Move and Position Individuals’ in accordance with their Plan of Care. 1 Understand anatomy and physiology in relation to moving and positioning individuals. 1.1 Outline the anatomy and physiology of the human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals. A skeleton is a complex structure of bones. They work together with muscles, tendons and ligaments. All these components support the body and enable a large range of movements. The main body is supported by the spine which is made up of small bones stacked one on top of the other and separated by cushions known as inter-vertebral discs. These discs stop the bones from rubbing against each other and also act as shock absorbers. The skeleton forms the frame work of our body, it controls the way you move, and it supports your body and protect the spinal cord. Muscles in your body are used to move the bones of our skeleton.
All muscles is attached to a bone at one end and to a different bone at the other end by a flexible chains called tendons, the muscles move the bone of our skeleton so that we can bend our joints. Muscles works in pair one pull on the bone it is attached to by contracting, at the same time its partner relaxes. Where the bones meet e.g. your elbow is called a joint. Different joint allows different movement. You can move your upper arm in a variety way because it is connected to your shoulder by a ball and socket. Your knee can only bend in one direction because of the leg bones meet at a hinge joint which only allow only one kind of movement am aware that some individuals are more restricted with their movements due to operations, accidents or illnesses such as arthritis or strokes. Patients’ who have had hip or shoulder operations will be restricted in joint movements and moving and handling them incorrectly could result in the operation failing. In our body we have different joints which allow us movement.
An oily liquid called synovial fluid lies between the bones in a joint to keep friction to a minimum. Ligaments hold the joints together and are able to move when pulled by muscles. This allows the body a wide range of movement. However the joint between skull bones are fixed and do not allow movement. Ball and socket joints are found at the hip and shoulder. The ball and socket joint in the hip allows the leg to swivel in almost any direction. Hinge joints are found in the elbow, knee, fingers and toes. The hinge joint in the elbow and knee allows straightening or bending. The saddle joint in the thumb allows movement up and down and sideways. Ellipsoidal joints at the base of the finger allows bending and extending, rocking from side to side. Gliding joints are when two surfaces of two flat bones are held together by ligaments. Some of the bones in the wrist and ankles move by gliding against each other.
These wrist and ankle joints are built like a ball and socket but are more restricted in movement. Pivot joints allow movement in the neck from side to side and backwards and forwards of the head. The skull together with the 1st bone in the backbone (atlas) is able to rotate to some extent (shaking the head) about the 2nd bone and protect the spinal cord. Muscles in your body are used to move the bones of your skeleton. All muscles are attached to a bone at one end and a different one at the other end by flexible chains called tendons. The muscles move the bones of our skeleton so that we can bend our joints. Muscles work in pairs, one pulling on the bone it is attached to and the other relaxing. You can move your upper arm in a variety of ways because it is connected to your shoulder by a ball and socket. Your knee can only bend in one direction because the leg bones meet at a hinge joint which only allows one kind of movement. Some individuals have even more limitations to their movements because of injuries, operations or conditions such as arthritis or strokes. Moving and handling a patient incorrectly who has had a hip or shoulder replacement could result in the operation becoming a failure.
1.2 Describe the impact of specific conditions on the correct movement and positioning of an individual. A common physical condition in my workplace is Motor Neurones Disease. This condition causes deterioration in the patient’s movements, swallowing and breathing. A patient may be able to support themselves at the start of the illness but eventually moving and handling equipment is needed. Care plans and risk assessments are updated as the patient’s condition deteriorates. Because the patient will have difficulty breathing and often has to be fed via a peg site the way they are sat in a chair or placed in bed is vital. The patient is usually sat upright to allow the airways to work to a maximum. Exercises are usually carried out to help with the patient’s circulation and joint movement. The patient may have to be hoisted onto a commode throughout the day or hoisted for pressure relief. People with multiple sclerosis may have use of their hands and arms but no strength in their legs. People who have had a stroke may have a weakness on their right side which can cause them to be unstable on their feet. People may have arthritis which will cause joints to be stiff causing limited movement which leads to poor mobility.