The purpose of this report is to provide a simple description of how is human resource management used to identify the most suitable person for a current job position and to evaluate how different methods used during this process contribute to the final assessment of the person in hand. But before that a clear definition what exactly is human resource management should be given. Armstrong(2003) defines human resource management as a strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organization’s most valued assets which is the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of success. In other words, the aim of human resource management is to satisfy and achieve its objectives effectively by selecting, placing, orienting, evaluating and retaining the right people for the right job at the right time. (Scribd)
Human resource management is an essential issue to all business because once they fail to manage its employees effectively, for example, allocating a wrong people for the job position, they will waste their investment for training their employee and time or even worse, deteriorating their business due to the poor performance of its workforce. As mentioned before, the very first stage of the human resource management is about selection process and recruitment. According to Armstrong (2003), the overall aim of this stage is to obtain at minimum cost the quantity and quality of employees required to satisfy the human resource needs of the organization. In this era of globalization, it is a big issue to identify a suitable person with required skills, competence from a massive labor market for the business to obtain a well and performance in order to counter its large numbers of competitors. In this report, it will be emphasized on the selection process and recruitment, in particular the techniques that were used in the selection process. It will discuss how the business using these common techniques such as job description, testing, interviews in order to find a right person for the job based on a wide range of sources from newspaper, academic journal, book and webpage. -Application form
To commence with, in order to find a right person for a right job in a massive labor market, the most typically selection process is that recruiters begin with a review of the biographic data which is represented in the application forms. It is also known as a pre-selection process which helps the recruiters to sift the most suitable candidates to the short list which is used for subsequent actions such as testing and interview According to Harris (2000), a fair and objective selection process should first list all the job-related requirements for the job based on job analysis by the recruiters and weight those job requirement according to their importance. The recruiters would then use a well-established and standard application form which means that using one application form for all type of jobs rather than using CVs to screen the applicants.
They should help and advice all candidates to describe how they meet the job requirements with relevant examples on the application form. The applicants will provide their demographic details such as age, sex, family etc. but also their “knowledge”, “skills” and “experience” in their application form and the recruiters would sift the suitable applicants based on the their essential skills, experience according to the importance for short-listing. Besides, due to the increasing numbers of application, in the recent years, many global companies started to use online application form as their first step to screen their applicants because it is the most effective and efficient way to pick up the potential job seekers they needed. -Test
Human resource management (HRM) looks at how to use business personnel successfully and it relates to events unite with the management work and staffs. One main area of human resource management is human resource flow, which involves recruitment, selection, training, development and deployment. Recruitment and selection is the most pivotal step used to find the right person for the job. Recruitment and selection is the process of generating qualified applicants and select promising ones. Personality test is a good method for selection, because it makes experts to know applicants’ working performance. “Personality tests should be introduced to ensure that teachers with poor social skills do not make it into the classroom, a Scottish government-commissioned report says.” (Lindsay McIntosh,2011, ) Personality test refers to attributes under standardized conditions. However, disparate personalities may bring the same good working performance.
“According to Rob Yeung, business psychologist and senior consultant at Kiddy & Partners, personality tests have their limitations.” ( Hilary Freeman, 2001)Clever and creative staffs must have different tendencies and hobbies. “If you have a group of people who are all the same it will limit an organisation. If everybody’s an innovator, nothing will ever get done. Organisations need to recruit a mix of personalities.“ ( Hilary Freeman, 2001) Nowadays, human resource management (HRM) never forgets to use testing as a selection technique. What a test basically is trying to establish, is a fraction of the person’s behaviour. There are two fundamental concepts related to testing- reliability and validity. “A reliable test is one that yields consistent scores when a person takes two alternate forms of the test or when he or she takes the same test on two or more different occasions”, while validity proves that the test is useful, it ensures us that the test is accurate and measures what we intend to measure.
Now it’s turn to work sampling. Basically, work sampling is a sample of several tasks essential to the job. The aim of work sampling technique is to measure the applicant’s level of work performance directly. It’s advantages over the other selection methods are that it’s highly accurate. Its questions are reliable and related to the actual job. Answers cannot be simulated or faked and last but not least, this selection method is acceptable and fair to women and minorities. There is no chance of invasion into privacy.
However, On the other hand there are Assessment Centres (ACs). ACs are probably the most thorough and sophisticated selection method. It’s a comprehensive procedure of two-to-three day simulation in which a combination of different assessment techniques (ACs use group, individual and written exercises) is used to determine the potential and the skills of a group of candidates. Observations are conducted by managers and even psychologists. While the assessment centre is viewed as highly reliable and effective multi-trait assessment method, its cost is high. Nevertheless many researches have proven that it’s worth it.
Another method not to be neglected is Video-based situational testing. What AC, work sampling and video-based situational testing have in common is that they are all situational tests. They all refer to hypothetical situations of the job. The difference is now video-based simulations are presented to the candidates mostly on PCs (personal computers) or other type of console. When the simulation is over the participants should answer to multiple questions or to choose from several courses of action. Validity and reliability are again high on the scale.
Finally, A method mainly used by large manufacturers takes its place- The Miniature Job Training & Evaluation Approach (MJTEA)- is a process of training probable employees to several job tasks prior to the actual employment. This approach suggests that participants who are able to lean and perform some aspects of the job will show good results in mastering the job itself. Since its absolutely related to the job its relevant and valid but sometimes expensive as well. Interview
The interview is a face-to-face chance between the interviewer and interviewee to observe, converse and collect the relevant information of the interviewee. Thus to understand the personal qualities and ability condition of the interviewee. In addition, the interview is the most effective way to find a right person for the job. Because the interviewer can learn the state of interviewee directly, for example, the educational background of the interviewee, the previous work experience, the personality characteristics, the social activities as well. During the interview, the interviewer can judge the flexibility and psychological qualities of the interviewee, thereby exploring their potential and confirming whether the interviewer can do this job. However, interview is not the only way to find a right person for the job, the human resource also can through some other approaches for recruitment.
For example, the application form, academic text and so on. The importance of ensuring the selection of the right person to join the workforce has become increasingly apparent as the emphasis on people as the prime source of competitive advantage has grown. (Beardwell and Claydon, 2010). That is to say, Interview is the most important step of the human resource management used of find the right person. The interviewer has to decide which of the candidates is going to be most suited to the job. So interviewees must be prepared for the interview. The better prepared you are, the better your chances of winning the job. Furthermore, when the interviewer ask you questions, making sure you speak clearly, and answer questions without mumbling. Good body language and eye contact as well. Don’t interrupt the interviewer. (Jay, 2005). -Other selection
As mentioned earlier application forms, testing and interview are selection devices. In addition to this there are two other crucial requisite selection techniques for human resources management, to help find the right person for the job. These techniques are reference checking and health exams, both help in the staffing decisions. Before making any imprudent decisions on a single candidate, there’s one important step you need to take—check the reference. Most of the time, on the basis of written references to judge a candidate whether appropriate for a position may have some defects; perhaps someone wants rid of an employee，they certainly won’t give a poor reference under those circumstances, candidates that overplay their skills can often be revealed during this process. Therefore, reference checking allows employers to check up information hand over by the candidate. This is to ensure that the candidates` reference is true or not. However, “obtaining information about potential candidates is often difficult because of privacy laws and employer concerns about defamation lawsuits.”(cliffsnotes)
Health exams is another selection techniques require to take into consider. Identify health problems, as well as detecting diseases that may be unknown to the applicant may increase the absenteeism and accidents level or decrease the level of work efficiency. Thus, In order to positive development company in the future, human resource management will more care about the state of health of candidates during the selection. Employing the candidate who in good physical condition, not only will to improve organizational performance and productivity but also to help to strengthen the cohesion of the enterprise, promote the sustainable development of enterprise as well.
Cliffsnotes. Selecting the Best Person for the Job. [online] Available at: < http://www.cliffsnotes.com/study_guide/Selecting-the-Best-Person-for-the-Job.a