1:1 Outline the anatomy and physiology of the human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals.
We need to know the normal range of movement of the muscles and joints so when moving, handling and positioning a person we know the limits of each limb. We need to take into consideration other factors that may inhibit a person’s movements as:
• Old Fractures
• Torn Muscles
• Rheumatism and Arthritic conditions.
This should all be written within the individuals care plan as well as a step by step plan on that has been agreed with them on how to move and handle them.
We need to understand that elderly people are not as supple as younger people and even if they do not suffer movement restriction through a medical condition. They bruise easier too and so great care has to be taken when handling, moving and positioning them especially when assisting them to sit up or when using the hoist strap. Failure to follow the care plan and any presenting conditions can lead to causing the individual injury, pain and discomfort. It may also lead to legal action being raised.
1:2 Describe the impact of specific conditions on the correct movement and positioning of an individual. Many illnesses affect the way in which people move. Someone who suffers with arthritis or pressure sores etc will affect the way you move and handle them. When moving an individual you must take into account if they have conditions that require special moving techniques. Individuals with Parkinson’s may have limb rigidity which can affect their ability of movement and cause limitations. When moving the individual into certain positions you must make sure not to force the rigid limbs as this can cause further pain and discomfort. Individuals who have suffered a stroke often have long-term and devastating weakness down one side of their body. When moving that individual, you must be aware of the extent of the stroke and on which side the body has been affected.
2:1 Describe how legislation and agreed ways of working affect working practices related to moving and positioning individuals. Every time a care worker moves or supports the weight of a patient, they are manually handing that person. Unsafe moving and handling techniques can result in injury to either the care worker or the person they are assisting to move. To reduce the risk of injury to either the care worker or the people being supported, legislations are put in place to protect people. The Health & Safety Act 1974 makes it a legal requirement for employers to ensure that the health and safety and welfare of their employees is maintained and the employers have a duty to take reasonable care of the health, safety and welfare of themselves and others.
Also we need to respect the individual and include them in their own care plan, which we must adhere to. We also need to ensure that our moving and handling training is up to date as this is also a required legislation and should be renewed on an annual basis. This helps us to make sure that we move and position patients correctly and safely and it allows us to be informed of any new regulations that may be coming into effect and refreshes us on how to use the equipment i.e. hoists etc.
2:2 Describe what health and safety factors need to be taken into account when moving and positioning individuals and any equipment used to do this. It is essential that you have been correctly trained to use the recommended equipment, and to ensure that all equipment is safe to use. Check for wear, damage, frayed cables, worn slings/handling belts etc. If you are using equipment such as a wheelchair, hoist or steady stand, ensure the brakes are applied when necessary. You should always wear the appropriate clothing and footwear (i.e. closed toe/heel shoes.) Check that there are no obstructions in the in the way, such as chairs, wet floor signs, or any other kind of hazard. Always inform the patient what you are intending to do and offer reassurance, especially when using a hoist. It is preferable if you are always visible when approaching a patient. Always follow the correct procedures, and never carry out any procedure you have not been trained to do and do not use equipment you have had no training on. 3:2 Please see and refer to 2:2 of this unit.
3:4 Describe actions to take in relation to identified risks. All identified risks should be reported to the nurse or the line manager on duty so it can be corrected/amended and a new risk assessment can be put in place. This also should be documented appropriately.
3:5 Describe what action should be taken if the individual’s wishes conflict with their care plan of care in relation to health and safety and their risk assessment. If the individuals’ wishes conflict with their care plan in relation to health & safety and their risk assessment, you would need to ensure that the individuals’ wishes were listened to and respected and that their, your own and others health and safety was not put at risk. Include the individual in the risk assessment to help prevent conflict from arising, help them feel empowered, the reasons why it is necessary, that it in place for them as well as the people that are helping them. Ask the individual why it is that they object/disagree and give them time to explain. Give reassurance and try to reach a compromise that is safe and protects the individual, yourself and other’s well being. Explain the consequences for themselves e.g. they may fall if they walk down the steps, injuries that may occur. Report to your line manager, record in the individual’s notes. Risk assessment/care plans may need revising. Always explain to the individual your reasons.
5:3 Describe the aids and equipment that may be used for moving and positioning. PAT Slide – A board used to bridge gaps for patient transfers from trolley- bed/bed-bed Hoist – A hoist is used to transfer a person from e.g. bed to chair by lifting them using a hoist sling. This is a mobile device on wheels and it is usually operated by two persons. Glide sheet – A sheet (usually used in pairs) that is used under a patient to allow easy repositioning. These come in various types and react against each other to allow easy manoeuvring of a person. Handling belt – A belt that is placed around a patient’s waist to assist with standing/walking Profiling bed – An electrically operated bed that various moving sections in the base, which allows adjustment using a control. Sling – A fabric (sometimes net/mesh) support used for supporting a patient while being transferred with a hoist. There are several types and sizes of slings from small to bariatric and amputee slings. Wheelchair – A mobile chair that is used for transporting a patient.
6:1 Describe when advice and/or assistance should be sought to move or handle an individual safely. If a patient has suffered a fall or maybe a road traffic accident which appears to make them motionless, they may have suffered a spinal and/or neck injury, the patient should only be moved if there is any immediate danger to life and be allowed to be moved by trained personnel. Any movement may cause the patient more damage, and can lead to further complications. 6:2 Describe what sources of information are available about moving and positioning individuals. Every care worker should make themselves aware of the many different policies and procedures that are available to them before carrying out any task. Every patient who requires moving and handling should have the correct method written in their care plan and this should be strictly adhered to. Manufactures instructions should be read and understood. The correct equipment should be used on each individual. The individual should seek help from colleagues if there is any doubt.