Case Story, Question 1
How would Ed’s blood help protect him from a foreign invader such as the one now in his system? Ed’s blood contains white blood cells, which combat infection and inflammation. Foreign invaders attract phagocytic neutrophils and macrophages by means of chemotaxis. These particular cells eat and dispose of pathogens in a process called phagocytosis. These cells ingest and dispose of pathogens and dead matter during phagocytosis.
Case Story, Question 2
The sporozites have traveled ot Ed’s liver; how is the function of hepatocytes related to blood? Hepatocytes are involved in synthesizing proteins, cholesterol, bile salts, fibrinogen, phospholipids and glycoproteins. Additionally, hepatocytes ensure that our blood coagulates so we don’t bleed to death if injury occurs. Hepatocytes are also able to carry fats in the bloodstream, participate in the detoxification and excretion of substances, fight off disease, and produce waste. Lastly, they are responsible in the synthesis of the plasma protein known as albumin.
Case Story, Question 3
Ed’s erythrocytes are being destroyed by a parasite that infects them. What is the process of blood cell formation that replenishes lost cells? Erythropoesis is the process of blood cell formation.
Case Story, Question 4
Why would Ed’s RBCs be a good host for a parasitic protozoan? RBC’s are a good host because they allow the protozoan to grow and multiply. When the RBC’s are unable to withhold all of the parasites, they lyse and explode, releasing the parasites and infecting more and more RBC’s..
Case Story, Question 5
If erythopoesis cannot keep up with the pace of destruction of RBC’s what will happen to the oxygen carrying capacity of Ed’s blood? A negative feedback system increases RBC production. If there is cellular oxygen deficiency, hypoxia may occur.
Case Story, Question 6
Jaundice is a condition characterized by a yellowish color to the skin. Which pigments are produced from the breakdown of blood that might cause Ed to appear jaundiced? When iron is removed from here, the non-iron portion of heme in converted to biliverdin, a green pigment, and then into bilirubin, a yellow-orange pigment which most likely contributes to Ed’s jaundice. Generally, bilirubin enters the liver and is transported to the liver where it is then secreted by liver cells into bile.
Case Story, Question 7
Why would Ed potentially need a transfusion of blood?
Ed’s blood count is low due to the increased destruction of RBC’s. Erythropoesis cannot keep up with the destruction of RBCs, thus a blood transfusion is probably needed. This is done to allevia anemia, increase blood volume and to improve immunity against the parasites that have infected Ed’s body.
Case Story, Question 8
Destruction of Ed’s red blood cells has caused damage to his kidneys. How is the kidney involved in blood cell production?
Hypoxia stimulates the kidneys to increase the release of the hormone erythropoietin. Erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys to increase the number of RBC precursors. Erythropoiesis is the process of red blood cell formation.
Case Story, Question 9
Which type of WBCs phagocytizes damaged tissues and pathogens and may have been active early in Ed’s infection (at the site of the bite where inflammation was occurring)? Neutrophils and wandering macrophages (originating form monocytes) were most likely the WBCs that phagocytized the tissues and pathogens early in Ed’s infection. They gather at sites of infection or inflammation by means of emigration. They are both active in phagocytosis, a process in which the WBC’s ingest and disposes of dead matter.
Case Story, Question 10
Which fluid connective tissue was involved in Ed’s case?
Blood is the fluid connective tissue involved in Ed’s case.
Case Story, Question 11
How would the hemolysis of Ed’s RBCs affect the function of his blood? RBC’s, once infected by the parasite, would be unable to transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones and wastes. It’s other functions, such a regulation of pH, body temperature, and water content of cells would be affected as well.
Case Story, Question 12
Why would you expect Ed to have a high eosinophil count?
A high eosinophil count can indicate an allergic reaction, an autoimmune disease, or in Ed’s case, a parasitic infection (Malaria is a parasitic infection).
Case Story, Question 13
Why would Ed’s low platelet count concern his physicians? What are the three hemostatic mechanisms that normally occur in a healthy person? Hemostasis is sequence of responses to stop blood loss from a damaged blood vessel. They include (1)vascular spasm, (2) platelet plug formation, and (3) blood clotting (coagulation). Ed’s low platelet count can make his body lead to inability of his hemostatic mechanisms to function properly. If hemostasis is not functioning properly, hemorrhage could occur and he would bleed out.
Case Story, Question 14
If Ed’s platelet count is low, which hormone could be administered to him that would stimulate platelet formation? Thrombopoietin is a hormone produced by the liver that stimulates the formation of platelets from megakaryocytes.