We have discussed about the various learning theories in the last chapter. But as aspirant teachers, it is our experience that no teaching problems can be solved by acquiring knowledge of learning principles. The models of teaching will be a help to understand the nature of teaching.
Teaching models are developed keeping in view of the learning theories (So that the teaching theories may be indoctrinated and reaffirmed by using these models.). The teaching model gives a comprehensive and specific outline of teaching process. A teaching model essentially follows the six activities given below:- • determines the learning outcomes or instructional objectives • specifies the learning environment
• specifies the mechanism of learning process
• specifies the criterion of performance expected from students • analyse class room settings and design teaching strategies to achieve desirable outcomes • modify the tactics if the expected behavioural changes do not occur.
Thus we may define a model of teaching as “an instructional design that produce particular environmental situations (classroom setting) for students to instruct and learn in such a way that the expected change occurs in his behaviour.”
1) “A model of teaching is a plan or pattern that can be used to shape curriculum, to design instructional materials and to guide instruction in the class room and other settings.” – Bruce Joyce & Marsha Weil 2) “ The model of teaching is a way to talk and think about instruction in which certain facts may be organised, classified and interpreted.” – Hyman
A close analysis of the above definition reveals the scope and functions of a model of teaching. Designing the Curriculum
Development of study materials Guiding the teacher • It helps in designing the curriculum or courses of study. • It helps in – developing and selecting proper instructional materials, text books, work books, multimedia programs and CAL programme ; utilising the teaching materials properly ; designing the appropriate educational activities • It guides the teacher in teaching – learning process by helping to achieve teacher –pupil interaction ; suggesting the ways to create favourable environment ;selecting appropriate teaching techniques, strategies or method Ultimately the teaching models are useful in bringing desirable changes and develop their social, personal and cognitive abilities.
Characteristics of Teaching Models
1) Models of teaching are plans or guidelines or patterns of teaching. 2) They follow a systematic scientific procedure to modify the behaviour of learners. 3) They specify the learning outcomes or instructional goals and the criteria of acceptable student performance. 4) They specify in definite terms the environmental conditions under which a student’s response should be observed. 5) All models of teaching specify mechanism or procedure that provide for students’ reaction and interaction with the environment. 6) Models of teaching are constructed on the basis of individual differences and according to various assumptions. 7) Models of teaching presents appropriate learning experiences suitable to learner’s needs, interests, curiosity and level of intelligence. 8) The teaching models bring about qualitative development of teacher’s competency as well as student’s personality.
A model of teaching enables the students to learn more easily and effectively. It will develop the required learning skills and habits in learners. Hence models of teaching are in fact models of learning. Because here the teacher help students to acquire information, ideas, skills, values, ways of thinking and means of expressing themselves ; the teacher also teach them how to learn.
On the basis of this discussion, we can conclude that a model of teaching consists of guidelines of designing educational activities and environments. It specifies ways of teaching and learning to achieve certain kinds of educational goals. It is a blue print for carrying out the task of teaching learning process.
Classification of Teaching Models
A number of educationalists have developed models of teaching from various source – analysing classroom situations, psychological theories, consulting therapists and so on. It was Bruce Joyce and Marsha Weil who have identified these various models and classified them into four families based on the nature, distinctive characteristics and effects of the models. But these models are being revised and new ones are added on account of the research studies conducted on their effectiveness.
The four families of teaching models as classified by Joyce and Weil are :-
1. Information Processing Family
These models focus on the intellectual capacity and growth. They are concerned with the ability of learner to observe, organise data, understand information, form concepts, solve problems, and use verbal and non verbal symbols.
2. Personal Models
These models focus on the personal development of the individual. They develop self-awareness and understanding. It develops capacity for self learning. They are also concerned with human feelings and emotions and help to develop positive relationship with the environment.
The emphasis of personal models is on the unique character of human being, to develop him as an integrated, confident and competent personality. They attempt to shape education in such a way that students understands themselves better and become more competent, stronger, sensitive and creative in their lives.
arvey, Harry Schroder | | | | |Develop maximum capacity for personal development | | |Abraham Maslow | | |5. Self actualisation | | |
3. Social Interaction Models
They emphasise the relationships of the individual to the society and to other people. They enable students to work together, equip them with democratic values and teach them to analyse social issues and critical social values. The social family of models help students to expand their cognitive level through interactions with others, to work productively in a group and to use both individual and group perspectives. It develops skills and values required in human relations.
4. Behavioural Systems Models
These models are based on the behaviourist school of psychology. The emphasis is on changing the behaviour of the learner.
These models are used in a wide variety of applications from teaching information, concepts, and skills ; providing comfort and relaxation ; curing phobias ; changing habits ; to learning how to control one’s behaviour.
Elements of a Teaching Model
A teaching model has a definite structure. The operation of each model is described within this structure. For using a model, the teacher must know the fundamental elements of the structure of a model. The major elements needed for the description of a model are – Focus, Syntax, Social System, Principles of Reaction, Support System and the Instructional and Nurturant effects. 1. Focus : – It is the central theme of a teaching model. It describes the goals and objectives of the model, the principles and major concepts underlying the model and the description of the environment required.
2. Syntax : – The syntax or phasing of the model describes the model in action. Syntax is described in terms of sequence of activities called phases. Each model has a distinct flow of phases.
3. Social System :- The social system describes the roles of teacher and students and the relationship between them. In some models, the teacher is the centre of activity, the source of information and authoritative in nature. In other models the teacher may be an organiser, reflector or facilitator of group activity, encouraging a great deal of social and intellectual independence through the active participation of students. In some other models both the teacher and student share the activities equally. The first case where the interactions are all pre planned is a highly structured social system ; whereas the second case is low structured and the third a moderately or medium structured social system. The social system of all models can be varied to adapt to the nature of students. The role of the teacher and the way the student behaviour is rewarded, varies from model to model.
4. Principles of Reaction :- This aspects tells how the teacher should regard and respond to what learner does. It provides the teacher, the rules to select appropriate responses to students as per the model demands. For e.g. in some models, the teacher shapes behaviour of students by rewarding certain student activities and maintaining neutral stance towards others. In the models designed to develop creativity, teachers may maintain a neutral stance to allow students to become self-directed.
5. Support System :- It indicates the supporting conditions necessary for the proper functioning of the model. It includes books, films, laboratory kits, reference materials, audio visual aids, programmed texts, etc to cater to the needs of the individual learner.
6. Instructional and Nurturant Effects :- Every teaching model produces two types of learning effects. They are categorised as given below. ← Instructional effects are the direct effects of the teaching model attained from the learning activities based on the content and skills. ← Nurturant effects are the indirect effects achieved through experiencing the environment created by the model.
A teacher may select any particular teaching model for its nurturant effects rather than the direct effects, if the situation demands that. Differences between teaching models and teaching methods.
Models of teaching differs from methods of teaching in many aspects.
A method is used for the transaction of content. Presentation of the subject matter is the core process of teaching method. The teacher adopts a method as determined by the content to be taught. The teaching methods are applicable to all teaching situations. Different teaching methods can be used for presenting a particular topic, as well as the same method can be employed to achieve different objectives.
But models of teaching aim at realisation of pre-determined objectives beside content transaction. They emphasise on definite stages or the phases of presentation. The teaching models also have a formal structure of the sequence of acts to be carried out in the class room settings. The teacher selects a particular model in accordance with the objective to be achieved. All models cannot be applied to all situations as they are prescriptive teaching strategies to realise a specific instructional goals. Hence different models are required to achieve various instructional goals. While a teaching method focus on the impressive presentation of content, the teaching models aim at creating complete learning environments.
Models of teaching are supported by sound psychological theories of learning. It also gives emphasis to the metacognitive aspects in learning.