Dr. M.S.PUNIA EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR National Oilseeds & Vegetable Oils Development Board, (Ministry of Agriculture, Govt of India), FOREWORD India stands at sixth place in the world in energy need and overall demand of crude oil which is expected to rise annually by 5.6% upto 2011. The scenario of rising prices in the world oil market and respective foreign exchange cost are the main risk factors for Indian economy and social development prospects. Moreover, increased consumption and high dependence on non-renewable sources which substantially contributed to global warming and environmental pollution, presents a window of opportunity for looking at the alterative strategies to meet increasing energy needs.
Bio-diesel, a renewable source of energy offers a great potential to ease and mitigate limitation and supplement supplies of fossil fuel. The demand and supply gap of fuel is bridged with the import of petroleum products. If the existing trend continues, the situation shall become more grim. Therefore, existing potential of alternative sources need to be trapped which are scattered across the country. Jatropha is one of the best alternative sources available for bio-diesel production and its potential needs to be explored. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) belongs to Euphorbiaceae family is a fast growing shrub capable to grow and establish in tropical and subtropical region of the country and even on wasteland. It has various advantageous characteristic features viz. not browsed by cattle, best hedge plant, less gestation period (two years), capable to grow and establish in various biotic and abiotic stress conditions, high oil content (30-42% in seed), multiple uses including lubricant and illumination etc.
Continuing efforts for bringing out various technical bulletins on various TBOs i.e. Neem, Jojoba, Wild apricot etc., the Board has brought out this technical bulletin covering all important technical aspects viz. habitat & occurrence, botanical features, soil and climate, propagation techniques, package of practices, flowering & fruiting, yield, post harvest technology, oil characteristics, physico-chemical properties & fatty acid composition, uses and economic feasibility of Jatropha cultivation. I hope this bulletin will definitely be helpful to the farmers, agricultural scientists, field workers and other functionaries, who are involved in the promotion of Jatropha. The result based technical informations will boost the potential of this important plant resulting in generation of additional income, employment, availability of indigenous petro-diesel substitute and reducing import burden etc. The suggestions of readers are welcomed to make this booklet more useful. I congratulate to the NOVOD Board officers and officials who are directly and indirectly involved in bringing out this technical publication successfully.
JATROPHA An alternate source for bio-fuel
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) belonging to Euphorbiaceae family is a fast growing shrub. It can be cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the country and even on waste lands. Ratanjyot, Jamalghota, Jangli arandi etc. are some of the common names of Jatropha. The seed oil of Jatropha has been found a promising and commercially viable alternative to diesel, which is a renewable source of energy. Alternate fuels for diesel engines have become increasingly important due to diminishing petroleum reserves and awareness of the increased environmental consequences of emissions from petroleum-fuelled engines. A number of studies have shown that oils and fats from plant source hold promise as alternative fuels for diesels engines. However, the high viscosity, low volatility and poor cold flow properties of triglycerides, which result in severe engine deposits, injector chocking and piston ring sticking, have prevented them from being used directly in diesel engines.
One way to improve the fuel properties of triglycerides is their catalytic trans-esterification with alcohols to form monoalkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids, and another method is the super critical method of producing biodiesel, which is quite similar to hydrocarbonbased diesel fuels in its main characteristics and provides similar engine performance with low emission levels unlike fossil fuels. Economic feasibility study shows that the biodiesel obtained from non-edible oils is cheaper than that from edible oils. 1. HABITAT AND OCCURANCE Jatropha is native of South America and has a long history of its propagation by Portugese into Africa and Asia. It grows well throughout India. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Chattisgarh, Uttrakhand, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Orissa, North Eastern states are some of the promising states where it occurs in the vicinity of villages and town as semi wild bush or shrub and also as hedge vegetation. It is hardy shrub to dry weather conditions and is not browsed by cattle. 2. BOTANICAL FEATURES It is a bushy plant with numerous side branches that arise from its main stem and it attains a height of 3-4 m. Leaves are 10-15 cm. long and 7-12 cm broad with pointed edges. The flowers are yellowish green in loose panicles. The flowering occurs twice in a year i.e in March-April and in September-October.
The ripe fruits are about 2-5 cm. large and ripen fruits are yellow in colour. The seeds resembles with castor seed in shape and are about 1.8-2.0 cm long and shape is either ovoid or oblong and are covered in a dull brownish black capsule. 3. CLIMATE & SOIL Jatropha is a wildly growing hardy plant, in arid and semi-arid regions of the country on degraded soils having low fertility and moisture. It can thrives well on stony, gravelly or shallow and even on calcareous soils. It can be grown under wide range of arid and semi-arid climatic conditions but can not with stand during heavy frost. For better seed germination, mixed hot and humid climate is required. It can be cultivated successfully in the regions having scanty to heavy rainfall with annual rainfall ranges from 500-1200 mm.
4. PROPOGATION PRACTICES Jatropha can grows easily from seeds. However, commercially it can be propagated by three different ways such as by seeds, nursery and stem cutting. i. BY SEEDS Fully matured seeds should be selected for sowing. Pre-soaking in water for 24 hrs is advised. Another way is to soak seeds in cow-dung slurry for 12 hrs before sowing. Soaked seeds are generally sown in polybags of 10 x20 cm size filled with soil, sand and FYM (Farm yard manure) in the ratio of 1:2:1 respectively. Germination is generally noticed after 4-5 days and continues upto 15 days.If the seedlings are to be retained by 5-6 months before transplantation, then bigger polybags(15×25 cm) should be taken. Bold & disease free seeds from fresh collections are to be used for obtaining better germination percentage and growth performance. Low germination percentages and high mortality rates were found if the seeds from previous years are used. ii. SOWING IN NURSERY BEDS Raised beds (10 cm high) are prepared by digging and mixing soil with sand and FYM in 1:1:1 ratio. Each bed is prepared having 1 m x 5 m dimensions.
Shallow furrows of 2 cm depth are made by finger or using a stick. Soaked seeds are placed in furrows at an interval of 5 cm. and covered with a thin layer of soil. Care is taken to avoid deep sowing. Light irrigations are given after seed germination and bare rooted seedlings are transplanted after 3-4 months in the field during the rainy season. iii. BY STEM CUTTING Jatropha responds well for vegetative propagation. Propagation through branch cuttings is not new and farmers know this technique. In fact, 90% Jatropha spread throughout the country for ‘live fence’ was by branch cuttings only. Cuttings planted during monsoon immediately after Ist showers give better root initiation, high survival rate and good growth performance. i. Superior Jatropha trait/ genotypes are selected on the basis of their high seed yield and oil content. ii. From the selected tree, collect the branches having 2-3 cm diameter, put them in a bucket of water.
iii. Cut them into 15-20 cm long pieces with a knife or a mini hand-saw. iv. Dip the cuttings into a tub rooting hormone mixture (may be commercial Seradix or growth harmones like IBA or NAA of 100 ppm concentration. v. Put the cuttings in a poly bagged rooting media (Soil + Sand in 1:1) by inserting the basal region (about 3 cm). vi. Place the poly bags inside a closed polythene chamber or mist chamber to avoid the drying of cuttings. Allow the cuttings inside the chamber for a period of 2-3 weeks. Rooting can be seen through the transparent polybags in about 3 weeks of time. Rooting response is always better in harmone treated cuttings than in untreated cuttings. After removing from polychamber, the clones (vegetative propagules) are to be kept out side under partial shade for 2 weeks before transferring them to the field for transplanting. Using polytheme chamber or mist chamber is advantageous because the plants do not lose more water through evapotranspiration due to checking of wind velocity, the cuttings are kept always moistened thus not allowing them to become dry and ensures easy and profuse rooting.
The cuttings are planted in the month of February-March to get best sprouting and survival. Experience gained suggests heavy mortality in cuttings if planted during rainy season. 5. PLANTATION PRACTICES The disease free and bold seedlings of Jatropha are transplanted in rows at a spacing of 3×2 meter under irrigated condition accommodating 1666 plants/ha. On rainfed wasteland, a high density planting at 2 m x 2 m accommodating 2500 plants/ ha. is recommended. i. Direct planting by seeds The land is ploughed once or twice depending upon the nature of soil. In case of heavy soil, deep ploughing is desirable whereas in light soil shallow ploughing is sufficient.
The 30 cm x 30 cm pits dug in the field at required spacing should be filled with a mixture of soil, FYM(2-3 kg) and fertilizer (20 g urea, 120 g single super phosphate and 16 g murate of potash. Two seeds per pit should be dibbled at each pit with the onset of monsoon. When the seedlings are 4 weeks old, the weaker seedlings can be removed and the other bold seedlings can be used for gap filling. ii. Transplanting Eight to ten week old seedlings are to be planted in 30 cm x 30 cm pits dug in the field at required spacings and filled with a mixture of soil, FYM (2-3 kg.) and fertilizer (20 gm Urea, 120 g Single Super Phosphate and 16 g Murate of Potash). iii. Fertilizer The NPK in the ratio of 46:48:24 kg per ha are to be applied in split doses from second year onwards so as to obtain economic yields and high oil content in seeds. iv. Agri-silvicultural practice (Inter cropping) Since, the gestation period of jatropha is 2 years, the inter-cropping may be taken initially for two years which will yield additional income to the growers.
The intercrops selected by various institutions for intercropping in jatropha depending upon soil & climatic requirements are Chickpea, Rice, Green gram, Black Gram, Sesamum (Til), Ginger, Turmeric, Arhar, Masoor (Lantil), Ragi, Kulthi, Niger, Soybean, Moong, Urad, Wheat, Cowpea, Cluster bean, Water melon, Mustard, Guar and Dhaincha as well as Mothbean for green manuring. In addition, in assured irrigation and wide spacing in between the rows, some leafy and fodder and short duration shade loving crops may be under taken after two years.
v. Inter-culturing and weeding Inter-culturing should be carried out whenever necessary. Annually, 3-4 weedings may be carried out manually for keeping weed free field during initial growth period. vi. Irrigation During dry period only life saving irrigations should be applied to the plants as and when required. Usually from second year onwards irrigation is not required unless soils are shallow and sandy. Two irrigations in a year if applied at both the flowering period stages will enhance the yield. vii. Plant protection Jatropha plants are less prone to attack by diseases and insects. Following few common diseases & insects are to be checked time to time for better seed yields:(A) Diseases S. No. Name of Causal organism disease 1. Damping off Phytopthera pithium 2. 3. 4. Collar rot Root rot Leaf spot Control
Spray of 1.5 ml/litre of water of Metasystox 25 CC Spray of Phosphomedin/ Dimethoate @ 2.0 ml/3 lt. of water Spray of 2 ml/3 lt. water of Phosphomedin 6
6. FLOWERING AND FRUITING In India, it flowers between September-December and MarchApril. The fruiting extends from September to December. The fruits mature 2-4 months after flowering.
7. YIELD With proper care, an average seed yield under rainfed condition is expected as under: Years 2 3 4 5 6 & onwards Expected seed (Kg/ha/yr) 250-300 500-600 1000-1500 1600-2000 2500-4000
8. COLLECTION AND PROCESSING The ripe fruits are plucked from short trees. The collected seeds are sun dried and decorticated manually or by decorticators. One person could collect and decorticate 25-30 kg seed per day. Kernels are sold in the market in small quantities. This is an income generating village level activity and can be integrated with the rural development programme alongwith collection of other non-traditional oilseeds like mango stones, karanj and neem. 9. OIL CHARACTERISTICS The seed resemble castor seed in shape but is smaller in size and is dark in colour. Weight of the seed ranges 0.5-0.7 g. and length 1-2 cms. The seed contains moisture (6.62%), protein (18.02%), fat (38%), carbohydrates (17.98%), fibre (15.50%) and ash (4.50%). Besides, starch, sucrose, dextose, glutein, a free acid and an active lipase are also present.
10. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND FATTY ACID COMPOSITION S.No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Characteristics Oil content in kernel Oil content in seed Sp. Gravity 15% Refractive Index at 400C Acid value Saponification Iodine value Hydroxy value Fatty acid composition Fatty acid Per cent Oleic acid 37-68 Linoleic acid 19-41 Palmitic acid 12-17 11. USES i. The oil is used as lubricants, soap and candle manufacturing. It has also been reported as hair growth stimulent and thus can be used as hair oil. In animals/live stock, its application is useful against sores. ii. As a manure, it is useful and contains 4.44% Nitrogen, 1.4% phosphorus and 1.2% potash. iii. In England, it is used in wool spinning and in China for manufacturing of non or semi drying alkaloids and for varnishing after boiling Jatropha oil with iron oxide. These uses can be explored in India.
iv. Plant is useful for large scale plantations in poor or marginal lands as oil yield from established plantations will be around 1 to 2 tones per hectare. v. Trans-esterification Bio-diesel is a methyl ester formed by a process called Transesterification. Oil can be extracted from seeds of Jatropha with a simple oil expeller (as used for mustard seeds) with some modification in compression chamber and steam heating/ cooker arrangement. The Jatropha oil is reacted with methanol in the presence of a catalyst to yield methyl esters and glycerol. Sodium Hydroxide and Potassium Hydroxide are commonly used catalyst.
Heat the oil at 65oc. Dissolve sodium hydroxide tablets in methanol to make a solution. The quantity of NaOH/KOH and methanol should be 2 and 25-30 percent, respectively, of the total quantity of Jatropha oil. After mixing this solution into hot Jatropha oil, the solution should be stirred for 5 to 7 minutes. Then keep this solution undisturbed at least for 4 hours. Glycerol being heavy will slowly settle down at the bottom and bio-diesel can be easily separated from the top. To strain the impurities like Sodium, this oil should be washed 2-3 times with water. Add water to the oil and after 5 minutes collect the oil floating on surface. Repeat this process and then finally heat the oil to evaporate the water and bio-diesel is ready to use. 12. COST-ECONOMICS OF JATROPHA CULTIVATION (A MODEL CALCULATION) A. COST OF PLANTATION OF JATROPHA (ONE HA. ) Botanical name : Spacing : No. of plants / ha : Survival percentage : Gestation period (Years) : Particulars 1st Site preparation i.e. cleaning and levelling of field Alignment and staking Digging of pits (2500 Nos) of 30 Cm3 size @ 50 pits per MD 600 300 3000 2nd 3rd Jatropha curcas 2M X 2M 2500 80% 2 (Rs.)
Cost of FYM (including carriage) 2 Kg. per pits during 1st year (2 MT) 1 Kg. per pit during second year onwards @ Rs. 400/MT Cost of fertilizer @ Rs. 6 870 495 per kg (50 gm. per plant during 1st year and 25 gm from 2nd year onward and 2 MD for each application. Mixing of FYM, 1500 insecticides fertilizers and refilling of pits @100 pits per MD Cost of plants (including 10000 2000 carriage) 2500 Nos. during first year and 500 Nos. of plants during second year for replanting @ Rs. 4.0 per plant Planting and replanting 1500 300 cost 100 plants per MD. Irrigation – 3 irrigation 1500 500 during 1st and one irrigation during 2nd year @ Rs. 500/- per irrigation. Weeding and soil working 1200 1200 Harvesting of fruits/seeds – 1500 2400 – 2 MD per 100kg of seed Plant protection measure 300 Sub total : 22770 4495 0 1500 2400 Contingency (10% of the 2277 449.5 0 150 240 above) Grand Total : 25047 4945 0 1650 2640 ♦ Cost from 6th year onwards to repeat in subsequent years. ♦ Model cost calculation is made for 14 years.
B. NET INCOME FROM PLANTATION OF JATROPHA (ONE HA.)
NET-NCOME TAKING 14YEARS OF SURVIVAL OF PLANT & YIELD STABILISATION FROM 6TH YEAR ONWARDS No. of plants per ha. 2500 Plants for yield calculation Yield/income/cost/ Stabilisation Particulars 1st Cost of plantation, maintenance & harvesting (Rs.) Seed yield kg/tree Seed yield (kg/ha) Gross income (Selling price @ Rs. 7/kg) Net Income 25047 0 0 0 -25047 2nd 4945 0 0 0 -4945 2500 From 6th year onwards YEARS 3rd 0 0 0 0 0 4th 1650 0.5 1250 8750 7100 5th 2640 0.8 2000 14000 11360 6th 3300 1 2500 17500 14200 25750 180250 116268 Total (Rs.) (14 years period) 63982
NB: The cost-economics may vary depending upon various agroclimatic conditions, wage rate, input cost etc.