Performance appraisal or merit rating is the process of evaluating the performance and the qualifications of the employees in terms of the recruitments of the job, for which he is employed, for purposes of the administration, placement, selection for promotion, providing financial rewards and other actions which required differential treatment among the members of a group as distinguished from actions affecting all members equally. So it is the process of measuring quantitatively and qualitatively an employee past and present performance against the background of his expected role performance, the background of his work environment and about his future potential for an organization. Performance appraisal facilitates and organizational climate of mutuality, openness and collaboration towards achievement of individual as well as organizational goals. It is a continuous activity to measure the performance of employees. Since organization exists to achieve goals, the degree of success of any organization depends on the performance of its employees. If employees performance become well then organization will progress and will run smoothly. For this reason evaluation of employees performance is most important. Therefore performance appraisal must be needed in every organization to achieve its desired goal.
Concept of Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisal is the systematic evaluation of the individual with respect to his performance on the job and his potential for development. Actually it is defined as a periodic process of evaluating an employee’s performance of a job in terms of its requirements. In a broad sense performance appraisal is a review and discussion of an employee’s performance of assigned duties and responsibilities and it is evaluated based on results obtained by the employee in his/her job, not on the employee’s personality characteristics and appraisal measures skills and accomplishments with reasonable accuracy and uniformity. It ensures democratic environment in Management because managers ensure treatment with their subordinates based on their performance. To understand Performance appraisal deeply we have to consider related terms with Performance appraisal and these are given follow: What is to be Appraised?
Every organization has to decide what to appraise before the program is approved. Generally, the content to be appraised is determined on the basis of job analysis. The content to be appraised may be: * Behaviors which measures observable physical actions, movements * Objectives which measures job related results like amount of deposits, mobilized and * Traits which are measured in terms of personal characteristics observable in employees job activities (Khan & Taher, 2011) Who will Appraise?
The appraiser may be any person who has the skill to appraise and also through knowledge about the job contents to be appraised. The appraiser should be capable of determining what is more important and what is relatively less important. He should prepare reports and judgments without bias. Generally appraisers are: supervisors, peers, self-appraisal and consultants (Khan & Taher, 2011).
When to Appraise?
Informal appraisals may be conducted whenever the supervisors or the HR managers feel it is necessary. However, systemic appraisals are conducted on a regular basis, for example, annually or half-yearly. However, appraisals are most often conducted once a year. (Khan & Taher, 2011) Scholars view of Performance Appraisal
“Performance appraisal is a systematic, periodic and so far as humanly possible, an impartial rating of an employee’s excellence in matters pertaining to his present job and to his potentialities for a better job”. -E. B. Flippo
“Performance appraisal includes all formal procedures used to evaluate personalities and contributions and potentialities of group members in a working organization. It is a continuous process to secure information necessary for making correct and objective decisions on employees”. -Dale Yoder
“Performance Appraisal is a systematic Evaluation of the individual with regards to his or her performance on the job and his potential for development”. -Dale Beach
“Performance appraisal is the Process by which organization evaluate individual job performance”. -Keith Davis and William B. Werther
After analyzing the Scholars explanation it can be said that Performance appraisal is a process of establishing or judging the value, excellence, qualities or status of some object regarding the employee’s job performance.
Performance Appraisal System
The HR department usually designs and administers the company’s or organizational performance appraisal system. This system must identify performance- performance related standards, measures those criteria, and then give feedback to employees and the HR development. If performance standards or measures are not job related, the evaluation can lead to inaccurate or biased results, harming the manager’s relationship with their employees and violating equal employment opportunity rulings (Werther & Davis, 1996). Performance appraisal system has some elements and these key elements are shown below by using a figure- Employee feedback
Performance related- standards
Human resource decision
Figure: Key Elements of Performance Appraisal System (Werther & Davis, 1996)
Objectives of Performance Appraisal
Performance Appraisal can be done with following objectives in mind (Ghankar, 1997) * To maintain records in order to determine compensation packages, wage structure, salaries raises, etc. * To identify the strengths and weaknesses of employees to place right men on right job. * To maintain and assess the potential present in a person for further growth and development. * To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status. * To provide a feedback to employees regarding their performance and related status. * It serves as a basis for influencing working habits of the employees. * To review and retain the promotional and other training programs. * Besides these-
* According to Joseph Tiffin, the objectives of performance appraisal are:
* To prevent grievance
* To improve job performance
* To increase analytical abilities of supervisors
* To assist management in promotion, demotion, and transfer problems
* To reveal areas where training is needed
Importance of Performance appraisal
Personal Attention: During a performance appraisal review, a supervisor and an employee discuss the employee’s strengths and weaknesses. This gives the employee individual face time with the supervisor and a chance to address personal concerns. Feedback: Employees need to know when their job duties are being fulfilled and when there are issues with their work performance. Managers should schedule this communication on a regular basis. Career Path: Performance appraisals allow employees and supervisors to discuss goals that must be met to advance within the company. This can include identifying skills that must be acquired, areas in which one must improve, and educational courses that must be completed. Employee Accountability: When employees know there will be regularly scheduled evaluations, they realize that they are accountable for their job performance. Communicate Divisional and Company Goals: Besides communicating employees’ individual goals, employee appraisals provide the opportunity for managers to explain organizational goals and the ways in which employees can participate in the achievement of those goal.
Elimination of misunderstanding: it eliminates misunderstanding among the employees. Knowledge of results: through performance appraisal knowledge of results of works can be furnished to the employees. Improved performance: If performances of employees are properly measured, their activities may be of high quality. Determining training needs: with the successful appraisal of performance, training needs of employees assess accurately. Sources of information: proper performance appraisal also help the management get correct information for making future plans and policies. Cordial relations: Harmonious relation among the employees may be created if their performance thoroughly evaluated and proper reward is offered. Motivations and invectives: Effective performance appraisal can be used as a motivational tools and incentives for deploying sincere efforts. Procedural importance: organization can be enjoyed some procedural importance by regular conducting the performance appraisal program. Participation: which employee or manager is suitable for taking part in the decision making process that can be known by performance appraisal programs. Easy supervision: which employee is to be supervised and which not can be decided by proper performance appraisal.
Process of performance Appraisal
A performance appraisal is a review and discussion of an employee’s performance of assigned duties and responsibilities. The appraisal is based on results obtained by the employee in his/her job, not on the employee’s personality characteristics. The appraisal measures skills and accomplishments with reasonable accuracy and uniformity. It provides a way to help identify areas for performance enhancement and to help promote professional growth. The appraisal process starts with the establishment performance standards in accordance with the organization’s strategic goals. Process of Performance Appraisal
Establish the standards of performance
Communicate these standards with employees
Measures the actual performance
Compare actual performance with the standard established
In case of variation initiate corrective action
Communicate the rating to the employee
Discuss the feedback to the employee
Conduct the post appraisal interview
Initiate corrective action if required
Establish the Standards of Performance
* The number of appraisal criteria for each position is from 3 – 10 criteria * The standards set should be clear, easily understandable and in measurable terms * The appraisal criteria can be changed but must be the authority for approval and must be implemented for the relevant level before applying * HR department and managers/ supervisor will set up weight of each criteria and must be approved directors. Communicating performance criteria
* HR department should inform this procedure to all level of management and employees. * The employees should be informed and the standards should be clearly explained in order to help them understanding their roles and to know what exactly is expected from them. * Performance criteria should also be communicated to the appraisers or the evaluators and if required. Measures the actual performance
Prepare: HR dept should prepare all materials, notes agreed tasks and records of performance, achievements, incidents, reports etc – anything pertaining to performance and achievement. Inform the appraise
* To ensure the appraisee is informed of a suitable time and place and clarify purpose and type of appraisal. * Give the appraisee the chance to assemble data and relevant performance and achievement records and materials. Review and measure: HR dept. and managers / supervisors review the activities, tasks, objectives and achievements one by one, keeping to distinct separate items one by one. Agree an action plan: An overall plan should be agreed with the appraisee, which should take account of the job responsibilities. The plan can be staged if necessary with short, medium and long term aspects, but importantly it must be agreed and realistic.
Comparing with desired criteria
* The actual performance is compared with the desired or performance criteria. * The result can show the actual performance being more than the desired performance or, the actual performance being less than the desired performance depicting a negative deviation in the organizational performance. Initiate corrective action
If necessary there may bring some changes in the performance criteria or in order to cope up with the update evaluation procedure. An organization may create variation in their performance process. Communicate the rating to the employee
The employee should inform about their performance rating so that they may improve their level of performance. It also helps employees doing better than before. With a view to reach at a desired goal he/ she will give his/ her best efforts. Discuss the feedback to the employee
* The feedback should be given with a positive attitude as this can have an effect on the employees’ future performance. * The results, the problems and the possible solutions are discussed with the aim of problem solving and reaching consensus. * The purpose of the meeting should be to solve the problems faced and motivate the employees to perform better. Conduct post appraisal interview
Sometimes after appraisal interview is taken if necessary. There may show some rules or techniques to perform new function assigned to the employees or may motivate them for enterprising work. http://www.humanresources.hrvinet.com/feed/atom/
Tools and techniques of Performance Appraisal:
In order to measure the excellence of employee performance several tools & techniques are used in organization. Different authors have suggested different approaches and have classified the method accordingly. Strauss and Sayles have given the most accepted categorization of performance appraisal. They have classified performance appraisal into two traditional & newer or modern methods. (Ghanker & Anjali, 1997) Traditional method: Traditional methods lay emphasis on rating of an individual’s personally traits such as initiative, dependability, drive, responsibility, creativity, integrity, leadership, potential, intelligence, judgment, organizing ability, etc. Newer or modern methods: Newer methods lay emphasis on the evaluation of work results – job achievements –than on personality traits. Appraisal Methods
Absolute Appraisal Method
* Critical Incident rating scales
* Adjective rating scales
* Forced choice
* Behaviorally anchored rating scales
* Goal specificity
* Participating decision making
* Explicit time period
* Performance feedback
Relative Appraisal Method
* Group Order ranking
* Individual ranking
* Paired Comparison
Techniques of Performance Appraisal
Traditional MethodsNewer / Modern Methods
Straight Ranking MethodAssessment center Method
Man to Man Comparison MethodAppraisal by Results
Graphic Rating Scale MethodManagement by Objectives (MBO)
Forced Choice Description Method Human Asset Accounting Method
Forced Distribution Method Behaviorally Anchored rating scales (BARS)
Check list Method
Free From Essay Method
Critical Incidents Method
Field Review Method
Straight ranking method: The ranking system requires the rater to rank his subordinates on overall performance. This consists in simply putting a man in a rank order. Under this method, the ranking of an employee in a work group is done against that of another employee. The relative position of each employee is tested in terms of his numerical rank. It may also be done by ranking a person on his job performance against another member of the competitive group.
* Employees are ranked according to their performance levels. * It is easier to rank the best and the worst employee.
* The “whole man” is compared with another “whole man” in this method. In practice, it is very difficult to compare individuals possessing various individual traits. * This method speaks only of the position where an employee stands in his group. It does not test anything about how much better or how much worse an employee is when compared to another employee.
* When a large number of employees are working, ranking of individuals become a difficult issue. * There is no systematic procedure for ranking individuals in the organization. The ranking system does not eliminate the possibility of snap judgments’. http://www.humanresources.hrvinet.com/feed/
Man-to-Man Comparison method: This technique was used by the U. S Army during the First World War. In this method, certain factors are selected for the purpose of analysis such as leadership, dependability, initiative, etc. and a scale is designed by the rater for each other. Instead of comparing a ‘whole man’ to a ‘whole man’, personnel are compared to the ‘key man’ with respect to one factor at a time. This system of measurement is used in job evaluation and is known as the factor comparison method.
* Highly useful in measuring jobs, limited use in measuring people. * It’s extremely a complicated task of devising of scales.
Grading Method: In the grading method, certain categories of worth are established in advance. The features may be analytical ability, cooperativeness, dependability, self expression, job knowledge, judgments etc. These may be rated as: A= Outstanding, B= very good, C= good or average, D= fair, E= poor, or any other scale. The actual performance of an employee is then compared with these grades & he is allotted the grade which best describes his performance. Graphic or Linear Rating Scale: This format is considered the oldest and most popular method to assess the employee’s performance. In this style of performance appraisal, the management just simply does checks on the performance levels of their staff. Forced Choice Description Method: In order to improve accuracy of rating an attempt was made by psychologist to reduce the rater’s intentional or un-intentional biases through Forced Choice Description method. This rating form prepares a series of items or statements which describes the degree of proficiency made by a great deal of research conducted for the military services. For example
* Make little effort and individual instruction
* Organizes the work well
* Lacks the ability to make people feel at ease
* Has a cool even temperament
* Is punctual & careful
* Is a hard worker & co- operative
* Is dishonest & disloyal
* Is overbearing & disinterested in work
Forced Distribution Model: This is a ranking technique where raters are required to allocate a certain percentage of rates to certain categories (e.g.: superior, above average, average) or percentiles (e.g.: top 10 percent, bottom 20 percent etc). Both the number of categories and percentage of employees to be allotted to each category are a function of performance appraisal design and format. The workers of outstanding merit may be placed at top 10 percent of the scale; the rest may be placed as 20 % good, 40 % outstanding, 20 % fair and 10 % fair.
* This method tends to eliminate raters bias.
* By forcing the distribution according to pre-determined percentages, the problem of making use of different raters with different scales is avoided. Weaknesses
* The limitation of using this method in salary administration, however, is that it may lead lowmorale, low productivity & high absenteeism. * Employees who feel that they are productive, but find themselves in lower grade (than expected) feel frustrated and exhibit over a period of time reluctance to work. Checklist Method: Under this method, the rater does not evaluate employee performance it is merely reported. The evaluation of the worth of ‘reported’ behavior is done by the personnel department. A series of questions are presented concerning the employee & his behavior. The value of question may be weighted equally or certain questions may be weighted more heavily than others. Strengths
* Most frequently used method in evaluation of the employee’s performance. Weaknesses
* This method is very expensive and time consuming.
* Rater may be biased in distinguishing the positive and negative questions. * It becomes difficult for the manager to assemble, analyze and weigh a number of statements about the employees’ characteristics, contributions and behaviors. Free from Essay Method: In this style of performance appraisal, managers/ supervisors are required to figure out the strong and weak points of staff’s behaviors. Essay evaluation method is a non-quantitative technique. It is often mixed with the method the graphic rating scale.
Critical Incidents Method: This format of performance appraisal is a method which is involved identifying and describing specific (critical) incidents where employees did something really well or that needs improving during their performance period.These critical incidents or events represent the outstanding or poor behavior of employees or the job.The manager maintains logs of each employee, whereby he periodically records critical incidents of the workers behavior. At the end of the rating period, these recorded critical incidents are used in the evaluation of the worker’s performanceExample of a good critical incident of a Customer Relations Officer is: March 12 – The Officer patiently attended to a customer’s complaint. He was very polite and prompts in attending the customers’ problem. Strengths
* This method provides an objective basis for conducting a thorough discussion of an employee’s performance. * This method avoids regency bias (most recent incidents are too much emphasized). Weaknesses
* Negative incidents may be more noticeable than positive incidents. * The supervisors have a tendency to unload a series of complaints about the incidents during an annual performance review sessions. * It results in very close supervision which may not be liked by an employee. * The recording of incidents may be a chore for the manager concerned, who may be too busy or may forget to do it. Group appraisal: Measures both individual & team performance. Define the roles of each team member in terms of accomplishments that support the team’s work process. Then assess each member’s contributions & the team’s overall performance.(DeCenzo& Robbins, 2012) Group performance is done by a number of employees within a group. Employees work together and their performance are evaluated on their team work. In this system, employees are provided specific responsibility and assign function according to their specialization & the superior evaluate them on their performance getting done. By this team work any organization can achieve its goal and desired objectives through an enterprising team. Field Review Method:In this method, a senior member of the HR department or a training officer discusses and interviews the supervisors to evaluate and rate their respective subordinates. A major drawback of this method is that it is a very time consuming method. But this method helps to reduce the superiors’ personal bias. Strengths
* Since the rater in an “outsider” the chances of bias are reduced. The rate is usually extensively trained to conduct the appraisal interview. Drawbacks
* The “outsider” may not be aware of the job requirements, work culture and work environment. * The outsider has not observed the employee at work and does not know his on-field behavior and performance, except from the report submitted by the employee’s supervisor, which may be biased. * This method is also time consuming.
Assessment Centre Method: The assessment center method involves multipleevaluation techniques, including various types of job-related simulations, and sometimes interviews and psychological tests. Common job simulations used in assessment centers are: In-basket exercises, Group discussions, Simulations of interviews with “subordinates” or “clients”, Fact-finding exercises, Analysis/decision-making problems, Oral presentation exercises, written communication exercises. http://www.assessmentcenters.org
Appraisal by results or Management by Objectives (MBO)
MBO is a method of performance appraisal in which managers or employers set a list of objectives and make assessments on their performance on a regular basis, and finally make rewards based on the results achieved. This method mostly cares about the results achieved (goals) but not to the way how employees can fulfill them. A performance appraisal method that includes mutual objective setting and evaluation based on the attainment of the specific objectives. (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2012) Ingredients of MBO program
An explicit time period
Participative decision making
Human Asset Accounting Method
Human asset accounting, also known as human resource accounting, is a type of accounting that takes into consideration the value and role people play in the organization. It takes into consideration the replacement cost of people and the role an organization plays in investing in people. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
Performance appraisal is techniques that generates critical incidents and develops behavioral dimensions of performance. The evaluation appraises behaviors rather than traits. The appraiser rates the employees based on items along a continuum, but the points are examples of actual behavior on the given job rather than general descriptions or traits.BARS differ from other rating scales in that scale points are specifically defined behaviors. Also, BARS are constructed by the evaluators who will use them. There are four steps in the BARS construction process: * Listing of all the important dimensions of performance for a job or jobs. * Collection of critical incidents of effective and ineffective behavior. * Classification of effective and ineffective behaviors to appropriate performance dimensions. * Assignment of numerical values to each behavior within each dimension (i.e., scaling of behavioral anchors).
Approaches to Performance Appraisal
An approach to employee performance appraisals depends on the employer’s type of performance management system. There is a great degree of variation in the approaches and in general, there are three approaches Performance appraisal procedures (Ghanker, 1997) Causal Approach
This is an unsystematic use and often haphazard appraisal system which was frequently used in the beginning and which was subsequently given place to more formal methods. It has been largely based on seniority or quantitative standards of output for rank and file employees. Traditional Approach
This approach is highly systematic and takes into account the measurement of employee characteristics or employee contribution or both. In this system all employees are rated i(Ghn the same manner utilizing the approach so that the rating of separate personnel can be compared. Behavioral Approach
This approach is based on the behavioral value of fundamental trust in the goodness, capability and responsibility of human beings. It lays emphasis on providing mutual goal setting and appraising of progress made by both the appraiser and the appraise.
Advantages of performance appraisals:
* They provide a document of employee performance over a specific period of time. * They provide a structure where a manager can meet and discuss performance with an employee. * They allow a manager the opportunity to provide the employee with feedback about their performance and discuss how well the employee goals were accomplished. * They provide a structured process for an employee to clarify expectations and discuss issues with their manager. * They provide a structure for thinking through and planning the upcoming year and developing employee goals. * They can motivate employees if supported by a good merit increase and compensation system.
Disadvantages of performance appraisals:
* If not done right, they can create a negative experience. * Performance appraisals are very time consuming and can be overwhelming to managers with many employees. * They are based on human assessment and are subject to rater errors and biases. * Can be a waste of time if not done appropriately.
* They can create a very stressful environment for everyone involved.
Outcome of Performance Appraisal
The outcome of the appraisal process is the grade that is decided for the employee as well as the salary hike or the bonus potential that is awarded to the employee. Typically, organizations divide the year in which the employee’s performance is evaluated into two cycles, one for deciding the salary hike and the other for deciding how much bonus he or she gets for the cycle. In this way, organizations ensure that there is no overlap in grading the employee and a fair and balanced evaluation is the desired outcome though this does not always happen in reality.
Ethics of Performance Appraisal
Ethics of Performance Appraisal is such an important factor that if it is ignored there arise several problems and organizational moral issues. Thereby the basic purpose of evaluation gets defeated. Marion S. Kellog spells cut ten Instructions of keeping the appraisal ethical: * Don’t appraise without knowing the appraisal is required. * Appraise on the basis of representative information.
* Appraise on the basis of sufficient information.
* Appraise on the basis of relevant Information.
* Be honest in your assessment of all the facts you obtain. * Don’t write one thing say other.
* In offering an appraisal, make it plain that this is only your personal opinion of the facts as you seen them. * Pass appraisal information along only to those who have good reason to know it. * Don’t apply the existence of an appraisal that hasn’t been made. * Don’t accept another’s appraisal without knowing the basis on which it was made. In any performance appraisal, due consideration must be given to the ethics of appraisal, failing which many organizational problems may crop up and the very purpose of appraisal may be defeated (Ghankar, 1997). Shortcomings of Performance Appraisal
Performance appraisals, although very widely used, have well recognized limitations and deficiencies and these are referred below: * Differences among raters in their evaluations of performance. * Central tendency is caused Lack of information or knowledge about the employee and his behavior. * Raters may identify some specific qualities or features of the rater and quickly form an overall impression about him. The identified qualities or features may not provide adequate base for appraisal. * Drawing the wrong conclusions about an individual’s capabilities on the basis of his performance and overemphasizing one or two attributes. * . The supervisor plays a dual and conflicting role of both the judge and the helper. * Too many objectives often cause confusion.
* The supervisor feels that subordinate appraisal is not rewarding. * A considerable time gap exists between two appraisal programs * The skills required for daily administration and employee development bare in conflict. * Poor communication system keeps employees in the dark about what is expected to them. * There is a difference of opinion between a supervisor and a subordinate, in regard to latter’s performance. * Feedback on appraisal is generally unpleasant for both supervisor and subordinate. * Sometimes supervisor is biased by the subordinate and that’s why supervisor can’t bring out actual Performance appraisal Besides these-
* Lack of top management support.
* Lack of emphasis on advantages.
* Lack of adequate promotions and increments of employees regarding their job performance.
* Lack of motivation on the part of the rater.
* Lack of inadequate tanning and practice.
Problems of Performance Appraisal in Bangladesh
Following are some points related to performance appraisal problems in the industrial organization of Bangladesh:
* Lack of knowledge of employees
* Lack of top management support
* Lack of appraisal training
* Lack of standard of ranking
* Lack of uniform benefits
* Absence of setting policy
* The need for including interview in Performance appraisal system is very larger. It offers an opportunity to the candidate to talk about his/her strength, weakness, problems, expectations and needs. * Performance appraisal should be counseling oriented. Counseling helps the appraiser so as to know the emotions and feelings of the appraisee so as to analyse the performance or non-performance of the employee. * Proper training must necessarily be given to both appraiser and appraise so as to ensure that there is active and proper participation. * Many companies are using self- appraisal form. In this form have chances to give false opinion by the appraisee and the appraiser give his judgment under the influence of the self appraisal. Such a case can be dealt with properly if the appraisal from appraise and appraiser are kept separate, received by a third review person or a committee and then the final review is done. * Many companies include some redundant information in their performance appraisal forms. The information like educational qualification, experience, date of birth, present salary, etc. Responsibility of keeping these record should be with the personnel dept. and deleted unnecessary information from the performance Appraisal form, will make the forms concise.
* In many companies the PA process operates only once a year. PA system if operated round the year can lead to proper judgment of the performance for the complete appraisal period. These periodic reviews would help the management to identify the time and subsequently the reason of non performance by any of the employees. * It is one of the most important objectives of PA to find out the training and development needs of an employee. The negative aspects should be properly communicated to the employee. He should not start feeling unsecured or being criminalized. It’s essential from the point of view of the healthy industrial relations in the organization. * It has been observed that many appraisers consider PA as a burden because it is an unrewarding task, which may at times strain their relations with their subordinates. Therefore there is a need to give them proper training. * Majority of organizations are found to employee PA system for the purpose of development of employees. The companies should take necessary steps to implement the recommendation so as to bring about overall development f the employees and is turn of the organization.
Performance appraisal is a critical activity of HR management. Its goal is to provide an accurate picture of past and future employee performance. To achieve this, performance standards is established. The standards are based on the job-related criteria that best determine successful job performance. From a wide variety of techniques, specialists select the methods that most effectively measure employee performance against the previously set standards. Techniques can be selected both to review past performance and to anticipate performance in the future. Usually appraisal process is designed by the HR department and to overcome the shortcomings HR department may design and conduct appraisal workshop to train managers. In addition, HR specialists need to be keenly aware that poor performance, especially when it is widespread, may reflect problems with previous HR management activities.
DeCenzo David A. and Robbins Stephen P. (2012). Fundamentals of Human Resource Mnagement, Eighth Edition, India: Replika Press Pvt. Ltd. Dr. Rahman Atatur M., Hasan Zulfiqur, Islam Rabiul Md. (2010). Human Resource Management, Nilkhet: Life Publishers. Ghanker Anjali (1997). Human Resource Management: Personnel the HRD Way, Pune: Everest Publishing House. Werther William B. and Davis Keith (1998). Human Resource & Personnel Management, McGram-Hill, Inc. http://www.humanresources.hrvinet.com/feed/atom