The beginning of perfume use can be traced back thousands of years to the early Egyptians. The first perfume we’re part of religious rituals. It was developed together with the first cosmetics, but they weren’t made to attract opposite sex; they were made the good will of the gods. The Egyptians were very spiritual people so they put containers of perfumes even in their tombs. After sometimes perfume use started becoming more personal. People started using perfume in their Baths. The oils helped to protect their skin from drying out in the hot climate. Perfume containers have always been attractive. The Egyptians treated their perfumes with great respect, and believed that only the best containers were good enough to hold them. Perfume making is passed on through the ages.
When the Greeks and Romans moved in Egypt, they told the perfume oils and ointments the Egyptian used. So they quickly learned how to produce them, and started adding their own touches. Perfume makes it way around the world. The common problem in perfumes nowadays is sometimes it is very strong scented that it hurts in our noses. It also causes rushes, for those who has sensitive skin. Some perfumes smells good on the first application but then fades away after sometimes. These are the problems in artificial perfumes. So the researcher thought of an alternative way to make a perfume out of flowers that will capture people’s preference. The researcher’s thought of flowers because flowers have different scents that may of the people are very attracted to the smell and to the appearance of the flower.
Statement of the problem
The purpose of this investigation is to provoke a perfume out of flowers rosal, kalachuchi and rose. It sought answers to the following questions:
1. How long will this perfume’s fragrant lasts?
2. How effective is the natural perfume as compared to the artificial perfume in terms of odor; appearance? 3. How can you say that this perfume was same to all users?
Probably, this perfume takes more than hour because the flowers that the researcher’s use is really fresh and it smells good. Regarding to the second question, the researcher’s cannot say that this perfume will be more effective than artificial perfume because the researchers only use a bit of chemical than the artificial perfume and regarding to the length of time will the perfume last, the researcher’s cannot say that this will be more effective than the artificial perfume because these artificial perfume uses a chemicals to make the perfume last longer but the researcher’s didn’t use those chemicals that’s why for know the researchers cannot say. Regarding in the last question. The Researcher’s can say that this perfume was safe to all users because the researchers only just use a bit of chemicals therefore it doesn’t have any side effects to all users.
Scope and Delimitation
This study will focus on making a natural perfume. And also the researchers will focused on not only in natural perfume but also some ideas that can help us to have a bright idea of having a business that deals perfume. The researchers will use only a little bit of chemicals so we can test it if it is effective to all. The researchers maybe can consume a time, hard work and persistent while making this. The study will include different kinds of flowers just like Rose, Rosal and Kalachuhi. The researchers will focused on making a perfume out of this flower’s. The weakness of the study is that the researchers will not know if the perfume will last long and can be used by all the people, and no side effects can be occurred while using the natural perfume. This study will be limited to people etc. The study will not cover any other kinds of flowers or some additives to use in making a natural perfume.
Importance of the study
This study is beneficial for the industries for the reason that because it can rise the economy. Also it can make the industry to be popular when it comes to the perfume. Also perfume can benefit to the students by means of giving them or adding them an extra fragrant to their whole body everywhere they go. Also instead of buying a new perfume’s, they can make their won and sell it for them to earn money and maybe in the near future they can make their own business that is perfume involves perfume. In environment this study is beneficial because instead of letting the flower to be withered and use as a fertilizer know not only as fertilizer but also it can be used in making perfumes. This is beneficial to the society for the reason that it can help improve the society and will make the country stand out in terms of perfumes and when this thing happen, Philippines will trade perfumes to different country and many more people will be interested in making their own product, the perfume. Also this is beneficial for homes by means of giving fresh scents in bathrooms living rooms and in every part of the house.
Definition of terms:
* Antiophthalmic – any of several fat-soluble vitamins essential for normal vision; prevents night blindness or inflammation or dryness of the eyes (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/antiophthalmic+factor) * Cetaphil – is a popular brand of skin care products that is known to be very gentle on the skin. (http://www.qwhatis.com/what-is-cetaphil/) * Fixative – serving or tending to fix (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/fixative) * Odoriferous – having or emitting an odour, esp a fragrant one (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/odoriferous)
* Parthenocarpy – In botany and horticulture, parthenocarpy (literally meaning virgin fruit) is the natural or artificially induced production of fruit without fertilization of ovules. (http://www.sciencedaily.com/articles/p/parthenocarpy.) * Patchouli – is an herb that gets its name from the Hindustani words “patch,” meaning “green,” and “ilai,” which means “leaf.” ( http://www.ehow.com/facts_5348943_meaning-patchouli.html#ixzz28cU7luGJ) Sporangia – A single-celled or many-celled structure in which spores are produced, as in fungi, algae, mosses, and ferns. Also called spore case. (http://www.answers.com/topic/sporangium#ixzz28cTHeeOs) * Vanillin – A white or yellowish crystalline compound, C8H8O3, found in vanilla beans and certain balsams and resins and used in perfumes, flavorings, and pharmaceuticals. (http://www.answers.com/topic/vanillin#ixzz28cShoLAX)
* Withered – dried up; shriveled; wilted; wasted; wasted away. (http://thinkexist.com/dictionary/meaning/withered/)
Review of Related Literature
Perfume or parfum is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aroma compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animals, objects, and living spaces “a pleasant scent. The odoriferous compounds that make up a perfume can be manufactured synthetically or extracted from plant or animal sources. Perfumes have been known to exist in some of the earliest human civilizations, either through ancient texts or from archaeological digs. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes and smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone. Perfume is delightful fragrance.
It may come from a wood land after vain, an apple tree in bloom, a freshly cut orange or a liquid in a pretty bottle. Perfume has been used throughout history to mask body odor and smell attractive to the oppostie sex. Perfumes can be made with just one or with layers of scents. Use this introduction to perfume as a guide to wonderful world of scents and perfumes. The fragrances of natural materials are caused by oils within them. The oils are used to make perfumes in either a liquid or a solid form. The liquid perfumes are those usually found in bottles, aerosol sprays, and bath oils. Liquid perfumes are also use to add a pleasant scent to soap, hand cram, and other toilet preparations. Perfume sticks, incense perfumed candies are examples of perfume in solid form. Usually we think of perfumes as flowery or fruit scented substances use to make a person or a room smell pleasant. But it is also possible to make scents that smell like popcorn, new cars, or a seashore.
B. History of Perfume
The use of perfumes goes far back in time. Some were of the first perfumes were fragrant woods and spices that were burned as incense in religious ceremonies. In fact, the word perfume comes from the Latin word “per” which literally means through and “Fumus” which means smoke. Later, it was discovered that some perfumes help to prevent decay. People came to believe that scent had magical properties. For these reasons, perfumes were used in treating the sick and embalming the dead The people of ancient Egypt used fragrant oils and ointments when bathing. Cleopatra is famous for her used of perfumes. She is said to have perfumes not only herself but also of her boat. Flower perfumes were first use in Greece. Both the Greeks and Romans used perfumes very freely. At that time, people probably made their fragrances by clipping flowers and herbs into hot oils or wines. Or they may have spread petals out on stray s of fat until the fat absorbed the color of the petals. The Persians learned to boil off and collect the fragrance of the petals. Perfume has been described as the combination of various oils, aromatic elements and other ingredients that give off a pleasant odor.
While the formula to make various perfumes and colognes are closely guarded secrets, with all of the variables that go into the formula makes it very difficult to copy correctly. After 1500, the habit of wearing perfumes became especially fashionable in Europe. Men and women hang from their waists ornamental pomanders. Wealthy households contain a room called “still” where the families of perfumes were made. France and Italy began to grow flowers especially for perfumes. Perfume and cologne have been created for a number of reasons. They are created to make people smell nice, and they are created to elicit reactions from other people. Perfume and cologne are produced using a combination of oils and aroma compounds. While the way perfume and cologne has been manufactured has changed through the years, the results have remained the same.
Perfume was first used by the Egyptians as part of their religious rituals. The two principal methods of use at this time was the burning of incense and the application of balms and ointments. Perfumed oils were applied to the skin for either cosmetic or medicinal purposes. During the Old and Middle Kingdoms, perfumes were reserved exclusively for religious rituals such as cleansing ceremonies. Then during the New Kingdom (1580-1085 BC) they were used during festivals and Egyptian women also used perfumed creams and oils as toiletries and cosmetics and as preludes to love-making. The use of perfume then spread to Greece, Rome, and the Islamic world. And it was the Islamic community that kept the use of perfumes since the spread of Christianity led to a decline in the use of perfume. With the fall of the Roman Empire, perfume’s influence dwindled. It was not until the twelfth century and the development of international trade that this decline was reversed.
C. Flowers used in making perfume
Rose scientific name is Rosa. Roses are from the kingdom Plantae, division-Magnoliophyta. The class were roses belong is magnoliopsida, order is Rosales. Also roses have family called rosaceae and a subfamily called rosoideae. Roses have genus type called rose. A rose is a woody perennial of the genus rosa, within the family rosaceae. There are over 100 species. They form a group of erect shrubs, and climbing or frailing plants, with stems that are often armed with sharp prickles. Rose plants range in size from compact miniature roses to climbers that can reach 7 meters in height. Different species hybridize easily and this has been used in the development of the wide range of garden roses. Roses for the longest time have enjoyed the honor being the most popular flowers in the world. The reason for the popularity of the rose flower maybe its wide variety in terms of color, size, fragrance and other attributed. The rose has been a symbolic meaning. The rose has been a symbol of Love, beauty and even number of roses carry symbolic meanings.
The rose is most popularly known as the flower of love.Roses have been the most popular choice of flower for the purpose of gifting, across the world. They also act as a great addition to home and office décor. A bunch of roses or even a single works wonder aesthetically and considerably enlivens a place. Besides fresh cut, roses, artificial flowers like silk roses in different colors are also widely used as decoration. Rose perfume is a great gift and has a long history of being manufactured, since ancient times. Today, nearly all women’s perfumes and a large amount of men’s are created from rose petals. Rose perfumes are made from attar of roses or rose oil, which is a mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam distilling the crushed petals of roses. An associated product is rose water which is used for cooking, cosmetics, medicine and in religious practices. The production technique originated in Persia then spread through Arabia and India, and more recently into Eastern Europe. In other parts of the world Rosa centifolia is commonly used.
C.2 Rosal Flower
Rosal has a scientific name Gardenia augusta. It originated in Asia and is most commonly found growing wild in Vietnam, Southern China, Taiwan, Japan and India. With its shiny green leaves and heavily fragrant white summer flowers, it is widely used in gardens in warm temperate and subtropical climates, and as a houseplant in temperate regions. It has been in cultivation in China for at least a thousand years, and was introduced to English gardens in the mid 18th century. Many varieties have been bred for horticulture, with low growing, and large- and long-flowering forms. Rosal is a smooth, unarmed shrub 1to 2 meters high. Leaves are opposite, elliptic-ovate, 2 to 6 centimeters long, narrowed and pointed at both ends, shining and short petioled, and stipulate. Flowers are large and very fragrant, occurring singly in the upper axil of the leave. Calyx in green, with funnel-shape tube and about 1.5 centimeters long, 5-angled or winged and divided into linear lobes about as long as the tube.
Corolla is usually double, white but soon tiring yellowish, and 5 to 8 centimeters wide. Stamens are as many as the corolla lobes. Anthers are linear, sessile. Ovary is I-celed style stout, olavate, fusiform, or 2-cleft, ovules numerous on parietal placentae. Fruits are avoided or ellipsoid, 2.5 to 4.5 centimeter long, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, yellow, with 5 to 9 longitudinal ridges. Rosal is cultivated ornamental purposes. It is also a common garden plant. And it is nowhere spontaneous. Only the double-flowered variety occurs in the Philippines. Rosal flowers are native in southern china, and now pa-tropic in cultivation. The properties of rosal flower are arcantiophtalmic, emollient, emetic, stimulant, divreric, anti-periodic, cathartic, anthelmintic, alternative, anti-spasdosmic, antiseptic, sedative, analgesic, hypotensive, and febrifuge. The parts utilized are roots, leaves, fruits. The roots must be rinse, section into pieces sundry. The fruits must be sundry after stemming.
C3. Kalachuchi flower
Kalachuchi has scientific name Adenium Obesum. Adenium obesum is grown as a houseplant in temperate regions. Numerous hybrids have been developed. Adeniums are appreciated for their colorful flowers, but also for their unusual, thick caudices. They can be grown for many years in a pot and are commonly used for bonsai.Because seed-grown plants are not genetically identical to the mother plant, desirable varieties are commonly propagated by grafting. Genetically identical plants can also be propagated by cutting. However, cutting-grown plants do not tend to develop a desirable thick caudex as quickly as seed-grown plants. Kalachuchi is a small, deciduous tree, 3 to 7 meters high with a crooked trunk, smooth and shining stems, succulent, with abundant sticky, milky latex. Bark has a smooth, papery outer layer which is gray, and constantly exfoliating in small flakes. Wood is yellowish-white and soft. Branches are thick, fleshy swollen and leafy at the tips. Leaves are crowded at the terminal end of the branch, commonly oblong in shape 20 to 40 centimeters long, 7 centimeters wide spirally arranged at the ends of the branches.
Flowers are numerous, fragrant and large, the upper portion whitish, while the inner lower portion yellow, 5 to 6 centimeters long. Fruits are linear-oblong or ellipsoid follicles, with a pointed tip, is to 20 centimeters, 1.5 toto 2 centimeters in diameters. Seed are numerous and winged. There are several species of cultivated plumeria, very similar to prubra but for the color of the corolla. Kalachuchi is usually cultivated for ornamental purpose. It is nowhere established and now pantropic. It’s bark, leaves and flowers are being utilized. It is sweet tasting and neither warming nor cooling in effect aromatic.
It is also considered anti-inflamatory divretic, emmenagogue, pebrifuge, purgative and rubefacient. Kalachuchi is mainly grown in the Philippines as an ornamental plant, with the flowers as its main attraction. The flowers are supposed to be the source of the perfume known as “Frangipani.”The flowers are popular in Filipino culture as ones given to the dead. Moreover, local superstition says that the tree put strain on the relationships of those living nearby. Kalachuchi has a variety of medicinal properties. Its bark, which contains the bitter glucoside plumierid, is used as a purgative, emmenagogue, and febrifuge when in decoction. In Mexico, the calcium salt-containing latex is given for toothache, and when combined with coconut oil is used as a remedy for itching.
D. History of Natural Perfumery
For centuries, long before the beginning of recorded civilization as we know it, people gathered fragrant plants and extracted the scent to add delight, sensuality and sometimes sacred elements to their life. This was plainly illustrated recently when archaeologists unearthed evidence of one of the oldest perfumeries known to the world. In Cypress, an archaeological dig found the “world’s earliest perfumery”. The truth of that statement is in question by those who study ancient cultures, but it is true that the discovery is monumental, in that it is one of the largest extant “factories” for extracting fragrant materials and producing scented products. Ancient Greece, Egypt, China, India, and the countries on the trade routes – they all had well-developed Natural Perfumery industries. Alchemists, herbalists, ordinary folk and experienced scientists created fragrant oils and unguents for themselves or for sale and trade. In France, and a few other areas of the world, notably India, there are still perfumers who make fragrances “in the old way”, rejecting the synthetic chemicals so prevalent in mainstream perfumery.
In history, as now, the natural perfumer would extract the fragrant molecules by infusion, tincturing, enfleurage, or distillation. To make an infusion start by placing the fragrant material in oil and either heating the oil or placing the container in the sun, until the oil takes on the fragrance of the source. Tincturing required an alcohol base. The alcohol could be wine, or something stronger, like brandy or vodka. Again, the materials were placed in the alcohol until the liquid became fragrant. Enfleurage is a method of scent extraction perfected by the French. Trays of animal fat were the receiving media for delicate flowers like jasmine, gardenia and tuberose. Usually, the flowers had to be replaced numerous times before the fat became saturated with the scent.
Then, the fat was “washed” with an alcohol to separate the scent from the fat. Distillation, the art of placing the plant material over steam, and separating the “oil” of the plant from the water constituents, was typically done on a large, industrial scale, and, on a smaller scale, some home distillation took place. Throughout most of Western history, perfumes tended to be “one note”, i.e., the wearer had to choose between rose, jasmine, sandalwood, patchouli, etc. In India, the user could choose from glorious attars, which are hydro distilled aromatics co-distilled with sandalwood or cedarwood (typically). Some attars were just one aromatic combined with the sandalwood (e.g. rose, jasmine), others were a carefully constructed formula of flowers, roots, woods and resins. When the hydro distillation of fragrant materials was done into a dry receptacle, it was called a ruh.
E. Types of Perfume
Once upon a time, a woman was expected to have a signature scent. Nowadays, we are more likely to treat fragrance as an accessory, changing our perfume daily – or even more often – to suit our busy lives and shifting moods.But sometimes, too much choice can lead to confusion. If you’re like most women, you have multiple perfume bottles cluttering your vanity table. To help you cut through the clutter, we’ve created this brief guide to the major fragrance categories, with suggestions for where to wear each one. E.1 Citrus
Infused with the tangy essence of citrus fruits, these perfumes are lively and energetic. They are best enjoyed as a daytime delight, just the thing to wake you up in the morning before you’ve had that second coffee. Wear a citrus perfume to meet your girlfriends for brunch, brighten a baby shower, or ride your bicycle to the organic market. E.2 Floral
Sweet and romantic, these scents are the “good girls” of the fragrance aisle. Florals are sometimes single note, but generally combine the scents of various flowers to create a classic feminine appeal. Spritz on a floral when you want to show off (or fake) your sweet-and-girly side — when meeting your boyfriend’s parents comes to mind. These scents are also appropriate at church, the ballet, or your best friend’s wedding, especially if you’ve got your eye on an eligible groomsman. E.3 Fruity
Like a cheerleader with a wicked side, fruity perfumes are fresh and spicy. These fragrances please the nose with the bright and familiar smells of apple, peach, berry, mango and other juicy fruits, often blended with florals to create a compelling aroma. Pretty without being overwhelming, these perfumes are ideal for a movie-and-dinner first date. Just apply sparingly. E.4 Green
Smelling of fresh leaves and newly-mown grass, the green fragrances are a natural and energetic group. These scents tend toward the unisex, so are best left on the shelf when you’re dressing to impress a hot date. Save them for daytime instead, when their sporty, modern appeal makes them a great fit for any casual or outdoor gathering. Wear one to cheer on your favorite football team, at the golfing range, or on a flea market amble with friends. E.5 Oceanic
Oceanic perfumes are a modern invention, first appearing with Christian Dior’s Dune in 1991. These scents use a blend of synthetic compounds to evoke natural aromas such as mountain air, ocean spray or clean linen. Crisp and fresh, they are an ideal choice for job interviews, when you want your perfume to say, “I’m clean, efficient and won’t stink up the joint if hired.”
Think of oriental perfumes as the fragrance equivalent of cleavage and a killer pair of stilettos. Exotic and distinctly feminine, these sensual blends feature an earthy, animalistic base scent such as musk or ambergris, often combined with warm notes such as amber. (When combined with florals, these scents are called “florientals”). The effect is a bold yet mysterious perfume that makes a big entrance, tosses back a few martinis, and leaves with phone numbers in her pocket. Wear one when you want to seduce, whether it’s a third date or just a rare night out without the kids.
Sugar and spice and everything nice, that’s what these perfumes smell like. Uncap one and be transported to your mom’s kitchen – if your mom was the type who baked cinnamon rolls and gingerbread from scratch. With notes of cloves, ginger, cinnamon, cardamon and pepper, spicy perfumes are comforting and alluring in an old-fashioned way. Wear one to your next parent-teacher meeting, or at lunch with that handsome officemate who you wouldn’t mind sharing pastry with.
E.8 Woody (Chypre)
Woody scents are built on base notes of bark and moss, conjuring winding forest paths. While more unisex than other fragrance categories, that’s not to say these scents are masculine. They evoke a particular brand of no-nonsense femininity. Think Marion in Raiders of the Lost Ark, or Katharine Hepburn in any movie. This strong and classic appeal translates well to the corporate office, too. Wear one to your next performance review.
F. Benefits of natural Perfume
Organic perfumes and perfume for sensitive skin which smell just as good as your favourite fragrance can be difficult to come by. But for those withextremely sensitive skin who may be allergic to perfume, or those who simply want to use only natural skin care and need help on how to choose aperfume which fits their high ethical standards, finding an organic fragranceto complement your arsenal of organic beauty products is essential.Reputable natural perfume brands, such as Florascent, offerhypoallergenic perfume which allow people with skin sensitivity to enjoy wearing luxury fragrances without compromising on quality or ethics.Florascent organic perfumes are not tested on animals and use onlypure essential oils. Every wondered why you have a sneezing fit when you spray on yourfavourite fragrance, or why some people’s perfume gives you headache? The health and environmental benefits of using natural and organic perfumes are great This are the following Using natural essential oils rather than synthetics to create a fragrancebrings emotional and physical healing properties such as calming, energy-enhancing, relaxing or mood-lifting.Organic perfumes do not contain ingredients grown with chemicals, pesticides or toxins, which can cause skin sensitivity and environmental damage.
Synthetic smells derived from petrochemicals can cause migraines, nausea and lung irritation. Unlike perfumes which contain synthetic products, natural perfumes arenot tested on animals. Ingredients in mass-produced fragrances include phthalates and musk which have led to the terrible mistreatment of animals. Mixing two synthetic perfumes can smell very unpleasant, whereas organic perfumes made from essential oils can be worn separately or layered to create different scents, depending on your mood. Non natural perfumes mask the skin, whereas organic and natural perfumes create an individual, more personal scent on the wearer.
Florascent men’s fragrances and women’s perfume are free from pesticides and chemicals which, when contained in cosmetics, can be absorbed into the skin and the bloodstream. In 2010 the Campaign for Safe Cosmetics revealed that the average synthetic fragrance contains up to 14 potentially harmful chemicals which the brands are not required by law to declare. Florascent clearly declares all its ingredients. Responsible organic perfume brands do not use unethical practices when creating their fragrances. Every Florascent natural fragrance is created using the traditional art of natural perfumery which dates back to the 17th century. The vast range of natural and organic perfumes sold in Florascent’s online shop are made with exquisite natural compositions using gorgeous natural ingredients found in your favorite organic skin care products, including jasmine, rose, lavender and violent.
* http://www.fragrancex.com/fragrance-information/history-of-perfume-and-cologne.aspx * http://naturalperfumery.com/evolution2.htm
* http://beauty.about.com/od/fragranc1/a/different-types-of-perfume.htm * http://stuartxchange.org/Rosal.htm
* http://www.pravera.co.uk/florascent/articles/the-benefits-of-natural-perfume Conceptual literature
* The new book of knowledge p.150
* Ecyclopedia book2 p.746