d)Alertness (e)Lingual Competence FACTORS FOR GROWTH OF MEDIA 1. Mass media is wholesaler of Mass Communication. Pakistan inherited 05 radio channels on its birth. International Trend played important role in development of Mass Media in Pakistan. Initial decades of Pakistani Media’s history have been dominated by PTV. 2. Government was compelled to permit freedom of media (a)Liberalization of airway in India led to mushroom growth of TV channels (b)In Kargil war India was able to sell its viewpoint to the world and cashed on its version while Pak suffered since it had only the state channel. (c)Economic boom in telecom in Pakistan.
Commercial nature of Media was discovered in the economic advantages related to it. Revenue generated by Media in 2002 was 2 billion and in 2007 this soared to Rs. 17 Billion. (d)Literacy rate / level grew in Pakistan and played a role in media Development. (e)Arrival of cable operators / network and its growth held vision. (f)Govt policies played vital role, especially of President Musharraf. 3. Private sector was involved and posed challenge to state media. State Media to compete with Pvt Media has to improve and become more open and provide realistic stories, this reformed the State Media as well _ since realistic input was being provided by the Pvt Media. 4. Pakistan Media Market was in raw form and was untapped; it had the potential to grow. Phenomenon of community based radio channels i.e. FM channel, community based Services (print / elect) have played important role in media development. 5. Number of Press Media / Printing groups were permitted and have launched their TV channels .
6. Mass media is the major source of providing news and entertainment to the people who wants to know who is doing what and what is happening. Aristotle in his book “Poetics” has written that “Media is a means of catharsis and is must for normal living”. 7. The entertainment and news value of media has played very important role its development. However, electronic media enjoys larger scope over print media, since it has wider audience, is easily accessible and be understood by even illiterate people. The media provides wide range of entertainment / news according to interest of people of different age groups / liking / languages. Talk Shows Mania has brought more liberalization and has revolutionized the concept since erstwhile taboo issues are being discussed enhancing the awareness of people. 8.The realization in the people and Government about the role of media in society / economic development is there. Indian soap operas have a large viewer ship and their popularity has attracted lots of commercials / advertisement.
The commercial aspects attached to the media have contributed to its rapid development. 9. The Infrastructure Development has taken place. Modern state of art studios /introduction of latest equipment / communication facilities like video conferencing, fax, electronic data transfer, chat / mobiles, etc have brought in a revolution and contributed immensely in the media development. 10. The advertisement / commercials have brought big money to media market. The contents of programmes are changing. The high economic stakes attached to the media have brought in Professionalism in all its related fields. Due open market, there is a Scarcity of professional media men. 11. The abundance of media outlets has on one hand has created lot of employment opportunities but on the other has posed challenges to the media men to excel in their fields. Jang Group has more than 50,000 employees; media persons are getting enhanced wages. Today we have number of highly professional and well-known media persons who are stalwarts of Pakistani Media and form its backbone. 12. Dozens Of other factors have played role in the development of Pakistani Media.
It has been a “watchdog” on actions of the state, people strengthened the media. Media has played important role in discussing un-touched subjects. It has helped harmonizing the nation on otherwise contentious issues. The competition among the channels is bringing in qualitative improvement in the content and other aspects of programmes MASS MEDIA IN PAKISTAN EFFECTS OF MEDIA 1. Level of Awareness. The level of awareness has increased. Media has contributed a lot in increasing the general knowledge, who is who and what is what, knowledge of current issues etc. The programmers having media discussions, current affairs, documentaries, etc have been instrumental in enhancing the common man’s awareness. 2. Development Efforts of State. Media has assisted in development efforts of state .Programmers like “Parah Likha Punjab”, “Coverage of Earthquake”, have contributed in projecting efforts being made towards state development. 3. Development of Public Opinion.
Media discussion / other programmes highlight the issues, hold cross-discussions, and identify what are reasons / angles of different interest groups / people. Stances of different segments of society on key issues are brought out: it helps make / develop public opinion on different issues. 4. Helps in Educational Efforts. Media is also used by the state / society /organizations to promote educational activity.AIOU use media for education. 5. Supports Democracy. Media supports democracy by bringing out the democratic norms and inculcating the same in the general public / polity. Providing live coverage of parliament proceedings, activities of politicians, programmes on democracies are few of the examples. 6.Support to Public Issues / Affairs. Media provides viewpoint of the public on public issues. Media has given voice to the public. Impact of Media on Pakistani Society • Media is strengthening development in Pakistan. • Media has supported Democracy. • Media has highlighted Public issues. • Media has given voice to neglected element of society. • Media has become entertainment industry; it satisfies all segments, age groups of our society.
CERTAIN NEGATIVE ROLE OF PAKISTANI MEDIA
1. Consumerism. Our society is consuming all messages being spread by the Media. Media has made us a talking nation, the Mobile Mania-kids, ladies, youngsters all are just talking on the mobile phones. The effect of media is very strong with respect to advertisement on consumer products, instead of being producer media has made us consumer. 2. Moral Vacuum. The dramas, programmes etc shown on media glamorize everything they depict, this has created a moral vacuum and our younger generation is going away for our values (religious, social). 3. Westernization. Western / Indian cultural invasion has taken place through media and is permeating Pakistan society. Our commercials are depicting western values and causing a loss of national identity. There are media talk shows on subjects including sex etc which otherwise are taboo in our society. 4. Not Developing National Image. Our Media is blamed for not developing /projecting our national image. Our media at times uses Indian language; projects Indian Stars in our ads, etc, the threats posed to our values are immense and must be countered. Our country lacks a defined policy to promote national image through media.
5. False Values. Pakistani Media is projecting false values in its programmes, etc. The projection of family planning, love stories in dramas, hi-fi living styles / material depicted in dramas, etc. are not real and are not based on ground realities. (a)Media lacks compact programmes to educate Pakistani nation. (b)Projected values on media are not congruent with our values / ground realities. It is actually projecting ‘False Values’. (c)Programmes / dramas shown are exaggerated beyond imagination. 6. Manifestation of Interests. Media is negatively manipulating the interests of the people. People of Pakistan are yet not critical / educated enough to realize this manipulation / twisting of facts. There is a famous dictum that “a lie spoken 100 times becomes greater than a truth”. 7. Exaggeration. Pakistani media is also blamed for overwhelming negative Exaggeration. It glamorizes issues, resorts to negative exaggeration of matters, newspaper headlines are depicting violence, etc all this demoralizes the nation. At times news are given without authentication / confirmation. Unethical material /photographs / scenes are shown on our media promoting vulgarization. Media is Damaging basic fiber of our nation and has created a crisis of misidentification. 8. Dangers to Socialization.
We remain fixed to TV screens at the cost of socialization. We cut short our social activities just to watch some favorite programmes on TV. We are not undertaking socialization / giving time to our kids, parents, etc because we are glued to TV etc. This is developing a generation gap. We are giving more time to TV channels and less time to social activity and a sort of isolation is being developed. 9. Sensationalizing / Creating Uncertainty. Our media sensationalize the issues / accidents / incidents. When too much of information is available it creates confusion. Our media is broadcasting every type of information at times even compromising the accuracy and is creating uncertainty. 10. Overloaded with Information. Pakistani Media is discussing so many of topics are actually bombarding the audience with information. Media has flooded us with information. (a)This is psychologically not good for our scenes and disturbs our body functions. (b)Media is stuffing our minds with all types of information and has converted us into ‘generalist’.
Media is misusing our energies. (c)Media has become corporate; it possesses / uses lot of resources and has phenomenal business / financial benefits attached to it, accordingly it bombards the viewers with information. Different surveys are undertaken to find out various methods on how to attract the viewers / readers. Media Marketing has Converted us into recipient. Media is spending so much of money on efforts to attract / enhance its viewer ship. (d)Commercials breaks are introduced at the peak points of programmes. Such commercials are very expensive. Media is a double edged sword. It has its benefits, it has its vices. Role of State Media in Pakistan / PTV as a Mouthpiece of State •Formation •Structure, Nature •Government Policy •Past, Present, Future •Comparison with other private channels “
[pic]social media [pic] social media is one of latest forms of media. the best thing about this media is that it is not in the control of any one person. unlike other media sources people on this media are not hesitant in speaking truth. many facts and figures and unspoken words on any other media can easily be found on social media.
MCM-245 Contemporary Mass Media: Evolution & Structure (3 Credit hours) Pre-requisites: MCF-231, MCF-111
The course examines key elements of contemporary entertainment, information and advocacy media. Students learn the history, values, uses and structure of emerging and traditional mass media forms. They evaluate effects of broadcast, film, print and Web-based media and assess their roles and impact on a variety of audiences. Outcomes
After completion of course, students shall be able to:
• Describe the purpose, history, organization and economics of contemporary mass media. • Compare common characteristics and contrast unique qualities of contemporary media forms. • Describe how new media has transformed traditional media and created new forms and audiences. • Identify legal, regulatory and ethical constraints on mass media practitioners. • Explain advantages and disadvantages of each mass medium in addressing consumers’ needs and interests. • Articulate anticipated trends for mass communications, specifically the impact of developing technologies on emerging and traditional media. Contents
A.Mass Communication and Mass Media
1.Key terms and definitions
B. History and evolution of Mass Media
C. Mass Media Structures and Organizations
1.Broadcast (Television, Cable and Radio)
3.Print (Newspapers and Magazines)
4.Sound Recording Industry and Music Videos
5.Visual Communications: Graphics and Photography
6.Web Media (The Web, Animation, Blogs, Citizen Journalism Convergent Media, Games, Webcasts, Wikis) 7.Support Industries: Public Relations and Advertising D.Media congregates and their impact on World Media
E. Implications of Media Freedom, Regulation and Ethics (Both National and International) 1.First Amendment
2.Slander/Libel and Invasion of Privacy
3.Copyright and Intellectual Ownership
4.Federal Communications Commission
6.Web Etiquette, or “Netiquette”
E.Mass Media Messages
Dizard, Wilson. (2000) Old Media New Media: Mass Communications in the Information Age. Allyn & Bacon.
Dominick R. Joseph, 9th Ed. (2007). The Dynamics of Mass Communications: Media in the Digital Age, Mc Graw Hill.
French David and Richard Micheal (2000), Television in Contemporary Asia, SAGE Publication International, UK.
Pavlik, John. (2004) Converging Media: An Introduction to Mass Communication. Allyn & Bacon.