Purpose:The purpose of this lab is to understand the phases of mitosis through a hands on experience and not just textbook information. The objective is to visually determine each phase through a microscope with a clear understanding of what is happening. With this knowledge and this visual a picture is to be drawn as descriptive as possible for each phase.
Materials:The materials needed are; 1) Microscope 2) A slide containing plant cells 3) Blank paper 4) A half of a Petri dish to draw circles 5) A pen.
Procedure:The steps to follow in order to properly conduct this lad are; 1) Get a microscope as directed by your teacher.
2) Get a slide from your teacher.
3) Use the half of a Petri dish to draw the circles for the representation of each phase. 4) With your blank sheet of paper each phase located on the slide is to be drawn and labeled. 5) Call your teacher over because you will be asked certain questions about each phase and you will be showing them the phase through the microscope. 6) Once you’re finished put everything back in its place (microscope, slides etc.)
Analysis:The six phases of mitosis are interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase and cytokinesis. Interphase consists of three sub-phases; G1, S-phase and G2. During interphase DNA has been replicated but hasn’t actually formed chromosomes. They remain as loosely coiled chromatin. The nucleolus and the nuclear membrane are still visible.
Prophase is where both the nucleolus and the nuclear membrane have disintegrated and the chromatins have been coiled to produce visible chromosomes. The spindle apparatus had migrated to opposite poles of the cell.
During metaphase the spindle fibers attach themselves to the centromers of the chromosome and they align equally at what is known as the metaphase plate.
Anaphase is where the spindle fibers are in fact shortening which causes the centromere to split. This results in the separation of sister chromatids which are pulled along behind the centromeres.
In telophase the chromosomes reach the poles of their respective spindles. As the chromosomes uncoil the nuclear envelope and the nucleolus are visible. The spindle fibers disintegrate. Cytokinesis is the last stage of mitosis where the daughter cells are being split apart. Since this is a plant cell there is no furrow, but instead a cell plate forms in between the two new daughter cells which will eventually create new cell walls for each daughter cell. Each daughter cell contains the same number and same quality of chromosomes.
Conclusion:In conclusion I learned in depth all the stages of mitosis. I also learned the forming of a cell plate in plant cells. I now understand that in somatic cells the daughter cells receive the same exact genes as well as the same exact chromosome number. The cell cycle is the life of a cell and without this we wouldn’t be able to produce new cells to do jobs in our body. Visually looking at each stage through a microscope was very interesting and it helped me understand more in profoundly about mitosis.