Tolman’s Purposive Behaviorism
– it is also been referred to as Sign Learning Theory and is often unite between behaviorism and cognitive theory. Tolman believed that learning is a cognitive process. Learning involves forming beliefs and obtaining knowledge about the environment and then revealing that knowledge through purposeful and goal directed behavior.
Tolman’s Key Concept
* Learning is always purposive and goal- directed
* Cognitive Map
* Latent Learning
* The concept of interesting variable
* Reinforcement not essential for learning
ALBERT BANDURA’S SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
Social Learning Theory focuses on the learning that occurs within a social context. People learn from one another such as observational learning, imitation and modeling.
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
1. Learn by observing.
2. Learning can occur through observation alone, without a change in behavior.
3. Cognition plays a role in learning.
4. Transition between behaviorism and cognitive learning theory.
ENVIRONMENT REINFORCES MODELING
in several Possible ways:
1. By the model
2. By the third person
3. By the imitated behavior itself produce satisfying.
4. By the vicarious reinforcement.
Contemporary Social Learning Perspective of Reinforcement and Punishment
1. Contemporary Theory purposes that reinforcement and punishment have indirect effects on learning.
2. Reinforcement and Punishment influence the result of individuals’ behavior that has been learned.
3. The expectation of reinforcement influences cognitive processes.
Cognitive Factors in Social Learning Theory
* Learning Without Performance
* Cognitive Processing During Learning
* Reciprocal Causation
Conditions necessary for effective modeling to occur
-Bandura mentions four conditions that are necessary before an individual can successfully model the behavior of someone else:
3. Motor Reproduction
Effects of Modeling on Behavior:
* Modeling teaches new behaviors.
* Modeling influences the frequency of previously learned behaviors. * Modeling may encourage previously forbidden behaviors.
* Modeling increases the frequency of similar behaviors.
Educational Implications of Social Learning Theory
1. Students often learn a great deal simply by observing other people. 2. Describing the consequences of behavior can effectively increase the appropriate behavior and decrease inappropriate ones. 3. Modeling provides an alternative to shaping for teacher new behavior. To promote effective modeling a teacher must make sure that the four essential conditions exist; attention, retention, motor reproduction and motivation. 4. Teachers and parents must model appropriate behaviors and take care that they do not model inappropriate behaviors. 5. Teachers should expose students to a variety of other models. This technique is especially important to break down traditional stereotypes.