Man is a social being who derives satisfaction from belonging to a group, it creates a feeling of general well-being in individual. Students cluster together inside the campus this informal group is regarded as “peer groups”. Peer influence on behavior gradually becomes more dominant. Harris (1998, 2002) and Rowe (1994) maintained that peer groups have an even stronger influence than that of parents, although that extreme position has been refuted by other researchers (Berk, 2005).
According to Castrogiovanni (2002), a peer group is defined as a small group of similarly aged, fairly close friends, sharing the same activities. In general, peer groups or cliques have two to twelve members, with an average of five or six. Peer groups provide a sense of security and they help adolescents to build a sense of identity.
Hurlock (11975:180) the influence of a group is intensified by the person’s desire to be an accepted member of the peer group. To achieve this desire he tries to conform in everyday to the patterns approved by the group. When group members are attached to their groups, they are motivated to behave in accordance with the wishes of the group and in ways which would make them accepted, this motivation is attributes to peer group influence.
In school the peer group maybe a dominant factor to consider in academic achievement. Acceptance by the group depends on conformity. Most education takes place in group situations the group’s impacts and influence on its members is so strong that it takes the group as a whole to support the learning process.
A peer group is a learning group most education takes place in group situations the group impact and influence on its members is so strong that it pushes the group as a whole to support a learning process. In spite of this recognized impact of the group influence on learning, there seem to be very few studies and researches done to indicate how powerful a group influences an individual.
Peer group may result either positively or negatively for example, both high and low academic achievements are closely linked to peer influence. Several studies confirm research findings that value of the peer group with whom the students spends most time are stronger factor in students level of academic success than the values, attitudes, and support provided by the family compared to others who started with the same grades, students whose families were not especially supported, but who spent time with academically oriented peer group go better grades. Peer groups provide a place where an individual feels accepted, themselves, and where their self-esteem is enhanced.
It is hoped, therefore, that this study will shed light of some unanswered questions about peer influence on academic performance and at the same time contribute to the understanding and formation of healthy attitude towards peer and school in general.
I. Statement of the Problem
The study is designed to measure the positive and negative effects of peer influence to the selected students of Marketing and Advertising Management of De La Salle University – Dasmarinas. It mainly focuses on how peer influence relates to their academic performances. These will assist parents and counselors to understand the pattern of peer influence and ways to curb the negative and positive effects of the latter.
The purpose of the study is to answer the following questions:
1. What is the concept and nature of peer group?
2. What are the positive and negative effects of peer influence to the selected students?
3. What do peer groups provide for the students (in general)?
4. Does peer influence affect the academic performance of the selected
students? In what way(s)?
5. How does it influence the selected students’ motivation and engagement at school?
Scope and Limitation
The study determines the effects of peer influence in the academic performance o f the selected marketing students in DLSU_D .The scope of the study are the marketing student of all year levels who are enrolled in first semester of school year 2012-2013. The limitations of this research are only the students who have a regular subject load for a given semester. The study will also be limited only on the participation of undergraduate nursing students.
Significance of the Study
This study is conducted for the purpose of determining the influence of the peers in individual’s academic performance. This study will be useful to the school particular to the guidance center and to the professors. It will make available to them the information which could prove helpful in counseling sessions, especially freshmen in adjusting to college life. The counselor will have a better view of the effects of peer group on the individual in his academic achievement.
Future researchers will find it easier to conduct the research since the instruments already formulated. All they have to do is to administer the questionnaire and tabulate the results using different statistical design learned from their Elementary Statistics.
II. Research Methodology
Quantitative research is all about quantifying relationships between variables. Variables are things like weight, performance, time, and treatment. You measure variables on a sample of subjects. You express the relationship between variable using statistics, such as correlations, relative frequencies, or differences between means.
Population and Sampling
The researchers used non-probability sampling schemes, which includes voluntary response sampling. Each researcher surveyed 50 respondents which totals to 300.
A survey was used as their research instrument. The researchers constructed a set of questions on the subject under the study. The items will answer the specific objectives of the research paper namely:
– To determine how much time they spend with their peers
– To determine if the selected marketing students are influenced by their peer groups and in what areas of their life influenced them.
– To distinguish whether a peer group has a good influence or bad influence
– To know if a peer group help in academic achievement of the students.
Respondents of the Study
The respondents of this study are three hundred students (300) students from the selected Marketing and Advertising students at De La Salle University – Dasmariñas who engaged themselves in peer groups.
Data Gathering Procedure
The researchers conducted a survey to DLSU-D students on September, 2012 in De La Salle University – Dasmariñas located at DBB-B Dasmariñas, Cavite, Philippines. The following were observed in conducting the survey: 1. The survey sheet was distributed to respondents one by one; 2. Each respondents filled out the required information from them; 3. After the respondents have done answering the questions in the survey sheet, the researchers made sure that no question was left unanswered then presentation and analysis of data was done next.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The researchers used the formula of percentage to view easily the ratio of the students with their specific answers to the survey provided. Also, this formula was used to tally the scores of the responses of the respondents which is: Percentage = (specific number of respondents / total number of respondents) x 100
III. Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
1. Do you belong to a barkada?
100% of the respondents belong to a group of friends.
2. This barkada you are referring to, is it the one you have in school_______ or outside school______
76% of the respondents have barkadas in school while 24% of them are outside.
3. How much time do you spend with them?
0.55% of the respondents spend five to ten hours with friends while the 37%
spend one to four hours and the 8% spend more than ten hours with their friends.
4. What do you do after school?
51% of the respondents hang out with their friends after class while 49% of them go home and 10% proceed to library
5. Does your barkada help you in your studies?
87% says that barkada helped them in studies while 13% have negative feedback.
6.) Do you have study groups? If yes, how often do you study together?
60% of the respondents have study groups while 40% of them does not have; when asked how often do they study the common answers areas often as needed, seldom, and during exam week.
7.) Do you feel that your barkada can influence you? (Like decision-making, opinion giving, studies.) [pic]
Most of the respondent says that they are influenced (by their friends) in opinion giving (0.40%) and others are less influenced in studies (35%) and decision-making (25%).
8.) How would you describe your group?
Most of their friends are thrill seeker (48%) others are lakwatchero(45%)and the least are bookworms (7%). 9.)Do your barkadaaffect your grades? In what
86% of the respondents say their barkada havepositive effects in their academic performance while the 14% of the them says their barkada have a negative effect.
10.)If you have a class and your barkada asked you to watch a movie (or go out with them) which one will you choose?
A large percentage (82%) of respondents say they will go to class while the remaining says they will go with their friends. It only means that their friends in terms of decision-making do not easily influence most of them. ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
This chapter presents the data gathered from the three hundred fifty (350) respondents through a questionnaire that was used as data gathering instrument. The sets of data are furthered analyzed. According to the data gathered by the researchers, the respondents are less influenced by peer groups in terms of decision-making; they are more likely influenced by giving opinions and ideas. The respondents say their group of friends has a good influence specifically to their academic performance because as a matter-of-fact most of them were conducting group studies particularly during final examinations to help each other. To measure if they are easily influenced by their peers, the researchers give a situation where they have to choose; the researchers asked the respondents what will they do if they have a class and their friends invite them to watch a movie—most of them says they will go to class rather than watch a movie.
This is an indication that a larger percentage of respondents are not negatively influenced by their group of friends, particularly in their academic performance. Much influence from peer groups is positive as the survey says. Peer groups are not always bad. For example, positive influence can be used to encourage “bullies” in performing better towards each other. Peers can influence each other on doing “what is right”. Most of them agree on the exact amount of influence peer groups have of teen’s behavior, they do agree that teens are indeed influenced by peer groups, both positive and negative. Despite all the discussions about peer groups and bad influences, the single most important influence on a teen are still his or her parents.
IV. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The purpose of this study demonstrates the significant effect of peer groups toward academic achievement to 4th year Marketing and Advertising Management students of De La Salle University – Dasmarinas. It is clear from the research that peers do, in fact, have a relatively strong influence over the daily functioning of adolescent respondents.
A critical analysis of the study includes directions for future research and practice.
All peers develop some kind of pattern of perceiving of thinking, similar mode of communication and common attitude there had been some indications that individual members of the group does not really depend on their groups but there is to a certain degree of in dependence existing among individuals.
This study, however, inherently has several limitations. While researchers attempted to be exhaustive in reviewing and analyzing all the literature and gathered data available on peer influence in relation to academic performance and socialization, some research may have been overlooked. Thus, this may represent a biased view regarding peer influence. Further, other areas that may influence adolescents’ academic performance and socialization were not discussed, such as the media, sports heroes, or political leaders within the society.
Throughout the study, the researchers found out the different influences involved in peer groupings like decision-making, study habits, beliefs, and other kinds of activities. The researchers believe that influence to the group to the individual to his or her groups come in different forms and styles.
Overall, peer groups provide a strong sense of security that allows an adolescent to build a sense of identity. For better or for worse, adolescents spend much of their structured and unstructured time with peers. In closing, this researcher would like to further stress the point that not all peer influence is negative. Peer groups are, in essence, necessary for adolescent growth and development. As such, educators should praise the positive choices that students make in regards to peers and work to combat the negative ones. It is obvious that peer groups are not a fad or a trend, they are around to stay. For this reason, peer influence is a phenomenon that will be studied throughout time.
Further research is needed regarding the types of peer influence that exist and the different contexts in which peer influence occurs. Specific contexts for further study may include the home setting and school extracurricular activities, including athletic teams. Since peer influence is constantly evolving, researchers need to be alert to both the subtleand not so subtle changes that occur within each new generation.
Research has shown that peer influence has some broad similarities from years past, but there are also some important variations that need to be taken into consideration. Interacting with students on a regular basis and asking questions are effective ways to stay current on peer group functioning. Other areas for further study may include looking at research on students in relation to peer influence, ethnicity and peer groups, the effects of broken families on peer relations, youth gangs, or research related to peer influence on pre-marital sex and drug usage. There is an abundance of literature available on these topics, while the researchers chose to limit the scope of research to areas of academic performance and socialization among adolescents. As a result, the above-mentioned topics were not covered in depth in the present study.
Parents can have some influence in how that time is spent if they encourage activities they approve of without being over-bearing. Based on research, the bottom line is that it is important for parents to be actively involved in their adolescent’s life. They should ask questions and be able to get a sense of how their son or daughter is spending his or her time. Parents need to be approachable and keep communication lines open in order for this to happen.
Finally, more research is needed to determine the potential causes and effects of negative peer influence. Knowing the causes of negative peer influence can be helpful for developing prevention tactics. Knowing the effects of negative peer influence on adolescents can help an educator further understand a student experiencing negative peer influence. While complete avoidance of negative peer influence is virtually impossible, educators should be receptive to prevention techniques that decrease the negative effects of peer influence in schools.
Future researcher who might want to continue this study, the following are recommended:
a. The next researchers may use the questionnaire for further improvements.
b. The respondents should answer the questionnaire independently. A throughout supervision is highly recommended when the questionnaire is administered to avoid influencing the answers of a respondent.
c. May administer the questionnaire to the whole peer group sampled randomly (population will be all peer groups) to compare the results for validity.
d. The researchers should not overlook the literature and data gathered to limit the scope of the study.