This paper is focused on the purpose of applying the participatory approach to school supervision and administration. School supervision and administration are interconnected. They take part in each other’s affairs because they share common goals. The administrative body of schools corresponds to the whole educational system, while supervision represents a portion of it in terms of improving the total teaching-learning condition in the school. The administration highlights the authority, so every act is based on authority. The supervision, on the other hand is based on service. But though each has its own duty and purpose, the essence of working using the participatory approach will help in the proper execution and realization of rules and plans. Not only that, but also with the improvement of the educational systems. In administration and supervision, principles become part of a philosophy which serves to establish and evaluate educational objectives, attitudes and practices (Dimmock and Walkter, 2005).
The participatory approach in the administrative level will most probably build up the skills and competencies on the level of the student body. Students have the break to combine their practical experience with current school environment they have. The usefulness of participatory approach is not solely seen on the level of the students, but on the way curriculum advancement become acceptable to their learning world. The knowledge that students get is based on the supervision and administration applied which has been visible in developed countries, but is now being applied in the school systems in some developing countries such as the Philippines. It takes extraordinary knowledge, commitment and skill to take both fields and become effective leaders in education. The tasks of both are closely related because school supervision is a subset of school administration.
Adopting Participatory Approach
School systems are basically designed to administer educational provision to students. The practice of participatory supervision and administration as an essential tool has long been acknowledged in the world of education. Although schools are characterized differently, participatory approach when it comes to supervision has worked and is working well (Athearn, 2010). When people say participatory approach, it has something to do with the implementation of plans and systems that were decided upon by all sectors of the school, working as a whole organization. Each sector should be well represented though.
The participative parties should share common ideas and goals. Some research findings show that teachers and stakeholders who are allowed to take part in decision making yields beneficial results. Each party feels satisfied, motivated with higher morale and self-esteem brought and built-up in tem by their contribution in decision making and implementation. Participants of participatory supervision and administration tend to have a big sense of rights and inventiveness which encourages them to exert more efforts. Researches also show that power exerted by the participative bodies can balance the organization, their resources and even the upcoming challenges (Waters, Marzano & McNulty, 2003).
Trust enhancement to implement participatory approach
Enhancing trust between and among the members of the participative parties is essential in every organization. Trust, as used in this paper, means that someone feels confident and assured in allowing something to be in the care or control of another. To stress the value of trust in schools, people who trust one another create a safer working environment where output is immeasurable. Hargreaves (2003) argues that high levels of trust speed the establishment of strong networks and participatory reactions among the members and stakeholders in a school, most especially those that are rich in social capital. The practice of trust opens communication which is more likely to implement the participative approach in supervision and administration. Gamage (1998) states that trust and confidence between the teachers and students or the teachers and supervisors in schools in promoting unity in the school community.
When trust and mutual spirit pervade at faculty meetings, collegiality is fostered so the effectiveness of trust in participatory approach proves more success. The idea of participatory approach in school supervision and administration brings the school closer to their students. The school services are also delivered more speedily than in the cases if centralized administration. The bureaucratic procedures in a centralized administration keep the whole school community away from each other.
School Supervision and Administration
The works of administration and supervision are expected in ensuring that things will be done well in the school or office and are according to the standards. The effectiveness of these functions is determined by supervisor and administrator’s capacity to improve the work of others. Yet the ultimate justification of their existence is the improvement of the work of their subordinates (Crowther, F., S. Kaagan, M. Ferguson and L. Hann (2002). True enough that the major functions of supervision had played key role in the development of the public education system by monitoring the quality of schools and by supporting their improvement. In various cases wherein decision making is centralized, supervisors fail to gain clarity around the tasks to be achieved and how they are to be undertaken.
In public schools in the Philippines, most of these services and functions are under increasingly heavy analysis because of their failure to have a helpful impact on the quality of teaching and learning. So, these responsibilities largely involve the supervisors in much more complex, collaborative, and develop-mental efforts with teachers and the administrative body.
Supervision of any school ordinarily refers to the improvement of the total teaching-learning situation and the conditions that affect them. It is a socialized functions designs to improve instruction by working with the people who are working with the students (Gronn, 2003). It can be defined in terms of function and purpose for which it shall be used.
Administration of any school is the decision-making body and carries out plans and works out policies and regulations inside the educational systems of the school. It manages its activities with those of the supervisory in terms of harmonizing educational activities and makes them instruments for yielding outcomes. Even when it comes to parental contribution and support, the encouragement and inspiration is most largely seen on the efforts of the school administration and supervision. It is how they provide heartening conditions that are necessary to teaching and learning and how they carry out the better functions within the school community.
Both supervision and administration have always been the major challenges to schools. School systems have always envisioned a better-learning outcome year after year. When it comes to improvements, those who administer introduce innovations and techniques. And most of these innovations are on the supervision and administration of schools where decentralization may be applied. This paper discusses the governance structure in schools using the participatory approach wherein leadership and management are concerned.
And because both school supervision and administration are centered on the operations, in the effect of participatory approach, trust is a big binding agent that will shape the real participation. And the real essence of trusting colleagues in a workplace is to find comfort in the place itself (Bass, B., 1998). It is a proven hypothesis that a good and well school administration and supervision makes the quality school. It is never a wrong idea that working in participation with equal share of trust and knowledge will ruin an institution. The morale and self-esteem the leaders of the school have will be the kind of values that will positively be instilled in their students and in the school community itself.