Organized Crime Essay Sample
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- Category: crime
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Organized Crime Essay Sample
Organized crime can be defined as systematic unlawful activity for profit (Shelley, 1995). The scope of the activity caries significantly, from city level to interstate and even international levels. It is widely known that profits from illegal activities are huge and oftentimes exceed that of economy of whole countries (Shelley, 1995). In order to justify legitimacy of incomes and in such way avoid suspicion from law enforcement agencies, organized crime often expand into legal business that serves both as a useful tax cover and money laundering operation (1). As expenditures on personal lifestyles cannot come unnoticed by publicity and investigators, the only way to remain covered is to involve in legal business to justify the returns.
Aside from this, the issue of respectability is also raised. As for many people, especially those of violent nature and limited knowledge, respectability can be a critical factor. Criminal background also contributes to competitive advantage of the newly created corporations established by organized crime, as people use violence, have established connections, and large cash funds to involve and succeed in gaining their share of even a very competitive market. As such, the four dominant reasons for involvement in legal business are: tax covers, money laundering, respectability, and realization of competitive advantage.
The concept of commercial sexual exploitation includes pornography and prostitution (2). The demand for these two services is huge and organized crime in order to fulfill the demand engages discovers new and sophisticated ways to attract more victims to business. Prostitution and pornography take multiple forms including usage of escort services and participation in sex tourism, engagement in simulated sex over the phone or over the internet. It is estimated that people in United States spend more on pornography then on all performing arts combined, whereas $10 billion annually makes in a larger business activity then baseball, football, and baseball combined (Cwikel and Hoban, 2005).
Prostitution is a $14 billion industry, under the most conservative perspective with 1.5 million customers weekly. In order to satisfy the demand, organized crime groups have to continuously recruit providers for the business with preferences given to children and youth. Alienated, troubled, poor youth are the major target, whereas financial stimulation in order to sustain the workers is not the primary factor. Instead, youth is likely to be forced through violence; women and children are kept isolated from the world in the degrading dependency instantly moved from city to city.
Global sex trafficking is the largest source of both recruits and potential profits for organized crime. Sex trafficking involves recruitment, buying and selling, transporting women from country to country by force and deception in order to exploit for commercial sex purposes. It is estimated that around 700,000 to 2,000,000 women and children are trafficked cross international borders year after year (Cwickel and Hoban, 2005).
The six drug control strategies introduced by Moore and Kleiman include Expressive Law Enforcement, Mr. Big Strategy, Gang Control, Citywide Street-Level Drug Enforcement, Neighborhood Crackdowns, and Drug Abuse Prevention (3). It is crucial to implement the strategies simultaneously, as they add up to each other.
For instance, as Drug Abuse Prevention strategy is primarily a preventive measure to ensure that fewer teenagers become addicted, Citywide Street-Level Drug Enforcement and Neighborhood Crackdowns are imposed to control the drug abusing environment better. On the other hand, Mr. Big Strategy allows for inducement of confessions with the risk of either loss or gain or punishment, whereas through Expressive Law Enforcement it is possible to create a positive image of the federal criminal law and legal system. The strategies combined target drug abuse at all levels and, consequently, are more efficient as compared to if implement separately.
Cwikel, J., & Hoban, E. (2005). Contentious Issues in Research on Trafficked Women Working in the Sex Industry: Study Design, Ethics, and Methodology. The Journal of Sex Research, 42(4), 306.
Shelley, L. (1995). Transnational Organized Crime: An Imminent Threat to the Nation-State. Journal of International Affairs, 48(2), 463-489.