Abstract: This study tries to find out the possibility of the used cooking oil as an additive component of candle. This study aims to produce a low-priced but high-quality candle by using used cooking oil as a major component. The following materials: 500 mL used cooking oil, 1 kg paraffin wax, cotton thread cut into 5 inches long, serves as, wick, crayons in different colors ,a can (like the can of century tuna), beaker, barbecue stick, plastic molder. We conducted the experiment. The measured paraffin waxes will be cut into small pieces together with the small pieces of crayon that with be placed in the can. Then the can will be heated in low fire until the waxes and crayons melt and oil will be added different percentages of used cooking oil. Before the mixture solidifies, they will be formed into molds, wicks suspended in the middle of the container. They will be air-dried until hardened. Chapter 1 –
* Introduction and Its Background
The earliest known candles were made from whale fat by the Chinese. In India, wax from boiling cinnamon was used for temple candles. candle making remained unknown until the early middle-ages. But Emission gases were analyzed for more than 300 chemicals known or suspected of toxicity, health risks or respiratory irritation at elevated concentrations. A new, internationally funded study on candle emissions has confirmed that well-made candles of all major wax types exhibit the same clean burning behavior, and pose no discernible risks to human health or indoor air quality. Today, As candles started to wane as the major light source due to the introduction of the light bulb, they became more of a decorative item. Candles became available in a broad array of sizes, shapes and colors, and consumer interest in scented candles began to grow. Cooking oil is a major kitchen item in Filipino households. It is also used substancially in fast-food outlets, where it used in different stages of food preparations. Ordinarily, used cooking oil is discarded. This waste oil pollutes and clogs canals and sewerage systems.
* Statement of the problem
So, for us to know how we can make used cooking oil to be useful somehow, and to lessen oil pollutes that may destroy our environment, Our aim is to find out the possibility of the used cooking oil as a major component of the candle. In this way, we only not wasted this used oil but also lessen the danger and chemicals that a candle may contain. This study aims to answer the following questions:
What would be the candle compositions to be used?
What would be the procedure in making the candle?
* Formulating Hypothesis
* Significant of the Study
This study is really important to us. Especially to those countries or places that had no electricity. To those countries that usually hit by a typhoon, storm, or earthquake that needed a candle, for them to read, write, study,play, and see. Not all houses have candles. Not all people can afford candles. If we don’t want to use our money to buy candles we can use our children or siblings’ crayons. By doing this, we can save money, and we can recycle crayons into a candle.
* Scope and Delimitation of the study
We found our IP in this website ( http://www.edu-sciece.com/2013/01/the-feasibility-of-used-cooking-oil-as.html ) on July 2, 2013 (Friday). The materials that we have to use are:
* Definition of Terms
Crayons – stick of colored wax, charcoal, chalk or other material. –uses as the wax to form a candle.
Cooking Oil – plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking. –Where the flame will come from.
Paraffin Wax – a white or colorless soft solid that is used as a lubricant and for other applications. –Addition for the crayons.
Molder – To crumble to dust; disintegrate.
–Container of the candle.
Cotton Thread – for mechanical weaving or knitting into cloth. –Used for the flame to start.
* Review of Related Literature and Studies Related Literature (Ate jedyll)
* Related Studies
The Chemical History of a Candle
-was the title of a series of six lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames given by Michael Faraday .
2007 – Analysis of Emissions from Paraffin, Soy, Palm and Beeswax – The study found all of the waxes burned in the same manner, creating comparable emissions, and posing no discernible risks to human health or indoor air quality.
2007 – Okometric wax studies
-has greatly expanded the body of credible scientific data on candle emissions and burning behavior. Chapter III-
Used cooking oil
Wick or cotton thread
The paraffin wax will be cut into small pieces and it will be placed in a clean and dry kettle. You can add crayon if you want a colored candle. The kettle will be heated with low fire until the waxes melt. The melted wax will be added with different percentage of oil. Before it solidifies, they will be formed into molds and put the wick in the middle
These are the preparation we made
A. 100% paraffin wax – 0% used cooking oil
B. 90% paraffin wax – 10% used cooking oil
C. 80% paraffin wax – 20% used cooking oil
D. 70% paraffin wax – 30% used cooking oil
E. 60% paraffin wax – 40% used cooking oil
F. 50% paraffin wax – 50% used cooking oil