Obamas ‘Surge’ Plan Essay Sample
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Obamas ‘Surge’ Plan Essay Sample
United States is among the list of developed countries in the world recognized as the First World Countries. The military, diplomatic and economic power it posses enables it to influence the governance of many nations either politically, socially or economically. US interest in the oil industries of the Middle East has continued to be dominant since the 20th century. This initiative has meet rejection contributed by a number of factors, for instance the prevailing competition that existed between the US and the Soviet Union on issues concerning the Middle East oil industries. US influence in the Middle East countries greatly increased after the First World War. US nationalist used the fourteen point proposal introduced by President Woodrow Wilson to instill peace between US and the Middle East. Their initiative was welcomed by the citizens of the Middle East countries who preferred to be ruled by the US than the French or the Britons (Kakar, 1995).
The US government took this opportunity to implement their policies and social reforms in the Middle East so as to fight communists who were against their influence over the Arab and posed threat to their governance over the Middle East. The US also embarked on fighting terrorism that was persistent in regions occupied by the Turkish Sultans which extended to Europe, Africa, Asia and the Balkans. The boundary separating this region had been formed under the legislation introduced by the League of Nations, which was set up by President Woodrow Wilson in an attempt to reinstate peace between the fighting nations (Kakar, 1995). The US also formed political ties with Nationalists who politically influenced Middle East to be able to implement their policies and reforms with minimum rejection. Their influenced the success of the coup initiated by young Mohammed Reza Shah of Iran against Mossadeqs policies to publicize the Iranian oil industries. This paved way to the introduction of the western culture, policies and social reforms as Shah used the advantage of his unlimited power over Iran and his secret weapon, SAVAK (Sazamane Etelaat Va Amniate Kechvar) whose main role was to torture or execute any force of opposition directed towards Shah, to implement the western policies and reforms( Kakar, 1995).
An Islamic revolution that saw the end of Shahs regime caused hic ups between the relationship of US and Iran. Islamic jurists and scholars wanted nothing to do with the western policies and reforms implemented by Shah and in an attempt to rejection them, they burned down the American embassy in Tehran and took 53 American citizens hostage to overthrow the American influence in Iran (Strand, 2002). Counter to this reactions US gave their full support to Iraq during the Iran-Iraq war. However, Saddam Hussein rubbed US in the wrong shoulder by initiating the Gulf war when he invaded Kuwait country in an attempt to forcefully own the Kuwait oils industries and his constant construction of massive destruction weapons. The US was forced to attack Iraq by constantly booming it and declaring Iraq a no flying zone and further restricted trade activities between Iraq and other countries (Kakar, 1995). This was attempted to impose an unbalanced economic status to the Iraq country, thus prevent continued manufacture of the massive destruction weapons. This further created enmity between the US and Arabs who were sympathetic to the poor state of living and grievances aired by the Iraq citizens (Kakar, 1995).
Israel being a democratic state thus a good market for the US to invest and having a common interests in terms of religion won the US support in their constant fights against Arabs. European Jews fled to Israel to take cover from the Nazi Germans and settled there as Israel citizens’ forcefully creating frequent war zones with the Arabs who were displaced by this migration (Strand, 2002). The main aim of America was to create peace in the Middle East but according to the Palestinians, US ended up turning the political allies it had formed to enemies. They derive their support by exhibit of lack of democracy and human rights in regions that US had implemented the western policies and reforms for example Turkey, Egypt and Israel (Kakar, 1995).
Obama, the US elect president has devised strategies to prove the Palestinians wrong. During his regime he aims at ending the war between Iraq and America that has lasted for six years by August 2011. He also wants to fish out all the Al Qaeda troops in Afghanistan and Mesopotamia which includes parts of Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Syria. He plans to redeploy about 100,000 American troops in Iraq to Afghanistan and Palestine by August 2010 and add others to make a total of 400,000 troops. He says this will create job opportunities to the large number of unemployed youths in America and have an interest in working as or with the US army. Measures the elect President Barrack Obama has to consider in preventing eruption of another war and bringing rivalry between him and the Afghanistan President Hamid Karzai, is creating an Afghanistan National Army Trust Fund where the oil kingdoms along the Persian Gulf shall feel free to contribute. This will also erase the doubt of America dominating Afghanistan and Afghanistan being owned by the Taliban society which does not have a defined system of ruling, thus promoting constant eruptions of war between the Afghanistan citizens and the Taliban society. To prove his initiative the elect President Barrack Obama has already begun talks with the Haqqani network which is linked to Al Qaeda and he has set aside a plan to raise the USD10-USD20 billion to be used in the quest for peace process which has been spread into a span of 6-7 years (Kendall, 2009).
Historical Background to the Conflict
Afghanistan is an arid mountainous country which has naturally divided provinces included in the legislation of Afghanistan. This geographical factor has contributed to the build up of many ethnic groups which have their own way of governance. Each province has an ethnic cultural influence which tends to be stronger than the influence of the government in Afghanistan. The geographical location of Afghanistan has greatly influenced the religion of the country. Afghanistan citizens are Muslims as their neighboring countries which are dominated by Arabs. USSR has been one of the countries that had initiated interest in Afghanistan. It started by providing relief aid to Afghanistan, improving their infrastructure systems and improving the output of their food crops by initiating irrigation schemes. In this context, USSR wanted to over throw the monarchy system of governance in Afghanistan in 1970 by forming a communist party (Borders, 1984). Their efforts were rejected by the citizens because their tradition and believes went against what USSR was trying to implement. Land distribution, respect to the rights of women, a government system that declared laws to be followed and advocacy of monogamy were among the factors that contributed to refute of the communist party formed by the Soviet Union (Borders 1984).
USSR did not take this lightly as they considered having used their resources to develop Afghanistan and improve the economic status of the country. This is because they wanted to expand their influence into Asia and protect the communist party that only had military support and was on the verge of failure. They also wanted to have influence over the oil industries before Iran and other western unions like America. They revolted by taking control of the Afghanistan capital city Kabul in 1979 when they assigned Babrak Karmal as the leader because they could easily influence his decisions (Borders, 1984). This lead to build up of war between Afghanistan and USSR which lasted for ten years because Islam citizens of Afghanistan, who were referred to as Mujahideen, opposed Babrak Karmal governance as it had Christianity influence which contradicted with the beliefs of Muslim. This lead to creation of Jihad (Holy War) to curb Christianity by the Mujahideen which was highly supported by America because they were in constant conflict with the Soviet Union, as both wanted their policies and social reforms to be enacted in to the system of governance in Afghanistan (Strand, 2002).
America saw this as an opportunity to overthrow the USSR influence. They gave the Mujahideen all the support they needed in terms of financial and military weapon resources. The US support together with the tactics that the Mujahideen had developed to fight the USSR made them win the ten years war which reflected their stern decline of the USSR rule of governance and influence. Although it was a success worth celebrating, major havoc had been done to Afghanistan as a huge part of their population was killed and property destroyed. This pulled back the development of Afghanistan leading to the decline of their economy and the harsh living condition that they were facing. Refugee camps that were created in Peshawar and Pakistan had greatly increased leading to over crowding which contributed to the poor sanitation the refugees were facing. UN bodies came to the aid of the Mujahideen as they provided money, food and helped the country to slowly pick up the pieces left and built it again (Borders, 1984).
The USSR retracted all its forces all over Middle East in 1989 and left the Americans to dominate. The war caused by the communist party lead to the creation of a very weak state that was filled with hatred to certain religions and the first world countries, thus building a base for terrorism in Afghanistan (Smith, 1979). This was because the war completely destroyed the Afghanistan country, turning the fertile portion of lands to land mines which later killed them when they tried to revive the economy of their country; the war had turned them to a begging nation relying on aid from other countries to survive. Due to the poor state of the country the resources donated to them were never enough and malnutrition in children could be observed in every corner of Afghanistan. General Zia ul Haq impounded military dictatorship in Afghanistan who took the poor state of the citizen to his advantage and together with his corrupt officials took all the prosperity that Afghanistan had achieved to their pockets subjecting the mujahideens to harsh living conditions (Kakar, 1995).
This contributed to the high rate of lawlessness in the country which created a major revolution by the Mujahideen in 1990 who resumed the fights and took control of the Kabul. Their rule was highly accepted and supported as it also provided security to the people. This peace did not prevail for long as the mujahideen started fighting amongst themselves to gain political control (Smith, 1979). The American influence, foreign aid, NGOs and the various UN bodies that were in the country to help improve the countries state could not contain the situation and in 1993 they left (Borders, 1984). This perpetuated the growth of Taliban movement as the Pakistan and the neighboring countries wanted to make a mark in their countries and set their own policies and reforms. This brought to the rise of Madarassahs which geared their attention to attract the poor families by offering free education, food, clothing and housing to them. In the Madarassahs Muslim religion was highly instilled into the students to erode the Christian element that had been introduced by the influence of the first world countries like USSR and America and the foreign bodies that offered aid to the country (Kakar, 1995).
Due to extensive effect of drought in Afghanistan many children were sent to Madarassahs in the Northwest part of Pakistan as there were better opportunities there. After completion of the school there was a huge difference implicated between the Afghanistan students who had to move to get education and other amenities and the students originating from Pakistan. This was because those who had moved were being influenced by the importance of Jihads. These are the students who initiated the Taliban era which gained its grass root hold in the Afghanistan country in 1994. The Taliban rules lead to development of policies that determined the division of territories in Afghanistan. The Taliban had support from the Pushtunwali and Islam community, who were also members of the Taliban. They created enmity for the others communities and ganged up to send them away as refugees during that era (Kakar, 1995).
The American Invasion
Osama and his likes have ganged up to revenge on the hatred they felt towards Christians and the first world countries had been developed by the Taliban revolution as it favored the growth and supported the Al Qaeda by protecting them. The Al Qaeda together with the Taliban movement started training camps and recruited people preparing them for Jihad war. They planned to carry out the war in an attempt to revenge for their suffering and the blood shed by their parents and other Afghans during the war that was caused by the Soviet Union. They also believed that the war would fight for their culture and religion which they thought was under threat from Christianity as the countries which attacked them followed the Christian doctrine in their religion (Strand, 2002).
Osama Bin Laden and his troop began their operation in 1998 when they attacked the US embassy in Africa and in September, 11th, 2001 when they attacked the American Twin towers. This called for the attention of the America and the world at large to start campaigns against terrorism. US, Europe, Australia, Denmark, Poland and Canada joined forces to stop terrorism by advocating for the capture of the Al Qaeda and mostly their leader, Osama Bin Laden. The 2003 invasion of American advocated to the rise in the Iraq war when they attacked Kuwait. The US government under George Bush deployed their troops to Iraq to contain the situation as they believed they would capture the Al Qaeda troops and end the violence. Instead the Iraq has continued to persist with the war and Afghanistan has became the hide out of the Al Qaeda protected by the discreet nature of the Taliban movement and influence from other Asians and Arabs, who blame the American military troops for the increased instability and ongoing conflict in the Middle East. The quest for peace and end to the terrorist attacks and wars is what has lead the elect President Barrack Obama to create the ‘surge’ plan and flash out the Al Qaeda who have left the world in a state of fear since they do not know when they will launch their next attack (Strand, 2002).
Theoretical Construction of the Conflict
The conflict that arose was brought about by the urge of the developed countries to control the oil industries in Middle East. America and the Soviet Union were in a cold war as both wanted to dominate the production of oil from the Middle East and influence the markets associated with oil exportation. After the World War II, America dominated the oil industries in the Middle East, was involved with the production of the oil and the exportation to the major exporters; Europe and French. Their desire to monopolize the oil industries is exhibited when America supported Shah to execute a coup against Mossadeqs who wanted to publicize the oil industry. Also when supported the Mujahideen to evict the Soviet policies and reforms from Middle East. The strategic plan US used to gain political allies to favor them and their policies and reforms also contributed to the growth of the conflict. By forming friendly ground with enemies of American political allies mistrust and formation of revolutions to remove the implemented US policies arose. For example the revolution Arabs created when the Americans supported the Jewish Europeans who invaded Israel and settled there.
After the Iran-Iraq war, Iraq was under debt which could only be paid through oil exportation. Kuwait which was separated from the Iraq jurisdiction by the British boundaries formed in 1922, was at the brim of it oil exportation. This made Iraq want to gain access to the technology Kuwait was using to produce so much oil. Iraq still considered Kuwait to be part of the country, Saddam Hussein the President of Iraq forcefully invaded the Kuwait oil industries to own them. This lead to the development of the Gulf war as the US did not want any complication with the oil sectors it had dominated, thus the heavy US troops in Iraq to contain the situation (Kakar, 1995). The US elect President Barrack Obama an advocate of peace has formed strategies referred to as the ‘Obamas surge plan’ to end the war with Iraq and deploy those forces and resources in Iraq to Afghanistan to end the fight with the Al Qaeda in response to the September, 11th, 2001 attack. This lead to the invasion of Americans in Afghanistan with back up from other developed countries like Europe, Canada and Australia to flush out the terrorist troops hiding in the Mesopotamia and wipe out terrorism (Kendall, 2009).
The war that has caused grave consequences to the political, social and economical status of many countries has been advocated by the need to own the oil mines. This has created conflicts between countries and communities thus the development of the war. The use of military force to contain the war stricken areas in an attempt to initiate peace treaties has also contributes to the development of the war. This is because residents in the countries where the military force has been deployed revolt and fight for their right to be independent and to counter the military governance. For instance military force deployed by the Americans in Israel lead to development of war between the Jews of Israel and Protestants in Egypt. Therefore the use of military force to end the Al Qaeda troops may lead to development of another war, as the residents of Afghanistan and especially the Mesopotamia region form a counter attack on America. The Mesopotamia includes Turkey, Syria, Iran and Iraq which are against the American legislative policies and social reforms thus a high probability that they may gang up against America and develop the war.
Strategies that do not contain use of power and any military deployment should be formed to aid in signing of peaceful treaties that will end the war.
Borders, W. (17 Dec. 1984). Afghanistan’s Five-Year Ordeal: Grim Outlines of a Ferocious War. The New York Times, pp. 1, 14.
Kakar, M.H. (1995). Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982. London, England: University of California Press.
Kendall, C.B. (2009). War in Iraq: Plan for Ending the War in Iraq. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://www.barackobama.com/issues/iraq/
Smith, T. (30 Dec1979). Carter Tells Soviet to Pull Its Troops Out Of Afghanistan. The New York Times, pp. 1, 10.
Strand, F.R. (2002). The True Story of Our Jihad: Memoirs of Commander Anvar Amin. Retrieved March 20, 2009, from http://users.sedona.net/~strand/Nuristani/Kamkata/Kom/KomTexts/AnvarJihad.html