Military Action Is The Only Effective International Respose To Genocide Essay Sample

Military Action Is The Only Effective International Respose To Genocide Pages
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Genocide is one of the oldest crimes in the society.  The crime even transcends the issue on being controversial because it of the serious issues on morality that the genocide intersects.  It can be considered as a problem that needs the concerted efforts of the leaders and people of different countries and the international community because the effects can be massive and staggering.  A general examination of the issues that are related to the cases of genocide can be superficially classified as a complex concern with resolutions that can be very difficult or even impossible to achieve.[1]

            The study of the historical evidences and the evolution of the ideas related to the occurrence of the mass crime had come up with different suggestions that can resolve and prevent the occurrence of such cases but the strong contention of application of these solutions can be considered questionable when compared to the intense nature of genocide.[2]  Due to the detrimental effects of the problem of genocide on the society different ways to resolve the problem were undertaken.[3]

Studies Related to Cases of Genocide

            There are different actions that are done by the leaders of different nations and international organizations to be able to find solutions to the problems on genocide in the society.  The said crime can be perceived to have been caused by passionate motivations that can be related to the issues that are given value by the major perpetrators of the genocide.

            Upon the study of different cases of genocide, one thing can be made clear it is the motivation that is behind the killings.  Although other people find it difficult to determine the reasons in perpetuation of such crimes, passionate cause can be accounted for such undertaking. Included in the issues that can lead to genocide are related to differences and culture, tradition and even political disagreements.  Upon determination of the major causes of the genocide, the ultimate objective is to be able to resolve cases of genocide and even prevent such event in the future.[4]

            The effects of genocide can be considered of massive level due to the fact that there is a mass killing involved.  The act can even extend to obliterate the group of people or even nation that is the target of the action.  In such cases then, the resolution of genocide transcends the boundary of any nation.  It is important to consider the international cooperation in the occurrence of such cases.  In events such as this, it is the United Nations and the union and organization composed of different nations are commonly involved in the act to end genocide and the act of war.[5]  These international organizations are involved in the advocacy to be able to end the occurrence of genocide in the society through studies and different conventions to significantly increase the knowledge of these cases.  The main objective of such discourse is to know the indications of such events and prevent the escalation of riots that can lead to these passionate killings.

  1. Definition of Genocide

            To be able to find action to fight and prevent the occurrence of genocide, it is important to study every available information and data related to such incidents.  One of the important actions to be able to resolve the issues on genocide is the Unites States Convention to resolve the cases of genocide.  The main guideline of the undertaking is the pre-established international law.  The sanction is regardless of the time of occurrence.  This is due to the fact that genocide can occur both during the period of peace and period of war, although there is greater probability during the time of war.  In the study there are different cases that can be considered as key concerns in the cases of genocide.  The main target is a particular organization of people on the basis of nationality, ethnicity, racial group and even religion.  Due to certain passionate motivation, the perpetrators can undertake different forms of harm to the target group.  These negative acts can range from inflicting pain which may be physical, emotional or both.  Examples of these actions include killing, inflicting injury and torture through physical and mental pain.[6]

The presented guidelines can be considered of international effectiveness due to the agreement of different nations that there are no second chances for the perpetrators of genocide.  In such case the implementation and trial is the important focus.  The court must handle different forms of pressure to be able to achieve the just outcome for cases of genocide.  Due to the fact that the established international laws on genocide can be implemented on different nationalities, the jurisdiction covers the international community.  Another important provision that was agreed upon in the convention is the prevention of genocide to be classified as a political crime.  This is due to the fact that the national leader has the tendency to protect the rights of the citizens regardless of the crime committed or in some cases it can be used by the perpetrators themselves quoted as rights (Leblanc, 1991).[7]

In the study of the definition of genocide on the basis conventions related to the crime, it is focused on the international laws that transcend the national boundaries.  Upon the study of the laws also, it can be perceived that the different resolutions that can be perceived are acts to implement these laws.

  1. Through the Period of Genocide

            The modern era can be considered as the period wherein there is the highest occurrence of genocide.  Due to the fact that genocide and mass killing can be related to passionate motivation targeting a particular group, the resolution needs to consider the era wherein the cases occurred.  The present state of the society can be considered as an assembly of different beliefs in different aspects of the society may it be political, ethnic, social or religious.[8]  Thus, it can be equated to an increase on the misunderstandings that can occur between such groups.  For that matter passionate motivations based on a certain belief can easily be nurtured.  This is one of the main reasons for the initiation of strife and riots that can lead to genocide.[9]

            Upon critical analysis of the issues related to genocide, to be able to solve the problems of the international community on the said crime, being empowered is one of the most important factors.  Upon the establishment of the international court of law and the continuous review and improvement of the rules against genocide, actions can be considered to be more confident and empowered.  This is through the established guidelines and organizations such as the International Tribunals e.g. Yugoslavia and Rwanda during their problematic period, the United Nations, countries such as the United States that helps nations to be able to establish anti-genocide legal action.[10]

  1. Actions Undertaken

            There are different ways that can resolve the problems and issue related to genocide as perceived and viewed by the advocates against the crime.  One is through the establishment of international laws that provides sanction to the groups that had committed the crime on the masses.  The established laws have the power set guidelines on the issue.  Another important action to be undertaken in relation to finding solutions to the problems on genocide is through the increased knowledge on the issue.[11]  Though the action, other possible resolution can be perceived and continuous study against genocide is being undertaken.[12]  Gathering information can lead to the prediction of the possible occurrence of genocide thus decreasing the massive effects of the said crime.[13]

            There are other actions that are undertaken to be able to be able to resolve the issues on genocide and prevent the escalation of crime through massive killing that often occur in strife and instability in the society.  Non-violent solutions can be undertaken such as diplomatic relations and action, through trade and business action and other forms of peaceful action.  There advocate groups that aim to promote humanitarian missions in cases of genocide and to be able to prevent such occurrence.  Others focus on the importance of peace missions.  Through these resolutions it can be observed that peaceful answer is of top priority.  Although this is the case, military action can be considered as an effective answer to the problems of the society related to genocide.[14]

            The problems escalating to genocide are viewed to have peaceful resolution but military action is considered as one of the most feasible ways to face issues on genocide.  The effectiveness of the application of military action can then be considered as the ultimate solution to the problem.

Military Action and its Role in the Cases of Genocide

            Based on the presented notions to be able to act against occurrence of genocide in the society, military action is the most feasible.  The role of military action has different facets.  This means that the implementation of the roles of the military units is not limited on the act of force which can be considered as the final resort.  The military action are also needed in different aspects specifically of the case of genocide occurs in times of war.  Protection of the different needs of the population such as supplies is another major role especially in times of disaster.  Included in such supplies are food, medication and basic needs such as clothing and shelter.[15]

            There are different roles that can be attributed to the military forces.  Aside form fighting through war, the protection that it can offer to the people can be considered as its most important role.  In cases of calamities and strife, the forces also undertake humanitarian action.  But the case of genocide can be considered as a unique undertaking.  Normally, the act of command can be attributed to national objectivity.  But due to the fact that the international problems call for international action, it is the union of troops that is needed because not one nation can be pinpointed.  It is often the issue of the perpetrator of the crime against the international community.

  1. The National Military Action

            The most common and primary military force is of national origin.  This is under the command of the national leadership.  These troops are the basic units of the international force.  Mainly the concerted efforts of participating countries lead the way to a union of the forces, cooperation can be exemplified by agreements[16] e.g. in the Treaty[17] that was aimed to resolve the conflicts.

            The national forces can be compared to a community with unified culture with similar aspirations and goals.  Thus, in the concerted effort it is important to stress the significance of unity to be able to achieve the goals, specifically in a volatile situation such as finding solution to genocide.  Though the national forces can be perceived to be advantageous in being a unified unit, such forces have limitations especially when applied to a problem such as genocide which is an international concern.  The cooperation of the different countries is important in the attainment of the goals and resolution of the problems related to genocide.[18]

            The national military units then are important to be able to build the international force that can achieve the goals against genocide.  But military action can be considered as a necessary answer to the genocide crisis.  This can be related to the multifaceted role of the military action.  To be able to produce an international force the national units are required.

  1. Roles of the Military Force

            Upon consideration of the actions that are needed to be able to resolve the issues on the mass killing and genocide, it can be considered that the established international laws are key factors in the implementation of solutions.  It is in fact the most essential achievement in the fight for internationally covered crimes to have an international court.  The importance of the role of the court can be appreciated in the period of massive human rights violation e.g. the violence that had occurred in the Yugoslavia and Rwanda.  These are some of the places that had been included in the innumerable cases of genocide viewed by the present generation.  Through the said occurrence, the establishment of international court and the implementation of laws can be considered to give security to the people.[19]

            But given another view it is the military force that implement the international laws.  Laws on genocide and other related crimes are put into action through the action of the military forces.  It can be considered feasible due to the fact that situations of high level of danger can be considered not suitable for the civilian people.  Upon the study of the needed duty in cases of genocide, the members of the military troops can take up any form of duty.  The primary role of the military forces is to be able to uphold and implement the established international laws.  The laws against genocide were highlighted especially during the World War II wherein cases of the said crime continued until the present era was dubbed as the period of genocide having the highest cases recorded through history.  The role of the military in the cases of genocide is two-fold.  One is the application of force in case it is necessary and another is providing assistance to victims.  In cases wherein there are needs such as food and shelter or any other materials, the military troops are also responsible for delivering them to the people.[20]

            Preparation of the military forces during the period of war and fight for the possible case of genocide is essential to be able to uphold the duty of the military force as the resort and final resolution to the cases killings.  The military forces are trained to be able to act multifaceted roles through preparation for the times of instability specifically during the dawning of possible genocide.[21]  The multiple tasks undertaken by the people in the military forces can be considered as the most essential action during the times of war and unrest.

Supporting Military Action to Fight Genocide

            The military action is equated to violence by certain groups.  Due to this it had been a practice to undertake peaceful resolution to different issues before implementing military force.  Military action can be considered as the ultimate solution and the last resort to issues, problems and crimes in the society.

            In the case of genocide, the crime that was committed is beyond human rights.  It is not the death or the pain of a single person that had occurred accidentally.  Genocide involved the inflicted pain for a number of people and the implementation and a considerable and significant number of the population view that the only effective resolution is through military action.  Some groups even uphold the need for the force imposed by the militia to be able to stop and resolve the imposition of violence to the target group.[22]  The outlook of such groups of people is only one of the reasons that can be sighted for the need to support the military action.  Perception that perpetrators of such crimes do not deserve fair trial is one of the main reasons for the view on the advantage of military action to be able to resolve the problems related to possible occurrence of genocide.

            Another scenario that can be presented is the case of the war in Iraq that resulted in cases of genocide.  On the basis of the press release that was made by the United Nations, countries such as the United States and United Kingdom are allowed to undertake the necessary forces that can be perceived to be able to act upon the situation in Iraq.  The announcement basically allowed the military action to be implemented in the areas affected by war to be able to act upon the escalation of violence and move towards the sending of most needed assistance to the people.[23]

The press release that was sent by the United Nations is included in the evidences that even the union of nations perceive military action as the most effective answer the violence and the effect of genocide.  Other decisions of international organizations also resort to military action in events that are uncontrollable.  One way of describing the cases of genocide is over the scale of crimes that can be committed against human rights.

In a study on the effects of terrorism, war and genocide on the people, military action is important due to the fact that genocide is an act of will.  The perpetrators even have passionate will to be able to undertake such actions.  In that case, they have already given up their human rights under the international court of law.  Consideration of the detrimental effects of genocide in the society can be considered as the primary reason for the view that force is needed although the public and the advocates of peace continue to present the importance of non-violent means.[24]  Violent events call for desperate measure, thus military can be considered as most effective.

In depth analysis of the situation by the union of nations, including the different groups such as the United Nations and representative from different nations, pointed out the importance to being tolerant enough in the event of war.  On the event of genocide on the other hand, the importance of valuing life is most essential.  In fact the primary mission is to be able to prevent the occurrence of genocide through the equal and just society.  Partiality in different social groups is one of the factors that fuel the passionate motivation of the perpetrators of genocide in most cases.  In cases wherein religion becomes the reason, communication is essential.  Although prevention can be considered logical, these notions do not necessarily prevent the occurrence of genocide.  This can be considered as the main reason for making the public understand the possible actions during and after the occurrence of genocide.[25]

These cases are inevitable due to certain reasons.  Based on the action of these groups, it is important to consider every other option but ultimately when every consideration and human rights guidelines were violated, force is the last action that can be undertaken.  It is important to consider though that military action cannot always be equated to force.  This is due to the fact that there are varying roles that can be undertaken by the men in uniform more than the civilian.  This includes humanitarian actions.

Through the roles that are taken by the military forces during the times of genocide, the humanitarian aspect can be considered as the most credited.  There are different facets to the humanitarian action.  One is through the restoration of peace.  Upon the imposition of force toward the perpetrators of the crime, peace-building is an important phase both on the basis of coping to the current situation at the time and the future undertakings.  Another important action is the enlistment of people to be able to attend to the population in the absence of the military groups.  The importance of organized civilian and military cooperation to achieve the goals on peace building is upheld.  Peace building can be compared to the humanitarian aspect in the roles of the military troops.[26]

The period of humanitarian action of the military during the cases of genocide can be considered as a major key factor in the role of the military forces.  On the basis of such notion, the expansion of military capabilities to be able to provide humanitarian action is viewed as key concepts in the fight against cases of genocide.  It is important to maximize the capability of the military forces along with its coverage in the prevention, undertaking and post-reconstruction of the damage brought about by such events.[27]

One of the important data that was gathered was related to the possible answer to the increased cases of genocide.  This is the decrease in the intervention of military forces in cases of civil instability.  Thus upon discovery, military resolution to the most serious crime of killing is undertaken and collaborated to the civilian authorities exemplified by leaders of international organizations and even the division in the government.  Fight against terror such as cases of genocide can be compared to other issues in the society some groups can choose a peaceful solution while others view and recognizes the need for enforcement through the military forces.  During the period wherein peaceful actions were favoured, there had been an increase in the cases of genocide and other forms of human right violations.[28]

It is based on such notion then that military action can be considered as necessary to be able to disciple possible perpetrators of mass abuse disrespect to the rights of the members of the population.  One example that can be sited is the case in US wherein military has less duty due to the view of the Bush Administration that civilian and peaceful resolution to different problems in the society can be used at all times.[29]  This has resulted to different forms of problems that cannot be controlled.  Military forces then were not prepared for humanitarian action and hindered the fast resolution of the crisis.

Such occurrence then teaches a need for balance in the different roles of the military forces to be able to be effective in solving the problems and issues related to the cases of genocide.  In relation, a need for a well rooted solution is immediate.  A solution that can prevent the occurrence of another uprising that can annihilate population of people is needed to be standing firm in consideration of the cultural factors and must be well thought and well organized to answer the needs of the perpetrators.  In depth analysis of every case of genocide is essential due to the fact that such occurrence is an intricate interaction of different factors in the society such as regional issues, impartiality, rights of the different generation, environmental and cultural concerns and predisposed violence that can all lead to violence that is motivated by passionate ideals.[30]

Another reason for support for the military action is the case in East Timor wherein there already had been massive genocide killing a significant proportion of the local population on the basis of political instability.  Due to territorial and cultural issues the international community had waited for the appropriate time to impose action.  This made the people and the international community to have a perception that no action had been taken.  Strategic action is essential to such cases.  By the time the military forces acted, it resulted to halting to the riots.[31]  This can be considered as one of the reasons why military action is the ultimate resolution to genocide and mass killings.

Discussion

            Based on the study that was conducted military action is the most effective solution to the issue on genocide.  The point was established through the determination of the fact that genocide can be considered as one of the most serious violation of the right of people as a human and as a citizen in a nation.[32]  Through the pain inflicted and the mass killing the ends and goals of the perpetrators are met.[33]

            Considering the issues on human rights, there are two sides of the view of the society.  One is towards a peaceful resolution to the problem.  To be able to communicate with the perpetrators of genocide and discuss concerns.  But there is nothing left to be discussed when the subject of communication are already dead people or violated citizens.  It can be perceived to have no more reason to understand the groups that commit genocide because they have already achieved the highest form of misconduct which is disrespect to the human rights of the people and killing.  Another passionate issue is the fact that it is mass killing and infliction, not merely a single person.

            There remains a minimal amount of reason to be able to pursue peaceful resolution to the problems.  Military action then is the only feasible action that can be undertaken.  Based on the study there are different roles being played by the military.  During time of genocide and chaos, there is a multi-faceted action that is undertaken by the military force.  One is force that can cease the war.  Another is the implementation of the laws of the international court of law established by different countries.  The last role is humanitarian works.

            In the determination of these roles, it is important to consider that military action being considered as the last resort can be based on these functions.  People and organizations that aim for peaceful resolution do not realize that one of the roles of the military forces is the humanitarian function.  Thus, there is no need to disagree on the need for peaceful effort.  It is also important to consider that force is required for disciple.  In cases of chaos lessons must be learned by the perpetrators of crime.  Due to the violence committed a forceful effort can be considered most effective.

            Aside from these reasons, different struggles and chaos had been resolved upon the action of military forces.  It is important to stress though that only cases of genocide and mass killings are deserving of forceful resolution.  Another important consideration is the fact that military action during the cases of genocide is the rightful implementation of the laws set upon by the international court that is related to mass killing and human rights violations.

            To sum up the related points on the effectiveness of military action on the cases of genocide, it can be observed that there is a certified importance of the involvement of military forces in similar issues and the multifaceted role makes their involvement          a necessity.

Conclusion

            The effectiveness of military action on the cases of genocide can be attributed to the fact that most incidents of war and mass killing had been controlled by military forces.  The military action is also considered as the ultimate solution and the last resort to cases of genocide.  This can be related to the fact that serious cases of human rights violations and mass killing also require serious action.

            Thus, due to the fact that military action is the last resort, the effectiveness of their involvement is unquestionable.  When military force is not effective anymore, no other resolution to chaos and genocide is available.  Another important notion also exists.  It is the fact that military action is effective due to the fact that there is a humanitarian aspect to action and even civilian involvement.  The fear of force being implemented by the military can be resolved.

 References

Addicott, J. F. (2006).  Contractors on the “Battlefield: ” Providing Adequate Protection, Anti-Terrorism Training, and Personnel Recovery for Civilian Contractors Accompanying the Military in Combat and Contingency Operations.  Houston Journal of International Law, 28 (2), 2006, 323.

Andreopoulos, G. J. (1994).  Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Bolton, S. (2005).  Critical Perspectives in Combating Genocide.  UN Chronicle, 42 (4), December 2005, 29.

Doubt, K. (2000).  What is the Evil in War Crimes? For the International Conference: Crimes in Bosanka Krajina During the Aggression on the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina 1991-1995.  Institute for the Research of Crimes Against Humanity and International Law.  September 22-24, 2000.

Duthie, R. (2003).  Expanding Global Military Capacity for Humanitarian Intervention.  Ethics & International Affairs, 17 (2), 2003, 123.

Dwan, R. (2000).  Consensus: A Challenge for Conflict Prevention?.  For Preventing Violent Conflict, The Search for Political Will, Strategies and Effective Tools, Report of Krusenberg Seminar.  Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute.

Hamad, A. A. (2005).  The Reconceptualisation of Conflict Management.  Peace, Conflict and Development: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 7, July 2005.

Heidenrich, J. G. (2001).  How to Prevent Genocide: A Guide for Policymakers, Scholars, and the Concerned Citizen. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Jackson, M. G. (2001).  Something Must Be Done? Genocidal Chaos and World Responses to Mass Murder in East Timor between 1975 and 1999.  International Journal of Politics and Ethics, 1 (1), 2001, 45.

Klare, M. (1995).  We Must Support Military Action.  The Progressive, 59 (9), September 1995, 20.

Kuperman, A. J. (2004).  Humanitarian Hazard: Revisiting Doctrines of Intervention.  Harvard International Review, 26 (1), 2004, 64.

Leblanc, L. J. (1991).  The United States and the Genocide Convention.  Durham, NC: Duke University Press.

Levene, M. (2000).  Why Is the Twentieth Century the Century of Genocide?.  Journal of World History, 2 (2), 2000, 305.

Lio, S. (2004).  The Search for International Justice in an Age of Genocide.  Social Justice, 31 (3), 2004, 166.

Lippman, M. (2001).  Genocide: The Crime of the Century; the Jurisprudence of Death at the Dawn of the New Millennium.  Houston Journal of International Law, 23 (3), 2001, 467.

Riemer, N. (2000).  Protection against Genocide: Mission Impossible?. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Rogers, P. (2006).  The War on Terror.  Peace Conflict and Development, 8, January 2006.

Schabas, W. A. (2000).  Genocide in International Law: The Crimes of Crimes.  Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

Staub, E. (1999).  The Origins and Prevention of Genocide, Mass Killing and Other Collective Violence.  Peace and Conflict, 5 (4), 1999, 303.

Van Schaack, B. (1997).  The Crime of Political Genocide: Repairing the Genocide Convention’s Blind Spot.  Yale Law Journal, 106 (7), 1997, 2259-2291.

UN (2002).  A Comprehensive Action against Terrorism.  UN Chronicle, 39 (1), March-May 2002, 64.

UN (2003).  United States, United Kingdom Defend Action as Necessary, Authorized.  Press Release SC/7707. United Nations March 27, 2003.

Wallenstein, J. (2001).  Punishing Words: An Analysis of the Necessity of the Element of Causation in Prosecutions for Incitement to Genocide.  Stanford Law Review, 54 (2), 2001, 351.

Weinberger, N. (2002).  Civil-Military Coordination in Peacebuilding: The Challenge in Afghanistan.  Journal of International Affairs, 55 (2), 2002, 245.

Wessells, M. G. (1999).  Systemic Approaches to the Understanding and Prevention of Genocide and Mass Killing.  Peace and Conflict, 5 (4), 1999, 365.

Wrage, S. D. (2004).  Civil-Military Relations and the War on Terror. White House Studies, 4 (2), 2004, 197.

[1] Andreopoulos, G. J. (1994).  Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions.  Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press. p.1.

[2] Ibid., p.3.

[3] Schabas, W. A. (2000).  Genocide in International Law: The Crimes of Crimes.  Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p.14.

[4] Heidenrich, J. G. (2001).  How to Prevent Genocide: A Guide for Policymakers, Scholars, and the Concerned Citizen. Westport, CT: Praeger.

[5] Schabas, op. Cit.

[6] Leblanc, L. J. (1991).  The United States and the Genocide Convention.  Durham, NC: Duke University Press.  p. 17.

[7]Leblanc, Ibid, p. 89.

[8] Lippman, M. (2001).  Genocide: The Crime of the Century; the Jurisprudence of Death at the Dawn of the New Millennium.  Houston Journal of International Law, 23 (3), 2001, 467.

[9] Lio, S. (2004).  The Search for International Justice in an Age of Genocide.  Social Justice, 31 (3), 2004, 166.

[10] Van Schaack, B. (1997).  The Crime of Political Genocide: Repairing the Genocide Convention’s Blind Spot.  Yale Law Journal, 106 (7), 1997, 2259-2291.

[11] Andreopoulos, op. Cit.

[12] Heidenrich, op. Cit.

[13] Schabas, op. Cit.

[14] Heidenrich, op. Cit.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Ibid., p. 185.

[17] Leblanc, op. Cit.

[18] Heidenrich, op. Cit, p. 185

[19] Riemer, N. (2000).  Protection against Genocide: Mission Impossible?. Westport, CT: Praeger.

  1. 85

[20] Ibid, p. 105.

[21] Addicott, J. F. (2006).  Contractors on the “Battlefield: ” Providing Adequate Protection, Anti-Terrorism Training, and Personnel Recovery for Civilian Contractors Accompanying the Military in Combat and Contingency Operations.  Houston Journal of International Law, 28 (2), 2006, 323.

[22] Klare, M. (1995).  We Must Support Military Action.  The Progressive, 59 (9), September 1995, 20.

[23] UN (2003).  United States, United Kingdom Defend Action as Necessary, Authorized.  Press Release SC/7707. United Nations March 27, 2003.

[24] UN (2002).  A Comprehensive Action against Terrorism.  UN Chronicle, 39 (1), March-May 2002, 64.

[25] Bolton, S. (2005).  Critical Perspectives in Combating Genocide.  UN Chronicle, 42 (4), December 2005, 29.

[26] Weinberger, N. (2002).  Civil-Military Coordination in Peacebuilding: The Challenge in Afghanistan.  Journal of International Affairs, 55 (2), 2002, 245.

[27] Duthie, R. (2003).  Expanding Global Military Capacity for Humanitarian Intervention.  Ethics & International Affairs, 17 (2), 2003, 123.

[28] Wrage, S. D. (2004).  Civil-Military Relations and the War on Terror. White House Studies, 4 (2), 2004, 197.

[29] Ibid.

[30] Wessells, M. G. (1999).  Systemic Approaches to the Understanding and Prevention of Genocide and Mass Killing.  Peace and Conflict, 5 (4), 1999, 365.

[31] Jackson, M. G. (2001).  Something Must Be Done? Genocidal Chaos and World Responses to Mass Murder in East Timor between 1975 and 1999.  International Journal of Politics and Ethics, 1 (1), 2001, 45.

[32] Staub, E. (1999).  The Origins and Prevention of Genocide, Mass Killing and Other Collective Violence.  Peace and Conflict, 5 (4), 1999, 303.

[33] Levene, M. (2000).  Why Is the Twentieth Century the Century of Genocide?.  Journal of World History, 2 (2), 2000, 305.

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