1. Replacement or repair of damaged plant and equipment is a cost that an organization may face following a workplace accident. (or) List eight possible costs to the organization following work place accident. Direct Cost: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Lost time of injured worker and any continued payments to worker or family. Damage to the equipment, tools, property, plant or materials. Medical or first aid costs. Time and materials to clean up after the accident. Insurance and compensation payments. Court costs. Fines.
Indirect Cost: 1. Lost time by other workers who stop work or reduce performance. Out of curiosity. Out of sympathy. Weakened morale. 2. Lost time by supervisor or other managers. Assisting injured worker. Investigating the cause of the accident. Selecting or training new worker to replace injured worker. Preparing accident reports, attending hearings, inquests courts. 3. Interference with production leading to failure to fill orders on time, loss of bonuses, penalty payments and similar causes. 4. Loss of good will and reputation. 2. Outline the main components of a health and Safety Management System. (or)
Describe the key elements of a health and safety management system. The key elements / main components of a health and safety management systems are [POPMAR], 1. Setting Policy Organizations that are successful in achieving high standards of health and safety have health and safety policy which contribute their business performance, while meeting their responsibilities to people and the environment in way which fulfils both spirit and the letter of the law. In this way they satisfy the expectations of shareholders, workers, customers and society at large. 2. Organizing Organization those are successful in achieving high standards of health and safety are structured and operated so as to put their health and safety policies into effective practice. This is helped by the creation of a positive culture that secures involvement and participation at all levels.
3. Planning and Implementation The successful organizations adopt a planned and systematic approach to policy implementation. Their aim is to minimize the risks created by work activities, products and services. Performance standards are established and performance is measured against them. 4. Measurement or Evaluation Procedures to monitor, measure and record health and safety performance on a regular basis should be developed and periodically reviewed. Responsibility, accountability and authority for monitoring at different levels in the management structure should be allocated. Health and safety performance in organizations that manage health and safety successful is measured against pre-determined standards. 5. Audit The formal process is specifically designed to determine the extent to which the health and safety management system, or elements of it, are compliant with standards (in place, adequate and effective)
6. Review or Action for improvement Health and safety management system audits and management reviews should be established to ensure the management system continues to be effective. Arrangements should be established to aid the continual improvement of health and safety management system. 3. Outline objectives or principles and key elements of health and safety policy 1. To a policy which is specific to the organization and appropriate to its size and nature of its activities. 2. To making the policy concise, clearly written, dated and made effective by the signature or endorsement of the employer or most senior accountable person. 3. To ensure it is communicated to all persons working under the control of the organization with the intent they are made aware of their individual OSH obligations and that the policy is readily accessible to all persons at their work place.
4. To be reviewed continuing suitability, and made available to relevant external interested parties, as appropriate. 5. Protecting the safety and health of all members of the organization by preventing work related illness, injuries and accidents. 6. Complying with national and international laws and regulations related to health and safety. 7. Ensuring the policy is documented, implemented and maintained. 8. Ensuring the workers and their representatives are consulted and encouraged to participate actively in all elements of health and safety management system. 9. Continually improving the performance of the health and safety management system. 4. Outline the issues that are typically included in the arrangements section of a health and safety policy. (Or) Outline the Health and Safety requirement at work place. The issues that are typically included in arrangement section of health and safety policy includes, The safety system of work and permit to work system Risk Assessment
Adequate health and safety training Provision of personal protective equipment Identify and take appropriate control measures against specific type of hazards (e.g. Machinery, Hazardous Substance, Manual Handling, Fire etc.,) Contractors control procedures. Welfare arrangements Accident reporting, recording investigation procedures Provide sufficient first aid facilities Emergency procedures Employee consultation
5. Identify the good reasons for preventing accidents in the work place. (Or) Identify the reason why a company should have health and safety culture. (Or) Reasons for maintaining and promoting a positive health and safety culture at work place. There are three good reason to preventing accidents / positive / maintain and promoting health and safety culture at work place. Moral: Injury accidents result in a great deal of pain and suffering for those affected. It is moral responsibility of individual or company to provide adequate health and safety arrangements to individual. Individual’s responsibility to take care themselves and the surrounding area people as well. A worker should not have to expect that by coming to work life or limb is at risk, nor should others be adversely affected by worker’s undertaking. Social: The moral reason to prevent harm is usually further reinforced in both civil law and criminal law, as without potential for regulatory action or legislation, many employers would not act upon their implied obligation of protection.
It is further emphasized by local laws to ensure the safety standards have well maintained / followed by implementing appropriate policy and procedure. Economic: Accidents at work cost a great deal of money, especially when we add in damage accidents (particularly when they interrupt production, downgrade the quality of our products). Many governments realize that poor occupational health and safety performance gives rise to additional costs to the state. (e.g. social security payments to the incapacitated and costs of medical treatment.) 6. Identify the sources of information that can be referred while developing a Health and Safety Management System. There are two (Internal to the organization and External to the organization) main sources of information that can be referred while developing a Health and Safety Management System. Internal to the organization: 1. Accident / Ill-health and Absence Data (Accident data, Frequency, Absence Data, Accident Severity, etc.,) 2. Results of Audit / Inspection
3. 4. 5. 6.
Investigation Reports Maintenance Records Cost and Other Management Performance Data Compliance Data
External to the organization: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Manufacturer’s Data Legislation (E.g. Directives, Acts and Regulations) Good Practice and Guidance International European British IT Sources Encyclopedia Professional Bodies Lawyers Consultants Training Courses
7. Define the responsibilities of an employer. 1. Ensuring, as far as is reasonably practicable the workplaces, machinery, equipment and process under their control are safe and without risk to health. 2. The chemical, physical and biological substances and agents under their control are safe and without risk to health when the appropriate control measures of protection are taken. 3. To provide necessary, of adequate protective clothing and equipment to prevent as far as reasonably practicable, risk of accidents or of adverse effects on health. 4. Provide measures to deal with emergencies and accidents, including adequate first aid arrangements. 5. It shall be the duty of every employer and every self-employed person to ensure, as far as reasonable and practicable, the welfare at work of all his employees. 6. Adequate information, instruction, training and supervision as are necessary.
7. Shall comply with occupational safety and health standards disseminate under this Act. 8. Provision of adequate supervision of work, of work practices and of application and usage of occupational health and safety measures. 9. Ensure that work organization, particularly with respect to hours of work and rest breaks, does not adversely affect safety and health. 8. Define workers responsibility 1. It shall be duty of every employee while at work to follow the safety standards set by employer. 2. To take reasonable care for safety and health of himself and of other persons who may be affected by his acts or omissions at work. 3. To cooperate with his employer or any other person in the discharge of any duty. 4. To wear or use at all times any protective equipment or clothing provided by employer. 5. To get adequate training and after follow the information provided by employer.
9. Identify the key features /sections / components / purpose of health and safety policy Statement of Intent: Demonstrates management commitment towards health and safety and sets goals and objectives of the organization. Organization: The purpose to which is to allocate the health and safety responsibilities within the company and reporting lines. Arrangements: Set out in detail the systems and procedures to show how the policy is being implemented. (General arrangements are Planning, Organizing, 4C’s, Accident and reporting and Specific arrangements are fire, electricity, manual handling, work at height)
10. Outline the circumstances that would require a health and safety policy to be reviewed. Technological change is happening in the workplace. As Time passes the arrangements for control of health and safety are influenced by workers finding different ways of doing the same thing. Changes in Organization have a specific bearing on the arrangements. Where the result of risk assessment, auditing, accident, investigation and enforcement action. Legislation changes. Consultation with employees. Introduction of new process or work pattern.
11. Outline the benefits to an organization of having a health and safety committee. A clear management commitment. Clear objectives and functions. An even balance between management and employee representatives. Agenda agreed, distributed in advance and followed in meeting. Minutes or notes of the meeting being produced promptly and distributed in good time for actions to be taken before the next meeting. Personal copy of minutes provided to each member, each representative covered by the committee and the senior manager of the organization. Full participation by members. Effective chairing of meeting enabling points to be raised but within the agenda. Accesses to the organizations decision making process through the chair and in that committee’s views are taken into account. Speedy decisions by management on recommendation promptly translated into action and effectively publicized. Regular meetings at a frequency that reflects the matters to be discussed. Access to health and safety expertise. Appropriate topics.
12. Outline the reason why a health and safety committee may prove to be ineffective in practice. Lack of management commitment towards health and safety. No terms of reference for the committee.
No agenda / minutes of meeting being produced. Uneven balance between employees and management. Poor chairmanship. No access to the decision making process. Infrequent meetings. Inappropriate topics for discussion and no access to health and safety expertise.
13. Outline ways in which the health and safety culture of an organization might be improved. Establishment of a positive health and safety culture where risk taking is frowned upon by all workers but especially supervisors and managers. Setting realistic objectives with regard to accident rates. Involvement in health and safety policy setting. Clarification of responsibilities. Developing a positive reward structure. Monitoring health and safety performance. Improving workers knowledge of the sequences of not working safely (through information and training). Recognizing and rewarding achievement.
14. List the six main elements to a management strategy when selecting a contractor. Identification of suitable bidders o Insurance details o Status of depth of implementation of health and safety policy. o Status of competent person o Previous accident record o Details of any prosecution o Details of any enforcement record o Competence of workers o Reference for previous clients Identification of hazards with specification. Checking of (health and safety aspects of) bids and selection of contractor. Contractors ‘agreement to be subject to client’s rules. Management of the contractor on site. Checking after completion of contract.
15. Identify the factors that can influence health and safety culture. (5C2 E – Communication, Commitment, Competency, Cooperation, Consultation and Equal Priority) Effective Communication: E.g. An organizations safety policy must be communicated to the workers. Leadership and Commitment: The evidence can be shown by the clear identification and acceptance of responsibility for health and safety from the most senior. The Chairman takes the role of Chief Safety Officer. E.g. Rules apply to everyone for wearing PPE.
Consultation: Proactive involvement of workers and /or their representatives in decision making. E.g. When selecting new equipment such as access equipment for work at height. Discussion with workers will result no complaints. Competency: Cooperation: Incident and accident investigation: Equal Priority. 16. Explain the factors influencing safety culture. Effective communication, equal priority, incident investigation, consultation, leadership commitment are the factors influencing safety culture. Effective communication: This would help to achieve a positive safety culture and the effectiveness can be measured. Example: an organizations safety policy must be communicated to all the employees and that can be evaluated how effectively communicated to the workers by questioning them. Leadership and commitment: the clear identification and acceptance of responsibility for health and safety from the senior most employees and the safety rules must be applied everyone.
The responsibilities must be accepted and taken seriously by all. For the wearing of necessary PPE at site at all time. The above can be measured during safety audit and any discrepancies corrected promptly. Equal priority: this is the evidence the safety is treated equally for all business such as production, finance, etc., The health and safety policy should be integrated with other corporate policies. Incident investigation: investigating the incidents can be used as a measurement against safety culture. This will help to identify the root cause of the incident where safety rules are not followed and how we can improve our health and safety cultures. Also investigation of incidents identifies the weakness of the safety policy which would be corrected with prompt management action and the same can be audited. Consultation: The best safety culture is that, workers or their representatives to be consulted in decision making process. For example discussing with workers when selecting new equipment will result no complaints. 17. Outline how induction training programs for new workers can help to reduce the number of accidents in work place.
Induction training for new workers to familiarize the environment in order to maximize the safety at site. Making aware of the risks is familiar with procedures and system of work, knows to recognize and report unsafe conditions. Induction training to ensure that the workers share a common commitment to health and safety which would contribute greatly to a safer workforce. Make understand the importance of PPE provisions, use and maintenance so that everyone knows the importance and how to use of PPE. The training also help the workers how to respond at the time of fire and emergency. Induction training helps the worker to know the new technology and how to adopt of work practices in result no incident or accident. Training brings the worker to understand the legislation requirements which will effect on their safety or the safety of others. Training makes workers in better understanding and involvement raises morale or job satisfaction.
18. Explain the variety of training methods a trainer could use to improve the effectiveness of workers training in health and safety Refer page 41 and 42 in book and get the topic which is good for training (like what you guys are doing the training at site) and summarize. 19. Explain Mechanical and Non Mechanical hazards and give four examples for each Mechanical Hazard: Hazards associated with mechanical devices such as Auger Drill, Chop Saw, Saw Blades, Nail Gun etc while on operation called as mechanical hazards. E.g Auger Drill – Hazard is Entanglement. Sanding Machine / Grinding Machine – Abrasion or Friction Saw blades – Cuts or Amputation Injuries Nail Gun – Stabbing & Puncture. Non Mechanical Hazard: A Machinery may also present other hazards which can cause injuries or other sources can affect the users or humans. Example Electricity – Shock and Burns Hot Surface – Fire. Biological – Viral and Bacterial Chemicals – Toxic, Irritant, Explosive Access – Slips, Trips and Falls. Identify the precaution that should be taken to reduce the risk of injury from electrical equipment in work place. Ensure the electrical equipment is tested before use. Provide appropriate PPE. Suitable / Proper power supply or connection. Competent person to be operated. 20.
Avoid any misuses. Proper supervision. Equipment should be kept off and the plug should be removed while not in use. Appropriate precaution to be taken as per the manufacturer recommendation. Regularly serviced (tested by the competent Person) Follow manufacturer instruction without fail. Risk assessment. Adequate training about particular equipment. Proper uniform or dress code.
22. Identify all hazards associated specially with battery power fork lift trucks. Driving too fast Driving on slopes Collision with buildings Collision with other vehicles Insecure load Poor floor surface Overloading Failure – Load bearing part 23. Identify 8 common causes of fires in the workplace. Wiring with defects such as poor maintenance. Overheating of cables. Overloading the power above then the capacity. Incorrect fuse. Unskilled worker. Poor connections High surface temperature of equipment. Overheating Misuse of electrical equipment. Inadequate earthing.