Explain patterns and trends in health and ill health among different social groupings. Explain patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings. Explain the measurement of health and the difficulties in measuring health. Eg. Morbidity rates, mortality rates, health events, disease incidence, disease prevalence, health surveillance, difficulties in measuring health (explain 3) Understanding patterns and trends in health and illness among different social groupings: patterns and trends according to, eg social class, gender, ethnicity, age, locality and risk behaviour (explain 3) Explain sociological explanations for patterns and trends in health and illness (artefact, natural/social selection, cultural/behavioural, materialist/structuralist)
In the measuring health, the doctors would have difficulties measuring people’s health as different doctors see other people’s health’s deferent to doctors. Difficulties in measuring health:
Information that is gathered from official sources may not have accurate pictures of patterns of health and illness. Some people who are ill are the ones that do not go visit the doctors however; the ones that are not ill do go visit the doctors. Ken Brown came up four stages for people that have a poor health. This is for the people to be labelled ‘sick’; 1. The person has to admit they’re ill.
2. They have to consider if they’re problem is serious enough to contact a doctor. 3. They have to go to the doctor
4. The doctor has to be persuaded so that they can label the person with the medical or mental problem as an illness that needs to be treated. Mortality rate
A mortality rate is a ratio of deaths in a area to population of that area expressed per year. It shows whether a country has good standards of living because if the country has a high stander, it tends to have a better health care system, for example, better hospitals and better doctors. However, countries with low living standards tend to have the opposite. The difficulties in mortality rate is that it’s very hard to keep in track because of the conflict and violence which is a common occurrence in counties as this leads to many deaths therefore it can mislead people as it is hard to keep in track of everyone who has died in a conflict. As this tends to happen, people believe that the countries population is unhealthy because of the amount of deaths. Mortality rate is measured as a rate, out of 100,000 people only 100 people die of cancer then the mortality rate is seen as 10 in 10,000. Morbidity rate
Morbidity rate are defined as ”the frequency with which a disease appears in a population.” Morbidity rates are used by researchers as a guidline to see how common a disease is in the countries population. As this is being researched, the morbidity rate finds out what kind of people are going to be affected by it. Once they have been identified as to who is more likely to get the disease/illness, this effort can be made to provide the correct medication and healthcare.
Gender effects health and illness among society. The society people live in believe men are suppose to be strong so if a man goes to the doctors they are seen as weak, however women tend to visit the doctors to report the smallest illness. According to WHO, women tend to live longer then men because women have more long term illnesses. Women have stronger immune systems to protect them from diseases, however it’s been said that women become ill more then men which can be due to hormones such as period pains. Men and women have different body parts therefore they have different side affects when taking a everyday drugs, such as antibiotics. Norms and expectations in a community can also affect health for example a young women may die in a accident because norms in the community show men as ‘bold riskers’. in this graph, it shows the percentages of men and women who intake alcohol per month. in this graph , it shows men take more alcohol then women. in the ‘current’ column, it shows almost a equal percentage of drinkers. The ‘binge’ and ‘heavy’ show a large 3-5% difference of the norms in the society. Which mean the society believe that drinking is more of a masculine activity. GRAPH Class
People in the higher class tend to have a better living standards and to have a higher quality of life and health compared to those in the lower class, this is the patterns between social class. The black reports found out that the lower class tend to be the ones who end up with the most diseases such as cancer, bronchitis and diabetes. This is because the lower class had a poorer diet and they lack exercise also they are mostly alcoholic and smokers which generally lead to poor life styles. The higher class have better diets and better exercise which means they are more healthier and physically fit.
Race and ethnicity
There has been a lot of test run by scientists as they believe Race and Ethnicity affect health. The scientist shows that certain races of people contain a gene which can lead to a disease. This includes cystic fibrosis and other diseases. Researchers believe that more people from the Asian subcontinent have a poor living condition also they employed in lower paid jobs. This can happen with more then one factor: * There parents and families may have influenced them in education. * Expectations on economic gain and careers
* Not having enough money for education
Cultural and behavioural explanation
The illness of people are based on their lifestyle choices, for example people in the lower class tend to have a poorer diet, unhealthy lives, smoke more and exercise less. This explains why their poor lifestyle choices make them ill. Natural selection/ Social selection
this theory suggest that it is not the poor housing, lack of exercise and poor diets that cause them ill, its because they lack motivation. Sociologist declined this theory because there is evidence that show it is class that affect illness, not because of culture and their behaviour. Material and structural
This theory believes that its the gap of income and wealth that affects illness. this theory shows that the people who are in the upper class are more likely to have a better health then the lower class. The higher class can afford healthy diets and can exercise whereas those who are in the lower class have lower income therefore they can not affords things the higher class have.