Personality is the combination of a person’s ways of thinking, feeling and behaving that makes them different from everyone else. Granted there are some people who may seem to have the same personality, but rest assured that they are similar and have differences that make them unique from others. Personality has four perspectives that describes the different patterns in personality which allows an individual to seem different from others. According to Major Personality Perspectives (2014), numerous of theorist exist on personality and they all fall into one of the four categories of perspectives. (Para.).
The following is a brief description of the four perspectives of personality. The first perspective is the Psychoanalytic Perspective. This perspective was created by Sigmund Freud, a psychiatrist who believed that the things that people to hide deep inside themselves can be revealed in ways such as dreams or the slip of the tongue. The importance of early childhood experiences and the unconscious mind was greatly emphasize and important. The second perspective is the Humanistic Perspective. This perspective mainly focused on personality growth as the individual grows. It also involved free will and personal awareness. The theory is based off human reasoning meaning that the way individuals think, feel and behave Personality is natural. Theorist emphasized how important it is for an individual to improve their personality to reach their full potential. The third perspective is the Trait Perspective.
This theory states that by identifying, measuring and describing the traits of a person’s personality can possibly help them understand the individual’s personality more. They also believe that by retrieving information about personality traits, they would be able to tell the difference between other personalities. The fourth perspective is the Social Cognitive Perspective. This theory shows the importance of observational learning, self-efficiency, situational influences and cognitive process. According to Theories of Personality (2011), “Sigmund Freud created the well-known tripartite theory of personality.” () Freud believed that the personality structure was made up into 3 major parts. The Identity (I.D.), ego and superego and they all would develop in different stages in our lives. They were looked at as processes or systems and not a part of the brain.
The ID is the instinctive part of the personality. It consist of all the biological components of the personality which includes the sex life instinct known as Eros and the aggressive death instinct which is known as the Thanatos. Freud came up with the idea that personality operated off the pleasure principle which by the Theories of Personality (2011) states “it is the idea that every wishful impulse should be satisfied immediately, regardless of the consequences. The ego stage develops on order between the unrealistic id and the real world. It is known as the decision making component of the personality. Ego goes by the principle of reality which is working on our realistic ways of satisfying the id demands. Sometimes this principle will involve having to compromise or postpone satisfactions to avoid negative consequences from the society. The Personality
Superego combines the values and morals of the society which can be learned from the individual’s parents. It can be related to the conscience which can punish the ego by causing the feelings of guilt. All of these theories can be compared to each other because they all work to shape an individual’s personality. Personality assessments can be conducted through many different techniques in which will give the observer the information needed to come up with a psychological diagnose. These assessments can be conducted through observation, paper and pencil testing, a series of questions, and projective techniques.
However according to Personality Assessment (2014), “All techniques must be constructed using the criteria standardization, reliability, and validity. A benefit of personality assessment is that the individual who’s being assessed will be able to understand their personality more and come up with ways to improve it. The issues with personality test would be that there is not one correct answer and most people do not take them as serious. Personality assessments aren’t usually based on facts but more so on what the observer or doctor feels should be the correct answer.
Major personality perspectives. (2014). Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/personality-perspectives.htm
Theories of personality. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/personality-theories.html Personality Assessment. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.cliffsnotes.com/sciences/psychology/psychology/psychology-personality/personality-assessment